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Full text of "Report on the surface geology of eastern New Brunswick, north-western Nova Scotia and a portion of Prince Edward Island [microform] : to accompany 1/4 sheet maps, no. 2 S.E., no. 5 S.W. and no. 4 N.W."

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i^ II 


(i. M. DAWSON, C. M.G., L.L.D., F. R. S., DiRECToa 














To Dr. (J. M- Dawson, C.M.G., F.R.S., Etc., 

Director of the Geolotjical Survey of Canada, 


jjiu^ — Herewith I beg to present you my report on the Surface 
(ipuloiiv of ojisterii New Brunswick, north-western Nova Scotia, and a 
lortiDii of Prince Edward Lshmd, accompanied by the tln-ee quaiter- 
.het't iiiiips No. 2 S.E., No. 5 S.W. and No. 4 N.W. illustrative thereof. 
The report embraces the results of the tield-work carried on during the 
tour seasons of 1890, 1891, 1892 and 1893. 

Permit me to express my sincere thanks to the gentlemen named 

Uldw f<»r assistance and various acts of kindness : — To P. S. Archi- 

ii;il(l, Cliirf Engineer of the Intercolonial railway, and his assistant, 

\V. 1>. .Miickciizie, C.E., for maps, plans and profiles, and for valuable 

iiifiiniiiition at all times cordially given ; to J. K. Cowan, Managt-i' of 

the Cuniherland Railway and Coal Company, for permission to copy 

the protiU's of the Springhill and Parrsboro' railway ; to H. G. C. 

Ivtohuni, C. !■]., for important information respecting the Chignecto 

MiuiiH' Tnmsport railway, and for the results of observations on the 

tides of Cumborland Basin, at the head of the Bay of Fundy, and of Baie 

Verte in Northumberland Strait. To Dr. Thomas Harrison, President 

of the University of New Brunswick, J. E. Connors, Chatham, and 

Artimr Newbury, Charlotitetown, P.E.I., I am indebted for barometric 

rtii'liu^'s tiiken at the respective meteorological stations under their 

cli;u';.'e. W. C. Milner, Collector of Customs, Sackville, and B. E. 

Pateison, of the Amherst J'reits, formerly of the Chignecto Post, have 

phiced me under obligations for data relating to the salt marshes at 

thi headof Cumberland Basin ; and W. H. Crosskill, of the Legislative 

Lii)rary, Cliarlottetown, kindly presented me with reports and p.ipers 

t rent i Mi; of tlie geology and natural resources of Prince Edward Isliind. 

Tm the many other friends who have, year after year, aided me in the 

prosecution of my work, but whom it would be impossible to name 

here, I desire to offer my grateful acknowledgments. 

I have the honour to be, sir. 

Your obedient servant, 


OnAWA, January, 1895. 




NoTK. — The bearings given in this report are all referred to tlie 
true meridian, and the elevations to mean tide level, unless otlierwis^ 










Tlip fullowiiig report embodies the results of the surveys and explor- Area (in.rcd 
Mions ciinicil on by me in Northumberland, Kent, Westmorelaiul and 
Albert counties, New Brunswick ; Cumberland county. Nova Scotia ; 
ami tlie central part of Prince Edward Island, during the seasons of 
hM'Jl-liL'-"j;?. These areas embrace one of the most interesting and 
uipnitaiit lii'lils of investigation to be found in eastern Canada, both 
as re;;iinis tlicii- surface geology and their agricultural resources, and 
present u> tho student a great variety of questions for correlation and 
Hudy, Tiie detailed work descriljed in these pages has resulted in the Results of in- 
(liscoveiy of a large number of facts, many of them new, especially those ^«-'t'^'i*tiuns. 
showing the relative eflfects of land ice and floating ice in the Pleistocene 
period, which are better exemplified in this region, perhaps, than 
elsewhere on the coasts of North America. The eastern and south- 
eastern limits of the land ice which covered that portion of Canadian 
territory lying south of the valley of the St. Lawrence River, between 


6 H 


Gaspe and the Bay of Fimdy, were traced out approxiiiiatcly uiul i\,. 
fined. The conclusion tlmt tiio ic«-liniits in this direction wore uniiwdn,. 
pfiniod by terminal moraines will be presented and facts u kluitd 
showing the probable cause of such conditions. An att('iii|ii «illni„, 
bo made to define tlu; dimensions of the s(!veral local yliuicrs wlml, 
occupied the country in the ice aye, as far as tlie data at hand cnabli' 
me to do so ; and their connection and relation to tlie lander icesheits 
which had their sources in the Appalachian liange to tlie north-wo! 
will be pointed f)Ut. Data demonstrating beyond questiun iIk; ,.xi, 
tence and action of floating ice in the Pleistocene were obtaiinil, an,! 
will receive adequate treatment in tiiis report. Changes of livil liuiin.' 
the later Tertiary and Post-Tertiary periods, which wit Inn the lii«t 
decade have been much discussed, were carefully invcstigiitiil ; shun. 
lines were levelled in a great number of places and a Ixidv of fmt. 
obtained which will elucidate this (jucstion with niofe awuriuvm 
detail than has yet been attempted. The region olli'icd s|Hciii; 
advantages for a study of this kind and the results, it is liojicd, arpiit 
value. The physical features and remarkable tides of the llavm 
Fundy were considered worthy of special study and sonic s|i;ni' wi 
be devoted to a discussion and explanation of their origin. The wid, 
dispersion of boulders from the higher to the lower groumls, aivi 
occasionally in a contrary direction, is a subject whith also nwivnl 
careful in([uiry. The distrilmtion of crystalline boulders timii th- 
central highlands of New lirunswick over the whole Cailiniut'erini- 
plain to the east, and upon the western part of Prince Kdwaid I.'^iaiul 
came under observation and will be discussed in the .sei[iul. Tin 
occurrence of sandstone boulders on the summit of the Ctpl)ei|uiii 
^fountains, apparently derived from the Carboniferous plain un tlie 
north, from 200 to 400 feet lower, was a problem to whii'li wc al-" 
endeavoured to find a solution. Horse-backs, osar, ui kumts, nt 
which there are some good examples in the maritimi^ jxuvinces, wpiv 
studied in their relation to the Pleistocene drift, to the (liaiiia;,'e "t 
the respective districts in which they occur, and to imst-irlaiiiil 
denudation, river-terraces, etc. 

A considerable amount of field investigation has been bestowed upjii 
the pre-glacial sands, gravels, angular boulders, etc., usually calle'l 
residuary, which have been found in different parts uf tlio rei,'ioii, iiiid 
their relation to the glacial and post-glacial deposits traced as far a.s it 
was possible to do so. These materials are much more connnon than 
has hitherto been supposed. The dunes of sand which skirt tin' coa>t 
of the Carboniferous area on the mainland and the north east sideot 
Prince Edward Island, and are especially well developed around the 

y ■■ ! : 



t M 

M i.'il'''' " f:'l'">ils, have receivwl special attentiun. Ono of tlio must 
iiii|Hiitaiit of the supcrftfiiil deposits of tiie district around the head of 
.;,„ |',,i\ ut Fundy is the marine alhivium, known as salt marsh, tlic 
i,i,,|i' ot tipi'MiJition and economic aspects of wliicii were carefully in- 
vistii.'iitt'l. Everywhere within tlu! rej,'ion under examination the 
iliiiaiter of the soil and its suitability to agriculture were noted, and 
;,„i' iiitcntion was also j^iven to the forest j^rowth, the area still covered 
iiv tin' oiii;iiiiil forest heinj^ ma))ped as accurately as possible. 

In tlif txjiniination of the surface geolof,'y of the areas under review, I'ditiuiH of 
nil ;iico«;silile parts of the country were exploreil, every road travelled JxpioiJii. 
,,ur. tlif liills and mountains a.scended and their altitudes measured 
with aiiiMoid or otherwise, rivers and lakes examined with canoe or on 
t'uMt. mill /IS careful and accurate an investigation of the superficial 
i>|i,'iiiiini'na made as the means at my disposal and other circumstances 

■AullU ]"Tlllit. 

l'liotoi.'rai>hs of glacial stria', shore-lines, sections of the superficial stiiu; 


,i,|,.i>its, etc., were taken during the seasons of 1892 and 1893, some ^.tL.'' I'hoto- 
it whiili ixliil)it the ditfei'ence between striation produced by land ice Ki'ni'l"* uf- 
iiul tliat jiroduced by floating ice. Several remarkable sets from the 
l-iliiiiu> of (.'liignecto, the Cape Tormentine peninsula, and the Baie 
l'« Cluilt'ius district, show the diverse movements of the striating 
i.'tiit. iiml lannot have been produced by other than the latter agency. 

In the tiild-work of the four .seasons embraced in this report I was AssistantH. 
i"i-icil liy the gentlemen named below : — In 1890 by John H. Mc- 
|i.iimM. of Mrockville, Ont., and for part of the se.ason by Wm. J. 
WiKoiK ill 1S91 by Mr. Wilson and W. D. Matthew, of St. John, 
Nl!. liut only for a few months ; in 1892 Mr. Wilson was with mo 
\ muIkpIc season, and K. C. Cochrane, of Brockville, Ont., from the 
:"tli of May till the 10th of September. In 1893 Mr. Wilson alone 
w;i> my til-Id assistant. 

The preparation of the maps for the engraver, quarter-sheets Nos. 2 Maps. 
S.E.. •") S.W. and 4 N.W., las been largely accomplished by W. J. 


Tlif surface geology of those portions of New Brunswick and Nova 
Soitia iiKJuded in this report were cursorily referred to by the writer 
iiiul l)r. i;ils in the reports of 1885, where partial lists of the strite 

"vere imblislied.* 

Tiie surface geology of Prince Edward Island is described in Dawson Previous work 
mil Harrington's report.t 

'Amiiial i;.|K.rt, Geol. Surv. Cai^ Vol. I. (X.S.), 1S85. Parts E and (JC. 
+Ki|"iit Mil the (leological Structurf and Mineral Resources of P.E. Island, by 
■^1 J. H'. |)iiwson and Dr. B. J. Harrington, 1871. 

in region 



I'ouiity, N.B, 



Tho topographical features of large portions of the inaiMliiiKJ ni the 
area under diHcuH.sion are those of a flat and uiiintercstiiiir i)|jij„ 
Where this area is occupied by Middle CarlMiniferous rocks, tlic sur- 
face has, in a general way, a slight descent toward NortlmiiilicrliitKl 
Strait, voried to some extent hy low, wide undulations, tlic uxcs (,f 
which trend nearly east and west. In the isthmus of Clii^iictn nnd 
in those parts of Cumberland county. Nova Scotia, lying iioiili of the 
Cobe<juid Mountains, the Upper Carboniferous rocks lunc ji i„|,. 
siderable development, and the east-and-west antidinals and synrliimlv 
are narrower and more conspicuous, rendering t\w featmcs df ilu 
country more pronounced. In some instances these irregulmitio liinc 
aflPected the drainage, but as a rule the laiger rivers have taken couiso 
independent of them. It is evident, however, that the Ciirl)oiiit't'ii)ii> 
rocks in the latter district (that is, those in proximity to tlie eivstjil 
line ridges of southern New Brunswick and the Colie(|ui(l.s in NHvii 
Scotia,) have suffered more disturbance than tlu^y have in the central iiait 
of the great triangular basin. In Albert county. New I'runswick, the 
north-east prolongation of the crystalline ridge or plateau ivft rred td, 
which stretches along the north-west side of the Ray of I'lnulv, rises 
in broken ridges and mountains to an altitude of 1,.'{00 or 1,400 feet, 
Shcpody Mountain, which was a station in the Admiralty Survey, 
being 1,050 feet high. The general slope of this eKn-ated eoinitrvis 
towards Shepody Bay ; but the north east extnimity inclines towards 
the east, north-east and north-west. These highlands arc, liowever, 
much denuded and trenched wherever the crystalline series ai(! over- 
lapped by Lower Carboniferous rocks. They have had an iniiiortunt 
influence on ice-movements in the Pleistocene period. 

To the north of the Petitcodiac Biver, about six miles disiimt from 
Moncton, ridges or hills known as Lutz or Indian Mountain rise from 
the level Carboniferous plain to the height of 500 or GOO feet above 
He.irl of Bay the sea. At the head of the Bay of Fundy, between the estii.irvof 
the Petitcodiac and La Planche Biver, hills and ridges extendini; 
nearly east and west lie between the tongues of salt marsh runninj; up 
the valleys of the Petitcodiac, Memramcook, Tantramar, Miss,i(|uash 
and La Planche rivers, which carry the drainage waters of tlic Isthmus 
of Chignecto into the head of the Bay of Fundy. Nom- of these 
ridges exceed 400 or 500 feet in height. The strata are broken and 
faulted, evidencing disturbance and pressure from both sides, but 
principally from the side of the New Brunswick crystalline range 
above mentioned. 

of Fundv. 



9 M 

In the I'lirt of Nova Scotia included in Hheet No. 4, N.W. the Oolieqtiid 
Col)('(|iii(l IJimKC is the most |irnininent topographical feature. It ex- """'"'""• 
tiiids ill fi nearly oast-and-west direction along the north sideof Minas 
Hi-in, with a widtii of nine or ten miles, and a height of 900 or 1,0(J0 
fi'i'i, siiiiii' lit the culminating peaks reaching probably 1,100 feet. 
i',i(i:ics ixist in some places, notably one at Halfway Kiver, which is 
inivcrsfd l)y the Hpringhill and Parr8lM)ro' railway, and others at 
\V(Nti'li('>!<i' and at Kolly Lake, the latter the route of the Inttircolonial 
iviilwav. TIk' l)ottom of the pasn at Halfway River is only eighty-live 
tVct iil)u\e iiifan tide level ; that at Folly Ijike is (500 feet. 

On tilt' slope between the Cobe<|uid Mountains and Nortiiumberland N'nith s1c>|h> nf 
Siiiiii, .1 ihiiiiIht of hills occur, besides the ridges or anticlinals re- " "'l""'"- 
urmi to ipii page f< M. Hpringhill, the summit of which is 010 feet 
aJKPve iiieiiii tide, is the highest ; Clareinont Hill to the east of Spring- 
hill is ,")C.') feet high. These two lie near the northern of the 
t \ilici|iii(!<, where the undulations or distui-bances <lue to the uplift of 
the miiuiiliiiii range have been greatest and where I'idges parallel 
theicti), MK'li as Windham Hill, ris(! to altitudes of more than (iOO feet. 
Vuiilici' li' the north rise the !Maccan Mountains, the lufights along the 
Lcicistcr Kdiul find Mount Pleasant, which attain altitudes of from 
:i.'iU to (lUO feci above the sea. These hills appear to have been local 
ice shells (liirinL; the Pleistocene period. 

(.lussiim Noithumberland Strait to Prince Edward Island wo find I'lincf 
, . . . « I , . Ivlwanl 

thit It ]iies('iits a moie or less close repetition or tlie topographic islaiui. 

tViitiiivs of tli(! adjacent mainland. A large portion of the island is 
low, fiiiiii tWD-thiids to three-fourths of it not exceeding l.oO feet 
in ;iltitii(lr, l)iit in the centre, between Cape Traverse or Sable River 
ami New London, ridges and hills rise from 400 to 500 feet above sea- 
'■ vil. The siirfiK'C is undulating or rolling with a number of valleys 
(xtdidiii;: more or less transversely or diagonally across the island, 
tiiMUL'li stvcral, especially on the higher grounds, have nearly an east- 
aml-west course, corresponding to that of the anticlinals on the main- 
laml. Dining the post-glacial subsidence, when Prince Edward Island 
>tonii fruiii seventy-five to eighty feet below the present level, there 
Mviv fnur or live islands instead of one. Great denudation of the 
soft rocks of the island formations has taken place, the hills being 
diiM lather to this cause thiin to orogenic movements. The denuda- 
tion li:is, however, been largely pre-glacial. The higher portions of 
ilic inland have suffered less than the slopes and coast districts, and 
are cuvercil with a thick sheet of residuary material. 

The Magdalen Islands exhibit some curious topographic features, as Mapflalcn 
iiiijilit be expected from their non-glaciated condition. Each island ^''•'"'dH. 


10 M 



seems to have one or more masses of eruptive rocks (dolerite or din- 
baso, porphyritic and amygdaloidal traps, etc.) which stand u]i in ((ini. 
cal hills and have disturbed or broken through the Lower CiiihonitVi'- 
ous sediments. The general direction of these hills or lid^cs, wlnio 
any linear arrangement is apparent, is approximately nortli o.i-;t -.uvl 
south-west, corresponding with that of the crystalline ridges in N(j\ii 
Scotia and New Brunswick. 

KivERs AND Lakes. 

Rivers Huwing 


The most important rivers in that part of New Brunswick cnilinuecl 
in this report are the Southwest Miramichi, the liicliibucto und the 
Petitcodiao. The Southwest Miramichi is one of the laig(! iiv( r.s of 
the province, being one hundred and twenty-fiv(! miles in Iciiutli .ilwvc 
its confluence with the Northwest Miramichi River. Several ut' its 
tributaries are rivers of no mean size, such for exami)le, as tlif Hcnnus, 
Dungarvon, Cains, Taxus, etc. A curious feature of this river is tin' 
proximity of its chief catchment basin to the valley of tlie St. .Idim 
Uiver, robbing the latter, as it were, of a portion of its watei;;. Tln' 
Southwest Miramichi, like all the large rivers of New ISrun-wiik, 
existed in pre-glacial times, its valley having been so deeply (iddeil 
then as to enable it to affect the movement of the Pleistoeene ice, 
especially in the latter part of the glacial period. tUiuial stri;i' 
parallel to its course ai'e found along its sides. The nortli-eiist( liy 
trend of its lower part and of its principal affluents, the Kcikhis, 
Dungarvon, Cains, etc., indicates that the watershed se|>:uMtinj; its 
waters from those of the St. John River, was higher, relati\ely to the 
adjacent district to the north, in pre-glacial and glacial times, tli:in ;il 

The rivers flowing into Northumberland Strait, betwoon ilio 
Miramichi and Pictou, Nova Scotia, are unimportant. Their silted up 
estuaries denote that the coast region is in a partially sul)nii'ri;('d 
condition compared with what it was in the Pliocene or late Tniiuy 
age, when the valleys, now buried in sediments, underwent tlieii liiiid 
touches of erosion. 

Of the rivers flowing into the head of the Bay of I'luidy, the 
Petitcodiac and the Maccan are the largest and most ini]i(irtant, and 
exhibit some remarkable features deserving of more than a jias^ini,' 
remark. The first-mentioned of these has a singularly curving edinse, 
and in the estuarine part shows unique physical peculiarities. I he 
non-tidal part, or that between Petitcodiac and lioumlary Creek 
stations, Intercolonial railway, to which the name " I'etiti udiao 


rlolerito or dia. 
itand uy in coni- 
wer Ciirlioiiit'cr- 
n- ridi^'fs, 
iKirtli oast and 
ridges in Ni,\a 

swifk cnihraoed 
libuctd and the 

largi! rivi'i's of 

in length above 

Sevci'al lit' its 

as tlu! Itciiiius, 
his river is the 
of tlie St. .|,,l„i 
ts waters. Th^' 
e\v lirun^wick, 

deeply eroded 

Pleistoeeiie iee, 

(iiaeial .sti'iii' 

i noi'tli-easterlv 

s, tlie i tenons, 

separating; its 
elatively to the 

times, tlian at 

, hi'twei'n I he 
Their silted iip 
dly sid)niei';'ed 
V late Trrtiaiy 
■eat ihi'ir linal 

cif I'lindy, tlie 
inipdrtant, and 
than a passinj,' 
nirvini;' eourse, 
liarities. The 
undary Creek 
" I'etitcudiac 


11 M 

Kivcr in'oper'ly applies, is only thirteen miles in Icnytli. Above 
I'.titcniliac station it is called North Kivor. Tiie latter rises in the 
iiii:ln'i' _'iiiuii(ls of Lutz or Indian Mountain, eight miles and a halt' 
liiiiiliiit Moiicton, and Hows south-westward for twenty-two or twenty- 
tliiee inilfs, (.''., in a reverse direction to tliat of the Petitcodiac Kiver, 
Hoi'i'i'ly J^" calleil, till it joins tiie latter. The Petitcodiac has, liow- 
(ViT, scviial ti'iliutaries of considerable length bcsiiles No''th Itivci', 
iiiil ii \iiy peculiar drainage system. Poilett Kiver, on(! of these 
tiibutiuie>, (lows northward frnm a source 1,1.'00 to 1,400 feet high in 
till' pliUcau bordei'ing the IJay of Fundy ; and Coverdale is another 
tillui'iit rising in the same region. It is not imi>robable that the two 
iiiittr, Piilli'tt and Coverdale rivers, were, in pre-glacial times, the chief 
head- wilt (Ts of the Petitcodiac, and that North Kiver, if it had a pre- 
illaciiil existence at all, tlowed south-westwardly along the valley of the 
Au:ii,''UKe Kiver into the Kennebeckasis without joining the Petit- 
iiiliar. This tiieory as to the oi'iginal drainage-l>asin oi the Petit- 
cuiliac Kiv(>r presupposes somewhat ditl'erent relative levels of the 
leL'iiiii, that on the north of the river being proba))ly higher, or that 
tn the sdutli rather lower, than at the present day ; or a slight differ- 
iiitial u|ilit't of the divide between the Petitcodiac and Kennebeckasis 
'.vati'is ill the Pleistocene would produce the same result. If, lujw- 
ivei', Nurtli Kiver is post-glacial this supposition is unnecessary. 

I'lUt it is in the tidal or estuarine part of the Petitcodiac Kiver that "The biiir"..f interesting features occur, and that the singular phenomenon, [^l'.'^^ li'i'vrV 
o'ili'd "till' bore" is seen. The estuary extends from Folly Point, 
at the entrance to Shepody Kay, north-westward to "The Keiul " at 
Mniiiton, wliere it takes a sharp cui've to the south-westward, thence 
"iiitinuiui,' to Salisbury on the Intercolonial railway, its whole length 
niiiu thirty two or thirty-three miles. At "The Bend," where the 
livei's course is somewhat narrow, the tidal wa\e or "'bore" can 
U.' ■■epu to best advantage. Here it may be observed rushing in as 
iinaiiiiiii;- l)rcaker (s<>e I'late I.) five or six feet high, with a velocity 
it six or seven miles an ln.ur. After it passes, the waters tlow in like 
I rivi'i', slackening oft', however, before the full height of tlood-tide is 
ivailiwl, The ditl'erence between low and high tide at Monclon is, 
at sjiiiii!,' tides, forty-five feet, at neap thirty-eight feet. 

Till' fill I tide sets out, at first, slowly, but after an hour or two rushes 
il'ii;.' like a mill-race, the water sinking rapidly until the bare nmddy 
tliaiuiel is exjiosetl and finally the river becomes a snmll meamlering 
stroaiii in ili(> bottom. This continues for two hours or more, when 
Cain till' rushing waters of the " boro " are heard and soon sweep 
iw at their usual velocity. 

12 M 



" bore" of. 


IIclxTt and 



In the Miiccan River, which discharges into Cunlierland Hasin a 
similar " bore " occurs though not as high as that of the Petitcodiac, 

At spring tides these tidal phenomena are of course seen to full 
advantage. The winds have also at times the effect of prodnciu" a 
perceptible difference in the height. A south-west wind may lui'vcnt 
the recession of the tides to their lowest possible level, and of nmisf 
the incoming wave which follows will not be so high. 

Other noteworthy peculiarities of the tidal phenomena of the Uav ot 
Fundy will be referred to later on. 

The Tantramar, which is chiefly a tidal river, also exhibits toitiiin 
phenomena of a remarkable kind along its course. The sfdiniciit i(jiii. 
posing the I5ay of Fundy salt marshes is known to be a finely dixiikd 
material, and is carried in l)y flood tides and deposited along estuaries and 
on ovei'Howed niarslies. This operation of nature is, perhaps, heller n- 
emplified along the river referred to than elsewhere, in proof of wlikli 
it is noticeable that the marsh surfaces are higher immediately on Ijutli 
sides of the river than at some distance from it, and that the inatirial 
there is oxidized. Certain imrtions of the salt marshes ai-e mnv iinilcr 
going artificial reclamation fi'om the blue coloured, mossy, ''u(jiky" 
marsh, by draining and by allowing the spring tides to overllow them 
and deposit this red oxidized sediment. A considerable acreage of excel- 
lent marsh land near Sackville has thus been brought into a conditiunto 
produce abundant crops of hay. 

llebert and Maccan rivers, both of which flow into Cuinbcrlaiid 
Basin, likewise exhibit some singular features in their draina^'o 
systems. These rivers rise in the northern slopes of the C'olicijuid 
Mountains, but the INFaccan has branches joining it from tlie north and 
east as well, i.e., from the high grounds of Springhill and Leiie-lcr, 
and ha;:, therefore, a prettj' large catchment basin. The catehiiieut 

basin of lliver Hebert is, on the contrary, small, the main soiiri i 

the river being in a valley or pass in the Cobetjuid Mountain-, tiirnii;,'li 
which the Springhill and Parrsboro' railway runs. Th(( origin of this 
pass is one of the difficult problems appertaining to the suif'ace p'oldity 
of the region. It does not .seem to be due to a fault or disloiatimi, 
but mainly to erosion. It is certainly pre-glacial but post-Carhonifernus. 
Connected with this pass are two valleys, one through wliirh itiver 
Hebert flows, the other extending from Halfway Lake to SoutliMiiip 
ton, thence along Maccan River to Athol and Maccan stations, Inur 
colonial railway. These valleys afibrd evidence of having been 
occupied by the sea during the post-glacial subsidence of the liiiitl, 
gravel- and sand-terraces and water-worn deposits being abundi'.nt in 


[«>iii{ii). I 


13 M 

berl.ind Biisin, a 
le Petitcotliac. 

urse seon to full 
, of producing' a 
ind iiiivy jirovint 
si, and of course 

ena of tlio l!a\ of 

exhibits cortiiiu 
^he sedinnMit cdin- 
le a finely clixiilwl 
loiiii I'stuiiriisiiuil 
)erliaps, bciui' fx- 
in proof of wliiili 
nnpdiatcly iiiiljuth 

that llio miUiiiiil 
les are now uiulir- 
i, mossy, "corky 
, to overllow tlii-in 
lie acreau'e of cxa'l- 
into a condition to 

into Cuiiil)C'rl;inil 
11 their (iraimmf 
of the (.'ol)i'(iui(l 
from the nordi and 
ill and Leicester, 
The catclinu'iit 
10 main sourci' ot 
ountains, tlirou,i.'!i 
rh(* origin of this 
le surface geolou'v 
i\t or dislocation, 
uj:;h which llivcr 
ake to Houthanip- 
an stations, luicr- 
of having hem 
lu-e of the wml, 
sing aliundant in 

tlitiii- '^ remarkable gravel ridge called the " Boar's Back," which 
will 1)6 described in the seijuel, stretches along the valley of River 


Viewing the drainage-basin of Maccan and Hebert rivers as a Pre^rlacial 
ivhole, especially in its relation to the pass in theCobequid Mountains V|"'|''"^. 
through which the Springhill and Parrsboro' railway runs, it appears Huliurt livtrs. 
tobpuot improbable that in pro-glacial ages the waters of these rivers 
t'luml outlet southward through the pass referred to into the Basin of 
Minas, and may have been the agent of erosion to which it owes its 
Hiisfiii. Tins erosion must date from a very early geological period, 
Iwving commenced when the relative levels of the country were difFer- 
mt, ami previous to the elevation of the Cobetjuids, subsequent ei'osion 
iinil uplift going on concurrently until the advent of the ice age. The 
pass is now largely drift-filled, especially in the central part, the drift 
raati-rial tliere being due to g'acial and post glacial deposition. The 
(lillVrcntial uplift of the Cobequid Kango since that date relatively to 
till' Carlioniferous area lying to the north, has caused this drainage to 
iiccome partially reversed and to seek e.scape by the existing channels. 
This ([uestion will be discussed in further detail on a following page. 

yiiiio of the rivers of Cumberland county flowing into Northuniber- 
laiid Strait exhibit any noteworthy features, except, perha])s, Wallace 
Kiver, which ailbrds proofs of once having been the outlet of Folly 
Lake. A slight rise of that lake would still allow it to overllow in tlie 
liircition uf tins river. Tiie change in the drainage here has (loul)tless 
ijtiu caused by the same orogenic uplift of the Cobequid Mountains 
that caused the northward flow of the Maecan and Hebert rivers, viz., 
till' late upheaval or upheavals of that range relatively to the country 
t"tln' luirth. 


The lakes of the region are small and but few of them seemed to Lake; 
i"|iiirc special investigation. Several of the lakes on sheet N<\ 
'.' S.E. are bordered by mounds or gravel ridges produced l)y the 
>liove of the ice which covers their surfaces e\i'iy winter. One of 
till I' at the head of the south branch of Mu/rolls P.rook, a branch of 
C'iiius lliver, has a kanie on one side, and anothersnuill lake about the 
!«1 of the niillstream along the Kent Xortli rn I'ailway, called Lake 
Ei^ii', has a gravel I'idge around its bolder. In eai'ly post-glacial tinu's 
^iiwll -hallow lakes must have been numerous in the Carboniferous 
»M, hut most of them have since been tilled with ])eat. 

14 M 


Lakfs on 



Lakes of tlie 


Follv Lakf. 

Oriu'iiiof l''()lly 
Lakf liasin. 

On the Isthmus of Chignecto, tliere are a number of sniiUl sliallow 
lakes, arouni) the borders i)f the salt marshes of tlie JJay of I'muly 
Tliey liave been formed l)y the stoppage of the drainage vhicli tlows 
down from tlie slopes upon the inner border of these mitishcs. A frin f. 
of shrubbery grows ai'ound them on the surface of the niiii.sli. W^u- 
material likewise accumulates in these places. Portions of these uiarslies 
are now being reclaimed and brought under cultivation by llootliiii; 
them with the tidal water. 

The most remarkable lakes of the region are those of tl\e Cobeiiuid 
^lountains, including Halfway Lake lying at tlieir noitlicrii liasc. 
This lake is merely the lemnant of a much larger on(! wliich existed 
here in post-glacial times. Folly Lake affords evidence on tlw sloiie* 
of the hills surrounding it, that it stood at one time in iiost-j.'l;uiiil 
history forty feet above its present level, and overflowed into A\"all;ici' 
River, the gorge in the Cobequids here, to the north of i'ollv Lake. 
having in this waj' l)ecn eroded. A rise of from fifteen to twenty tVet 
in the level of the lake would still enable it to flow in this (lircetimi. 
^Founds and ridges of gravel and sand, the material l)ein:; will 
rounded, occur at both ends of the lake. There is no eviilemeut 
glacial action in the basin of Folly Lake, or in the gorge to tlie iidith 
of it ; but a few small water-worn pieces of Carljuniferous sandstone 
were observed among the local boulders. 

The origin of the depression in which Folly Lake lies lias not been 
determined. That the goi'ge or pass has been eroded l)y the aitinn nt 
running water there seems no doubt. 15ut originally there must have 
been a catchment basin here in which to stoi'e up this wator-powir, 
and the (piestion is, how was this formed? The only sohitionof the 
problem seems to be that it was orogenic, the existing topography, 
indeed, supporting this view. A circle of hills surrounds the deprtssiun 
forming the lake basin, and it is jirobable that jirevious to tlie foriuatinii 
of the gorges extending northward and southward from lAiIly Lake, it 
held in the larger body of water, the old shore-lines ot which w.n' 
observed at a heiglit of forty feet above the present iake-surfaoe. That 
this high-level, ancient, post-glacial lake is rock-rimnied seems pretty 

iSevenal of the small lakes on the summit of the Cobe(|ui(ls eoiitain 
infusorial earth which will be referred toon a subse(juent page. 

Bay of Fixdy. 

Biiyof rundy: The name of this bay is said to have been given to it by llio early 
oripin of the Portuguese exploiters. It was called by them Baya Fonda or Fuiida, 'ir 




15 M 

of small shfillmv 
3 Jlfiy of Fundy. 
nage which Hows 
larslies. Afrini-e 
10 iiiai'sh. Pi^atv 
IS (if these iimi>li(;s 
ration by tloudiiii; 

3 of the C()l)e'|ukl 
lir noi'thei'ii luisc. 
ano whicii existed 
■nct^ on liie slo|ie< 
me in jiost-glacial 
)wed into Widlaci' 
til of K(dly Lake, 
H'Pii to twenty t'ltt 
■ in this (lircctimi. 
atf'i'iiil Ijeiiig well 
is no evidence lit 
;or<;e to tiie iiei'th 
niforous sandstone 

e lies has not hoeii 
liy tile aftioiii't 
there tmist havo 
this water-piwiT. 

SoluticiM of till' 

stiiiu lo|ioL.'i'aiiliy. 

IkIs llieclepivv-inli 
, to tlie t'oi'iiiati"ii 
oiii V'ldly i,ake, it 
of wliiLdi \\t'i'i' 
ake-sui-f.u'e. That 
noil seems jiretty 

Coliequids contain 
[ueiit page. 

to it Ijy the farly 
i'dula or Funda, nr 

Diep I!'}'' "expressing not the depth of its waters, but the depth to 
whitiiit iieneti'ated the continent." * During the French ociupation 
yt the country it was called "La Jjaie Frainjaise, or La Grande Uaio de 
ja Fian ; lise," hut this like other French names of places in this region 
was when the l^'rench gave up possession of the country, replaced by 
what appi'ars to have been the original name anglici/ed. 

Some ot tlie physical features of this remarkable bay were briefly 
,|i.M.Til)e(l ill a previous report, f 

It^ pheuonienal tides, which are best exhibited in the eastern and TiiUn of, 
iiiiitli-easiiMii extremities, rise from fifty to Hfty-Kve feet alxtve low- 
tide lev( I. The entire length of the Bay of Fundy to its inner 
ixticmities, supposing its mouth to Ije at (iraiul Manan Island, is 
alioiit one Inindred and forty-five miles, its width at the mouth forty. 
ti:;iit miles : between Digby Gut and the mouth of the St. John Uivcr 
turty miles, and from the entrance to Minas Dasin to Salisbury Hay, 
ihirtv-tivo miles. The bottom of the bay has a gradual ascent from 
till' mouth to the north-east extremities, the depth below mean tide 
l.vtl at the former place ranging from seventy to one hundred and ten 
tathems. Taking an average gradient of the bottom of the bay from its 
laoiitli to the head of Shepody Bay, we find tlnit it is not less than 
fiiui' feet per mile. Of course it has many ine(|ualities, and rises 
aliruptly towards the shore in some places, but on the whole is remark- 
ililv uniform for a bay the waters of which are affected by such 
I'uwrrtul i/iirrents. 

hi referenee to the tides of the Bay of Fundy, it can be seen from Rise and fall 

iiipxainination of the charts of the British Admiralty Survey, and of ['! ,','' '"'''*"' 

J •' ' the r>ay of 

ly United States Coast Survey, that immediately outside of the mouth Fumly. 
tthi' i)ay they rise higher than in the open ocean, the sea apparently 
1 'inu' lieaped up against the coast of the mainland. For exani])le, south 
"tPiilmico liarbour. Nova Scotia, and just east of Seal Island, the spring 
lidis rise twelve feet and three quarteis, and neap tides ten feet and 
a quarter, while near the coast of Maine and west of Machias Seal 
Idaml, spring tides rise eighteen feet, and neap, fourteen feet and three 

"Till' I'l'itUL'Ui'se on tiie North-east coast of Anieiiea, ami tlie first European 
;'t<:iiiit ar lol.iiiizatioii tliere. 1>.V the Rev. (teorjje I'attersoii, l).l). Tr.ins. Koval 
>'«Kv(if Caiiaila, lS!l(», vol. VTIl'. A historv of the I )iseoverv of MMiiie, r.S.,'by 
■'.li. Iv.hl. \m1. I., ,.(liieil by Wm. Willis, Po'rtlaiul, Me., Jiailey and Xoyes, l^liU. 

+ .Vimu;tl li,.|,ort, Geol. Surv. Can., vol. IV,. X.S., 1S8S-8!), p. ItlN. 


16 M 


of tlii'ir rise 
iiiul fall. 

Inside of the mouth of the Bay of Fundy, however, the rise in the 
tides increases more perceptibly as we advance from theinouili tdwjirds 
the north-east extremity, as shown by tlie following table : 


DiffbyNwk, X.H 

L'Ktang Harbour, N.l$ 

Point lifprcaii 

l)igl>V<!ut, N.S 

St. .J(")hi., 

tjuiic", N.15 


Aflvocati', X.S 

Capi' Knraj,'!', \. H 

IVtitcodiui; River, N.H 

Aiiplf River, N..S 

Cuiiil»'rl;in(l Hasiii 

At west (lock, Cliiniii'cto marine railway. 
Noel River, in Cohefniid Hay 

.Spring Tiitt's. 









■J7i i 



;<7 ! 








xt \ 


4-t 1 


44 1 




This last is the greatest tidal oscillation in any part of the i';iy of 

The greater of the tides in the upper parts of this bay is attrilmtid 
to its narrowing funnel form, and its shallowing bf)ttoiii ciHjpinLr up 
the tidal wave as it advances up the bay. J)ut it would scfin that the 
waters I'oally acquire a movement of translation as tlicy enter tlie 
narrow l)ays and inlets and become as it were heaped up, tlie u|i|irr 
parts rolling over the lower in the way that waves break ii[ioii tho 
.shore. The "bores" exemplify this. The ebb tides are not sd 
easily understood. That the inward rush of the tidal wave sIkjuIiI 
raise the waters from twenty to twenty-five feet above the mean level 
of the ocean in these narrow bays with ascending bottoms can lie 
readily explained, but why these waters should recede to a depth of 
twenty feet or more below the same datum, leaving the hays I'lnpty, or 
nearly so, for hours, is a phenomenon, tlit^ cause of which is not so ap. 
parent. That it is the result of gravitation—of an effort of tlie \v;iteis 
to reach an e(iuilil)riura — is unquestionable. The bottom of tlie IJay 
of Fundy, as already shown, is really in the form of an inclined iiLiiic. 
the average slo[)o being, as stated, about four feet per mile, while tlio 
average slope of the surface of its waters at flood tides within the l«y 
is one hundred and fourteen thousandths (•114) feet per mile ; inothir 
words, the waters are then sixteen feet higher, in round niiml)ers, at ilu' 
inner extremities of the bay than they are at the mouth. At every lloed 
tide therefore, there is a great body of water in the upper etui of tlu' 
bay, carried to a position above the noruuil level of the oecan. Uravi- 


rise ill the 

IHOlltll tdWiiids 





Nciili '^i(il■^. 






art of tlic lUy ct' 

bottoms ciiu lit' 
|(1(; to ii depth ni 

■liifli is not so iip. 

Lev mill". ini''l"''' 

,.,,„,5,j llAY OF FUN'DY TIDKS. 17 M 

.itjoii siM'Ics to rostoro an 0([uilil)riuin. Tlic roeodiiit; wators of tlio 
,,ii tiilo, (Icst-'cndinj^ an iiu'liiicd ]ilaiir, as it were, rush dnwii witli surli 
;,nc;inii rapidity that, like the rcci'diiij^ waves on a shni'>', they t'all 
,l,,w di'' iiM'an Itivcl of tiir sea ahoiit as far as tliey had risen al)<)vo 
ii at ih(> tlood. Tiicn follows aiiotiicr aUiioi-nial enndition of tilings; 
'ln'Miit'ai'e of the waters of tlie liay ai;uin loses its iiori/.ontality, hut 

1, tiiiii' 'iif slope is in {\ir. rescrse dii'ection to that of the llood 
• ir. vi/.. ti'HM tlu? inner or eastern (vxtreniities of the h ly outwards 
;;;! iipwaiiis towarils the mouth. Another etlort is therefori? made 
M I'l'siiire the ('(|uiiil>riuni, and Xhr great tidal wave rushes in onee 
;;i ]ic. This osiillatinL;' ov rythmic tlow and eWli of the Uay of i''undy 
„,i'i'iN thus giH's on throughoui the ages, and not until the eonloui's 
I till' Ills' ai'e ehanged from erosion oi' subsidence, and the tidal wave 
-allnwi'ii to pass over th(! Isthmus of Chiyneclo in'.o Xorthumbcrland 
^•jait. will it cease. 

It lias Imtu assumed that the slopes of tlu! surfa'''' of the I'.ay of 
I'liiiilv at llool and ehi) tides were regular or com[)aratively so ; hut 
•'11^ iiiiit'iiniiation of the sides and bottom seriously alVecls, and in somo 
; ,in-, iih-i iiicts the tidal llow. The .sk)j)e.s are, therefore, oidy approxi- 
iriir'v i'i",'ular. 

It iiiiiv he asked how do we know that tlic ebb tide falls as far below Mciuitidr 
ill' iiiiim tide level of the ocean, or moan sea-level, in the bays and KiVikIv'-,,''? " 
i./'ts of the l'>ay of l'\indy as the, llood tide I'ises above it? In answer N'"itlniiiiluT- 
1 1 diis wf will state that it lias been ascertained by careful levellings 
, JVC 11 lomiiion datum in the surveys of the T.aie Verte canal and of 
tiie L'liiL;iii'cto .Marine Transport railway that mean tidedev(>l, it: 
ill" It'Vi'l ijf half tides, closely corresponds on both sides of the Fsth- 
:::ii- nf t'liignecto. I'or exaui[)le, tlu; levels of the Chignecto marine 
lii'uvay li,i\e their datum one hundred feet below the high-water Djitum i.f 
.liiikot till' S,i\liy tide, a remarkable tide which occurred on the otii ' lusfiKcto 

•' _ ^ _ iniiniii' r;iil- 

t iii'tdlif'i', \!^i\\K From this datum, the iieights of the tidcss at both w.iy. 
• iiNiit till' marine railway, viz., at the Tidiush dock and at tlu^ Fort 
l.nvri'iicr (link, havi' been measured, tluring at least one whole season, 

with till' fullnwiiig results : — 

At Tidiiisli dock, Haie Verte — 


Hiuli uiitor, spring tiiln 7!l' 

" orihuiiry tiilos 74' 

Luu wator " ()S-4() 

At Foit [jawrence dock, Cumberland Hasin — - 


IlJL'li water, s|)riiig tides !)(>• 

onliuiU'j' tides Sit' 

r.i i\\ water .VJ ' ")!• 



III l'» 

18 M 



CoiTCHiiond- The levellinffs were stinted from tlu) Tidiiisli (lock. ][, (;. c j^,,, 
tid.' Irvil lit *^''"'"> C.E., of the Chi;,'iiccto luariiio niilway states tliiu 'mIk. i.^. 
hotli cnils "f trcme ranf,'o of the ti(h's in liiiio Verte was olwerved to Iji- In »'„„, . 

the ( lii^'liiLtd . , , ,. . . . ■ 11 1 1 > 

iiiiiiiiii' r;iil- Indies; tlie ordinary ran;^e liciu',^ only 5 feet 7 inches. 'riiii~ wlij],, 
the fluctuation.s above and Ijelow the mean sea-level wi>io cmlv J t',ct 
!» inches at liaie Verte, they were at the same time l!) ff|.| alnnc .iikI 
below mean .sea-level in the l»ay of Kundy at neap tides ;iii(l i' I Nrt ,it 
sprinj,' tides.''* 

From the data at hand it has been shown, however, fliat ih,. ||.\,.I 
of half tides, usually called mean .sea-level, does not sdictlv r(iiivs|ii,iiil 
on l)oth sides of the Isthnms of Chignecto, tliere beinj,' a dilliMviKr nf 
a few inches (5 to lOinehes). J»ut this difference is so small that it 
may well be due to slight errors in tlieobservatictns or in the IcMllin^or 

The .statement that the tides of the ]>ay of Fuiidy ri-r fniiii iiriv 
to si.xty feet hiyh, signilics that they rise that miiidicr of rVri aljuv.- 
low-watermark. Their rise above iho normal mean I i(le-lc\i'| dt' th,' 
ocean is approximately only half of thesi' ligures. .\sa inaiti'int' fart, 
the highest tidal How in any part of the liay of i'^iinlv, wliich, a^ 
already shown, is at Noel Head, in Cobecpiid i>av. is onlv llltvilinr 
feet above low-water mark, according to the Admiralty siiiviv. 

In studying the tides of the iJay of l-'iindy the (juestion aiiM^s, wliit 
was their maximum rise and fall during the Pleistocene pi'iioil, iimip 
especiidly during that stage when the Istlinnis of Cliiyiiiciu was -ul)- 
mc!'ge<l and Nova Scotia formed an islanil j From the IcmIs takm in 
the surveys of th(! liaie Yerte canal and of the (.'liignciiir maiim' 
railway, it ajipears the axis of the isthmus in its lowest ].,iii i> iini 
at present more than eighteen or twenty feet abo\c ilir Iii;;|i u,\r 
level of Cund)erland JJasin, in the Jiay of I\iii(ly. Xn 'Irit't lilliii 
channel crossing th(! isthmus has been foiuid ; on the ((intra it, iIh' 
rock in sUk api)ears, even in the lowest jibKies, to l)e (mvciciI with 
boulder-clay, residuary material, etc., ,and has evidently imi sulliTn] 
greater erosion on the lower hsvels, in post-glacial tiinc-. ilian (iilicr 
parts of th(; country. JUit there is eviilence which will lie a'Muccd in 
this report showing tlnit in the Leda-clay and Saxicaxa-saiid |iciiiii! 
the isthmus was submer,ged to the depth of at least one Inuidicd ami 
twenty feet. How would tiie Bay of Fundy tides act ihninu' tlii- 
subsidence ? An in([uiry into their height and (lyiiaini(,' power in ilc 
wider parts of the ])ay, as it exists at the present day, will, pcrliajis. 

*'riif ('liij,'ii''('t(i Sliip railwtiv, a liapcr read licfori' tlic ( ':ni;(di;iii Sncicty ■■! 
Eiiiiiiiccrs at .M(aitrcal, Dec. L'lltli, IS'.ll, liy H. C. ('. Kctcli(iiii. M. la^t. C. V.. 

t'l'lic Tides (if tile ]*.:i.v (if l'"iiiid,v. J'.y M. .Miirpliy, I'roviiicial |-;iij,'iiiiir. N.>- 
True. Inst, of Nat. Sck'ncc, Halifax, Nova Scdtia, vol. \'1I., [lagc Is. 

Tides of till 
]5ay iif 1-'iindy 
ill the riei.-ti'i- 



1!) M 

(.'IliuMtTli. WMWV 

N,i 4rin-Hlli''i 
till' i-oiili-ai'V, ill'' 

iiiiiur 1" >t ;,'ui(lo in eluL-idiitin^ tliis (|ue,stion, those piirts of tlio l)uy 
luiii:: nil wider or dot'iMsr tliiin tlio strait across what is now tiu- 
l.tlmiM^ "t Ciii;;neclo would he at the time of tlie suhsideiiee rcfei'red 
;,,. \\'iiiil<l the tides (hii'ini^ tlie |post-;;lueial sul)ineri,"'ne(! of tiio 
i-tliiiiii~ 111' as lii;,'ii ill liic norlii-east t'xlreiiiities of Ciii;;necto I'.ay as 

;il lUT.-flll '. 

Till' niiiarkalile tidal plieiioniena of the Hay of Fundy heinj,' due to |,;||,, t ,,t 

n(M.'iivir:;eiH'e of its sides and the slioaliiii,' of its water towards the ilinik'-^ "f 

,.,,,.,' Ill "''^'l 111"'" •11'-' 

!.,irtlii'ii-.t, It tellows tiiut it the oarnei' there were removed .'uul the tiilis 

tjilal w;ivi' allowed to (low without obstruction into Nort Ininilierland 

>u,iii. till' eiinditioi\s favouraldo for hiyh tides would lie diminished 

I not riiiiiily eliminated. Tlie tidal wavt> which now moves up the 

i„iv with >ii'li velocity (six to seven miles an hour in some ]>laces) 

ii-tr.iil lit' lii'iuj^ Ntopped and thrown hack, would then swcM'p across 

till' i<lliiMii-> into the open sea beyond. It is not probable, therefore, 

;li;ii ihr lidi's woulil rise any higher than they do now in the mouth 

ut till' liiiy or in the (Julf of Maine; indeed, all considered, 

tlii'ie Mi'in-- Mil reason to suppose that the hinhest tides during the 

iii;i\iiiiinii -iMu:e of the submergence referred to would exceed from ten 

■ . liUn'li t'l'ct. 

Hut .ililinimh the tides dui'ing this stage of the Pleistocene sub- I'lusinii frnm 

1 • 1 ^ ^ .1 • 1 • n- i^ • . 1 r>av nf I'umlv 

11,1 ii.'iMu'i' wi'i'i' Milt as lugli as at i)re.sent, their dynamic ellcct m the ti,i',^,^. 

■ ;iM'i!i lit' till' shallow parts of the strait and coast border, which then 
.\j~itil nil IimiIi sides of what now forms the Isthmus of Chignecto 

■ a- viTv '.iii'.it. It was then that the low-lying portions of the 
i-iliiaiis ii'ccivcd their prcstMit contours, that the i\ennebcckasis 
V.iili'\ in New Ih'unswick and the Annapolis Valley in Xov.a Scotia 
Wire I'liiilnl, ir nut wholly, yet received their latest sculpturing, and 
tliat till' i'ii'ci|iitous sides of the lower Petitcodiac N'alley, tlie ^rem- 
laiU'iiuk N'ailey and Cumberland J5asin, etc., were carscd out and 
ta^iiniiiil iieai'ly as we now see them, it must be remembered, liow- 
'■.■r, ihiit all the valleys, now partially tilled or occupied with .salt 
miii'sli, WHiilil then be nomparatively empty, and denuding agents would 
liivf iiatcli greater scope, 

rill' chief erosion of the isthmus from marine action appears to have 
i«'iii liming tlu! ujiw'ard movement of the land in the later stage of 
L'lLicl.iy and Saxicava-sand period. In the earlier stage of the 
Plii^iiii'ni' subsidence the isthmus would, of course, be covered wholly 
"1' iiiirtiully liy ice, either land, or lloating ice, or both, and con. 
■f'lu.'iitly erosion from the sea would then be less active. Tidal 
Hi>itiii !iiii>t ihin-efore have been active chielly after the retirement of 
the ice 1111(1 l)(,'fore the tidal wave was shut off from Northumberland 





•20 M 

NKW llIlL'NSWirK, NOVA Sf'OTIA AM» P. K. Isl.Wl. 

Ml' iixr 

Ai'tiiiii ill 
wiliiui lil^. 

Slrnit and ('(mliiird to ilic l>.iy of l''uiiily, In- tln" clcviiiii.ii ..t t 
(p|' I lie istlinuis iiliDNt' sca-lcxcl. 

As suuii as tlic ii>iiii.' ot' till' land in tlic I.cila day ami S 
saiul pi'r'ind liad l)i'i»iij,'lit the piM-si'iit i,'c(>i,'iM|ildi'al l)aiiii'f liriW(ij| tl,,. 
liay nf Kundy uiul \(ii'llniml)t'i'liiiiil Strait into cxistcini, iii,. ii,|;,] 


\va\('. I lii'owii l)ai'k on 

its. 'If. 


id I 

tcym to ilc|iosit it> I 

sand, innd, t'tc, in llic cstnai ics and i)ays. Tliis |ii'occss iia> 
lU'tivc ()|n'fation siiu-i', and it is in tiiis way tiiat tlic sed' 

'MI'ili'll i,t 
ImtM ill 
llrlil. III' 

II' artloii ,,[■ tin 

tho oxtt'nsi\(' salt niai'sjics lia\(! aiHrinniilatcd, 'j'j 

tidal wa\(! in the noitli-castrrn cxlrcniitics of tin' Itay "i |'ii'„| 

tliiTct'oic aci'inniilatiM' and not d("-t rut'l i\c, tlial i-. ii di' 

rial wIh'I'c it is tliinwn iiarl< on itself, lnu fiiitliiT dow n the li.n-^ win 


} I- 

[I'ldt-. 111,11,.. 

fci'civcs no clirck to its onwai'd pi'd^fess, its i'i'usi\(' [loucr, v>i 


on t III' sliiirc 

M'ly ureat. 

Flow mill lO.l. |)„,.i,,^r till- niaNinnnii suhsidcn.'c of tlic land in tlic I'IiImi 

ill Inter I'lii-t- 


period the tidal wiiM' or current may liav> |iassed o\cr the siil,|||,.|.,,.|| 
Islhiinis of ('liii,'neeto in liotli dirci'tions, at the llood riuiiiiiiL; iimtli- 
eastwardly tliri)niL;li what tiieii formed a st rait hetwcrii Nc\i Diun,. 

wio'c aixl Xova Scotia, and at tho chh in the rc\i 


lull irmii 

Northiimlieiland Strait or the (liilf of St. Lawre 

lice, iiilo u li.ii iv iiiiw 

tiie liayof l''undy and At ic < ) Krosion would then, no duiilil, 
lie |iowerful, iiut not as powerful as at, tlu^ present day, as the tiihil 
oscillatioixs would 1)(! sinular to what they arc now in llic ii]>rii .unl 
wider parts of th(^ liay. 

It was prol)al)ly durinii; the early stairc of the subsidence mciiii 


that the isthmus received its linal 'd.iciatioii from the llc.itiii^ in 

Jami 1 111 lietwci 

n L'riiice Edward Island on tlic oi 

ic ll.'iliil, ;i|ii| III! 

the other, the liij,dier i,'rouiids of Now Brunswick and Non.i IS.-ntiann 
both sides of the isthmus. Tiiis ieo iiioNcd chielly from Ni)riliiiiii- 
berland Strait south-westwanl into tho open waters of tlir -.m iiuw 
forming the J>ay of Fuiidy, hut also p.irtially in the rc\ciM. (liicciiuii. 
The evidence heariny on this i|uestion will lie l)roui;lit f(ir«.,iil nn a 
later pa''e. 

Oiifriii I if the Tho ori.iiin of tho groat depression in whieii the liay of I' 
B:iy 1 if Fiiiuly 

iimlv lU's 


is a question the adeijuato discussion of whicli wouhl ii- t'.u' link 
in geological history. Prof. 11. V. Hind sjieaks of it as ,i valley i if 
erosion,* and this is doubtless j)artially correct ; liut ori^'iii^iHy it iii»>t 
have been formed by crustal movements, though at wlmi L;iii|n:,'iial 
period is not evident. The Carljoniforous rocks bordering Nnitlniiii 
berland Strait are but .slightly disturbed, but when wo cmss the l>tli 

A Preliliiiiiary Keport on the Geology of New liruiiswick, 18(1.*). 

■ AMI. 

inli (it' 1 III' uxi, 

y illiil >;i\ir.i\ii- 
iiT licl Uii II tl|,. 
lll'lU'c. llir 

: its Imii'(|i'|i (if 

•SS llM,- lli'fll ill 
IC SI'lli'lH'lit, (i) 

■ net ion cil' the 

iiy lit' l''ii'iily i- 

lll'|li>Mls lllllll'- 

II I 111' liay, wlinv 

|ll)\\ IT, l'-|irri,lllV 

till' riiiMii'i'iii' 

T t 111' •-uliiiii'r.'i'il 
(I rniniiiiu iimili- 
•cell Nru I'llllli- 
SC ijirrrl iiill Ir'illl 
illlii W li:il i> |iii« 
1 llll'll, llHlllt, 

lav, as till' 

in t 111' iij.rli Ullil 

dl'lici' Ilirllliiill'M 
till' lliialin- in- 

II' liauil, ami mi 
Nii\M S'"li.i "II 
t'niiii Nnrilitiiii- 

it' the -ra lliiW 
■\i'r>r liilPrtioll. 

t t'iir\v;'rii "H :' 


ullliilN (IF Tllf: HAV OK llMiV DKI'lll'^SIoN. 



lit' Fiiiuly lies 
111 ii< far buck 
it as a valli'V nt 
ri-iiially it iiiiK 
what ^niliiiiiciil 
crin.i,' Nnrtlmm- 
cross till' Istli- 


iiiiis lit' <'iiit,'iu'i.'ti> ti> tlic lii'ud (if llic I'jiy of I'mnly H nun k( d dilTcr 
,ii,i' ill tlii'ir |iiisitii>ii 1111(1 ill iIk! striiclurt' ot' tlic lied-, is tniiiiil. 'I'Ik! 
|,iitti'r ( irlMinit'fi'ous fhcfc in utMicridiy t'ojdcd luid tlirowii into liiiilily 
liltiil aititiidi's, wiiili' till' Middle' C'lii'lioiiit'iToiis (.Millstone urit), 
lliiiinjli III many jilaces (ii'cii|)yin'4 !i liori/oniul attitude lias, on the 
,v,.,t <iili' "f till' I'etiti'iidiiic Uiver, ill Cape .MiiriiiLfoiiiii peiiinsulii, at 
W'l.tiiiiiirlaiid fid;;*', and at Suiitli .l(i,i;L,'iiis and S|iiiimliill likewise 
,il,' I'll .;ri'.it ili.'<loi'atiiiii and faulting;. Tlie ]iriiiiinnti>ii('s, innjeitiiii,' 
iiitn t'lii^ii't'io l>ay and i'\en C'ajie Clii^'iiecto itself apiicar to lia\i' alsu 

uiiilcru'diii' ilill«'i'''"'''''l I'l'''" '''''''^'^''' ^" ''"' "'oast holder of .Noitlniiir 
iiiiliiiiil Strait, and doiilitless were alFei'ted Ijy the saiiie oriinciiii' iii- 

;!iii'iii'i's a- till' ('olie(|iiid .Mountains tlieinselves. 'riiespi|iii'iu f lluse 

iiiiM'iiH'iils M'i'iiis to have liceii, an uplieiual after the Lower Carliuiii- 

yi'iiuv I I<s were t'oriiied and |)re\ious to the deiiosilion of the Middle 

t'liliuiiifri Ills lieds; tiuMi allot herdisturli.ineeand tVa. (iii'iii,u;of tliestr'Oi 
.iil,-ii|iiiiii In I he formation of the coal series. Since ('arliiinifcruns 
riiiii'^ till' ri'L'ioii a]ijiears to have underitoiui repeated oscillatiniis, the 
,i!i'>t liiin,' the siilisidi'iice in tiu- recent period. This (luestion will, 
liiiwcviT, I"' referred to in detail, wlicn I conic to treat of tlio clianu'cs o^ 
il wliirli I'liik place here in the 'rerliary and I'nst -'I'erl iary jierinds. 
rill' rni>ial oscillations to which the i'.ay of h'lindy valley is due 

II), tlnri'fiire, to liaM' lieeii to a lari,'e extent local, at least they were , 

H'li iiinii' intense iiniiiediately around it than in the re^'ion of 

Niiilmiii'ii'iliuid Strait. I'l\ideiii ly tlie uriyin nf this depre.-sion has 

i«i:i (li'l I'liili'iit upon and diisely related to the crystalline ra ii^i's nn 

liitli siili's iif till' hay, the proxiinity of which doul)tless led to so 

!!iiiili Imal ilisturhanc(! of tiie ( 'arlioniferoiis and otiier rocks, as referred 

■ : r|iliia\al and denudation ha\e hcen proceediui,' in some instances 

':Ti'l,iti\ilv and /mr! /in.ifii, and iia\('. hrouj^lit ahnut iiii|iortant 

Mii^rsiii till' surface featui'os. The cxcaNalioiiof the \ alle\'s now 

I iii]iii'i| li\ the estuaries of the I'etitcodiac, Meinraincook, Tantraiiia'' 

1 1. 1 riiinlie risers, which have in Post-Tt rtiary times lieeii partially 

■ rilv.iili ljiiiil(ler-clay, salt marsh deiiosits, etc., indicati.'s intense and 

I T"iiiiii,'cil ernsioii. 

Till' [iliysiial features and dynamic action of this romarkahh.' hay 
liavi'lit'iii thus dwelt upon, because it occupies a valley where intense 
fi 'IS liavi' llll'll find are still in operation, and where the formation of 
■iii iiiiir-lic-- in the Itecent Period is exhiliited on a scale umiaralleled 
'.-iwhi'iv ill Canada. Nor have we on any other part of the North 
.liiiciiwui coast evidence of such a Ifustwoithy character respectin;^- 
'.:;" -iili-iilciicc of the coast in the latest epucli of its geohjgical 

h' 1 

' l.l'i 


\ 1 nil 


I ' 

22 M 


It'Vfl in 




Data, wli 


Tertiary and Post-Tertiary Guanoes of Lkvki.. 

Consideral)lo attention lias been devoted of late yeans totlu-eliaiifcs 
of level of the earth's crust, especially in the Post-Tcftiary jjcridd. 
That great oscillations have occurred is undeniable, but tlir cviilcMcc 
as to the extent of the vertical movements is, for the most jiart, ex- 
tremely fi-aginentary, and no very satisfactory conclusions hiiv(; bcon 
deduced from it. Nevertheless, along the coasts a bu';,'(! Ixjciv ni 
facts awaits investigation and co-ordination, which wouM iluciijat,- 
this question. Shore-lines, marine terivices and benches of (liU'crcm 
kinds lie e.xposed in every estuary and along every c(»ast, the lici^lits 
of which, if properly measured and classilied, would fcjriii an iiii|iiiii;inr 
contribution to our knowledge as regards these oscillatory iii(i\iiiiiMit~. 
The amount of deformatioti by differential upheavals and sul).si(leneo^ 
could also by this means be shown, and the eflicienty of ccitain 
theories to account for the phenomena properly tested. 

For a number of years the writer has been collecliiiL; all tli(> inturiii 
ution available respecting the oscillations of level on the Atlantic 
coast of Canada, especially in the region lying between tin; niDutli i.t 
8t. Lawrence Kiver and the International boundary. The fnlltjwing 
table embodies the results of this investigation : 

Tal lie (if (-leva- 
tions and 

\'Ai' vat ion of 

I'llivatinii in la- 

li;Kiii>st IMeis- 


i'lici- ill 

ter 'l' fitiaiv 

toeeneor Jiost- 





aliovc mean 

^laeial siiore 

rii II 


tidcdi'vi'l, in 

line a li.i v !■ 


ail till.- 


ni e an t i d e- 


1. ill fi'-t. 

level, in feet. 

Kastfhx t^>Ll:HKl'. 


AlimfT 'IVniisiiiiiata Ry., 
near Ki\ iiTc du Loup sta- 
tion, l.C.ll 

Xot known, Init 
S40 or \iiiward.s 
in uioutli of Sa- 
^nirnay 11 i v er 
o|i|iositi- KiviiTi' 

dn 1jou|i 

lis (bar.) 


Ill mil. 

2 I'x'twt'cn Kivii're dii Lnup 


and Stc I'lavit* 

This liasin ISO ft. 

34:. to 375 (bar.). 

(-lasiH^ liasin 

dffphc t w fvn 

Capes Ihiileaiid 

Ilaldiuiand .... 

225 to 230 .. 


Port Daniil, on north side 
of niimtli of JJaif des C'lia- 
lenrs Not known 

225 ti ) 250 .. 


HctwccnCai'lcton and Maria 

in llaic dcs (.'liali'Uis .. 



West of Xouvflle liivi'rand 

lii'twi'i'n tiiat and Scau- 


215 to 220 M 




Sulisiili'iie.. ill 


ri(i(l lu'lnu" 

V I! 

d c 


nil' a 11 tiil>- 
lfVi/1, ill fci-t. 


23 M 


,,, . . , Kl<'v;itioii (,f 
JMt'vatioii 111 lii- 1 ||ig|„,st l>\t.\s. 

ti'i- Ti'itmry i tdceii.Di- pust- 

iil'ovj. iiif.aii j Klacial siu,iv 

tult-levcl, 111 I line above 

"■''f- I III can t idf- 

! level, in feet. 

Siilisideiiee in 
I'iiJil li e 1 II \v 
mean tidi. 
It'Vel, in feet. 


Xear |lalli(iu>ie .riinctidii, 

■ 1.1 '.iJ., (Ill sdutli .side of 

l!f>lij^''iiiulie i{iver 

Xr:ii' l'.,iiliui'sr. on road to 
|iiiiilo|i .vettleiuont 

Ni'iir <'ara(Hiette, wjuth of 

73 at least, at 

iiiontli of Meta- 

pedia Itiver; !M) 

atiiioutliof lie.s- 

tigoiiclie iJiver.l223atendof trap 
ridfre ; |irolialil\ 

Xot known. 


10 to .'lO or niore.ll.'iS (liar.) 

iiial(spirit level) .'lat least, accord- 
ii'K to |ieat bed 

T) to 10. 

:"< to 10 between 
Kt. Simon Inlet 
aii<l J'olienio- 
iiclie, also on 
Miscou Lslaiul. 

!2 X 

Xnrth side of .Miraniiclii 

liiver. between .NeuXMstle 

iilld liaitilioyile liiver ,11;-, 'it lenst 1o- ^ io-/i 

"" ''ape Tnniientine ,ie,iin-l '' ''•''' p-' '" l-^'' ('^•''■■•)' V) to 1.-,. 

snhLaleiij: Kiiiit,'r;int lioad See iia^e '>7 v 
^■•ar i;e,Ty-s Mills station,; ' " 

, ;. ,, , — Aot known 

liMliaii .Mountain, nortli of 


last, .aliiii^' south base ofl 

iii'liaii or i.utz -Mouiitaini „ 
At ililW,,,!,,'. Albert eounty „ „ ' 

•\t."<t. .b.jiii, east of Iiarliou'r '200 + 

ir .\t I'elllltield stati 



on I'eiintield 
■astof St. (it 

[12r,(?)(bar.) .... X,,t known. 
L>51-!),-,(.si,. level). 
-'■»8'iil „ ..I 

'N(jt known. 


!2S (Ry. lovrds). 

':" iiiKlii'.'t part of i'( 

1 teiraee '( 


or more at 


iiiaiiiie terrace, at Over's' 

iiioutli of L'K 
tang inlet 243 

iif^'. Ill vallev o 

L)f I)i 

ili'i,'ua.-li Kiver. 


niown 231 


>\'.\ Sc(1Ti.\. 


'iii'ileiiortliof Xaiiin 

1.V32 (s|,. level). 
10 t(j 15. 

Xot ki 

■-':itiuii, j.C.l 



ill'' of Amher 



of .M 

Hint I'leas- 

:'3 1 

n. ni liiver I'liilip vail 

>eo patfe 2, M. 

ii'tuveu Wii... 
iiliil I'u^jwasli 

lice harbour 

l<'y;Xot k 

14372 (s),.lev,.l). 

10 ■ 7,-, 

(.) at 



jawrence; 7'J at 


133 (liar.) | 

|133 i 


24 M 




ri;iiii.\i!v AXi) i'usT-Ti:iniAiiv ciiancwch of lkvkl. 

-T) M 

i- iSiili^id. I,,.,. 1„ 

■-! til- 1;. nut 1',. 

1' ' rioil l„.li,v; 
!■ Ill cull till-. 

IlNi'l. ill fil-t. 

. Xiit Kiii.wH. 

rite 111. 

Ndt l,iM"'n. 


Klt'Viltinll ill 111- 

!•; 1 f V a t i o 11 of 

liiK'lif^t I'Ic'is- .Siilisiilciicf ill 

tip 'rti'tiai'v 

toi'ciic or |iost- till' Itciiiit I'c- 


alnivf uu'au 

(,'laL'ial slioic 

nod below 

tidr -I'^vcl ill 

i n 1' alio V 1 111 !• a 11 t i il i- 


111 ran t i il !■- Ii'vc'l. ill firt. 
IfVfl, ill fct't. 

i'KIM 1 Hi'. 1^1. AMI- <'uii. 

Vnltll ■'! Ki-ll>itiyl(lll, Ul-dV 

' 1' K. Miiml i! 

Xnt kill i« 11 

7.-) (ll:iv) 

Kot known. 

\t WiliiMitt's Crcrl;, uciir 

1'. K. I>laiiil 1! 

!•) 11 


.\t Trv^u liiM'i' 

7o to 'X> (liar.). .. 


\' \..i'ii liivi'i- I'.riil^,'!', 
■ 1'. i:. M:lll'l 1! 

Ill 1 )-«■ ii r>.iv 

;.-. (liar.) 

To to so (liar.). .. 


Al Souri- 

7;") (liar.) 


M\,h\i.r.N Isr.Axns. 

iiii .Viiiliri-t. Kiitry. < o'iiid- 
>t.iiii'Miii| .\l''i!,'lit Nlaiiils. 



Tiir data ir-|M'L'Uiij^ the lici,i:lit nt' the^ region in the later 'JN^rtiary 'Pirtiaryilcva- 

uv mrr'-saiily iiiipcrt't'ct, aiul tmly at the iiiniitlis nt' tlic IvcstigniU'lic, \",."V'f„, .''i .,. 

Vir-uiiiilii 1111(1 St. John I'ivci's have we ineiisurcnients which may 

in n'lifil ii|-oii a.s correct. They are niiiiiiuuni tigiire.s, lio\ve\('r, 

aiiiltlit' tli'Natiiiu iinist ha\c hecii coiisideralil}' greater than that they 

' :'VM>iit. .\t the two ( rivers, horings wan', niado for 

tiiinlaiiiiiis to the Intercolonial railway iiridges s|iaiining them, 

thiini;.'li uiavcl, saiiil and clay to the depths liclow tide-level here 

.".'I'll, sill iwi II ■.;• that at a jieriod anterior to the Post-Tertiary the Itind 

■ Mil at siicli ;iii (de\ation as jicrmitted the i'i\-ers to How along their 

kvlliioiv ami ci'dde them to that li'vel. IMiat this erosion continued 

• I' i.itr Tertiary, is inferred from the fact that no deposits of tjiat 

. lii\i' \i'( liiM'ii discovered in the liuttoms of these river- \alleys. 

.I" Si. .Iiilin, the liuiii'es iifc taken from the Admiralty Stir\ey ehai'ts, 

•di'jitlis hiiiig t hose of (heSt. .lohn IJiver ahove Jndiantown and 

"I the Ki'ninliecka'-is near its t'oniluence with the latter. 'J\i enahle 

:!iit\vii la^t iiieiitinned ri\'ers to erode the \alleys in theii' lower retiches 

Ji'.vii til tlir iih-k V lliior, the land nmst have stood I wo lunu'red feel or 

lanriiiliiivr it- pre-ent level. It is iirohahle, however, as stated alioxe, 

ilut till' lii'iglits foi- the Tertiary liorder of the land in the northern 

Kihiiiitiicni parts of Nesv Uriniswiek do not represent the maximum 

'i'';iiiiiii. TlicieaiHM'easonsfor helieving that some jiarts at I(>a-^t were 

Mill !ii;.'ln'r. j'uf, the mouths of the rivers refeiied to, must ho largely 

■i'll u|i ; ami, moi'euvei", the buried channels where the horings were 

26 M 


nifulo are so far up the river-valleys that they may have liceii Ijcyund 

the then existing estuaries. 

On the whole, the evidence thus far obtained points t(i ,i dill'minw 

in elevation in the later Tprtiar\' period of certainly not less than 

from two hundred to three hundred feet aljovo existing;- levels. The 

diil'erence was not, howtsver, equal throughout the wliolo eua^t rciiidn 

from the mouth of the .St. Lawrence to the tSt. Cr<jix Kivcr nv \n\vr- 

national boundary. Certain facts now to be adduced slmw, on the 

contrary, that the Tertiary oscillations, like those of utlier y;eolii^ii;il 

periods, before and since, have been differential, and the uplioiivals 

and subsidences to some extent, at least, comiilementary. The tii(t> 

upon which this conclusion is based were ol)served cliieilv in the 

Isthmus of Chignecto and in the region around the head nt' L'liignecto 

Bay. It seems necessary to give them in some detail. 

Kvidenco .isto The district around the head of tlie Hay of Fundy is reiiiarkalilc fnr 

levellit tlie ^^^^^ great changes of level which have taken place tiiere tlinm;:li!,ut its 

',','""' '/,?'"' 1 geological history. The evidences of these are first recorded in the Car- 
liay lit J" uiidy. . ... 

boniferous rocks as exhibited in the celebrated iSoulh .loggiiis spctioii 

described by Logan and Dawson.* At the close (if tlie (.'ai liiiiiit'ci'ous 

period, tlie laud here rose and appears to have continued almve sca-h-vel 

until the glacial ejioch, no rocks of the intervening geuhigieal \m-i«iU 

having been met with on the Isthmus of Chignecto or artm in I the head ut 

SlieiR)dy Bay and Cumberland Basin. On the cdiitrarv. the imk- 

surface of the country seems duiing these ages to have iiiuhTuniiea 

great amount of subaerial denudation, as evidenced l)y the (|uaiititles ni 

residuary material still found upon it. During the genlogieal iiiti'ival 

referred to, there appears to have been a ridging up <it' the Nthniusut 

Chignecto, wliich continued till after the beginning ot' the Pleiv 

tocence, and till the surface of the region became co\eie(l with a shept 

of ice. Stria' are found on hills and riilges, from five hmi(iii'(i to -ix 

hundred feet high or more near She])ody ^lountaiii in Allien cmiiity: 

at Dorchester Cape, three huiidi'cd feet high ; at ^^'l•<tl•(ll■l<, tlioiv 

hundred feet high, and along the Cumberland slmre to tiir smith ol 

South Joggins as far as Apple River, three hundred ami eiL;iity t'«t 

high, all trending from south to south-west with tlu^ stns^ side ili'aiiy 

to the north-east, showing the movement of a heavy mass ef huid iie 

in the direction indicated. On the noi'th-east side nt the istlmitH. 

iilimii Nortiiumberland Strait, the land is low, seldom rising iinm' than 

from one hundred to one hundred and fifty feet in heighi. the uivativ 

portion not exceeding from sixty-five to seveiity-li\(' tVet. ^Mn-iv, 

then, had the glacier which pi'oduced the stria* just referred to ii- 

HeJKllt cif 
I>tliimis (if 
Clii;j;uect(i at 

*Aca(liaii (ledloi^y, l.'n(f ed., p. 133. Suiililcnieiitary X(jte to 4tli el., |'. l'*. 



•27 M 

ve ln'cii licyond 

; tn ;l dillclviKv 
y niii li"-> lliaii 
nu' Ic'Vi'U. Till- 

010 c(i;i^l i'('i;iiiu 
llivcr or liUi'i'- 

Ki\ >l|ii\V, <111 tliv 
OtluT ^rnl(ii;i(/;Ll 

11 tlir Ul>llt'.lVilU 
itillT. Till' I'll'l- 

il chiclly in tlw 
cad lit iTiigiiecto 

is M'liiiukalili' t"i' 
;'ro tliriiu'iliiiut its 
eordril ill till' Cav- 
h Juiiu'ins si'ftiou 
the C'alliiiuitVl'ull- 
u'd aliiivi' sfii-li'Vftl 

^iM)li)i;it'iil peri' 111- 
iiitrary. the m^-'k- 

havt' iinilrrui'Ui.'a 

V till' iiuantitii'S"! 

u'tMiluL^ial iutrrviil 
ll ut' tlir NtllllUlSut 

liiii; lit till-' Meiv 

vcri'il "itli a >lu'K 

Tivc liviiulri'd tii>ix 

ill AUii'it ciiuiity; 

[t, Wcstriii-'k. dlCM'.' 
,v to till' siiuthiit 

and I'i.u'lity tcct 


,-v iiia>-; iif laiuiu'' 

,,t till' i>diiinb, 

jiii risiiiu' uiiin'thiui 

height, till', i.'i«i("' 

Itlvi' f.'t't. ^^TR'l•l^ 

list rrt'i'rn'd to U'^ 

. ithi'Ll'-l'"' 

source or collecting ground? Careful and repeated examinations of 
the cnast district of Northuniljerland Strait and of the higher grounds 
ul Prliu'c h'^dward Island to the north-east showeii, that no ice capable 
of iiioiluiiiig these striie came fnmi that ([uarter, ratiier we have the 
evideiict' lit' land ice moving in an easterly direction in the sti'ait and 
mi Princi' I'Mward Island at the time the Chignecto glacier was in 
exi^triK'c, The striie referred to have clearly been produced by land 
i,viliiiiiii,' t li(> t>arly stage of the glacial period, the action of iluating 
ice within the same region evidently belonging to a later stage of the 
Pliistoceiii'. J low then were these stria- produced, or rather what 
caused tlin ice producing them to move from what is now a lower 
Jistriit smith -westward over ridges and along slopes from live hundred 
to ^evell iiinidred feet in altitude? Only one answer can, in my 
iiidL'iiieiit, l)c^ given to this question, viz., that the axis of the Isthmus Ifiitrhtnf 
mI ('liii;m'(.'to and the valley occupied by the waters of Northumbor- (r|'|,'J|[''^^j'| ji^ 
laiiil Strait as far to the north-east as Priixce Edward Island, were thi' 'I'lrtiiny 
hiijiier relatively to tlie basins occupied by Shepody Bay and Cumber- 
land liasin than at present. This diiTerential elevation, existing in 
till' Tertiary, continued into the early Pleistocene, as will be shown on 
ii-ul^ei|tient page. This explanation does not imply that the axis of 
the istlinius was elevated five hundred or six hundred feet above the 
jiie-ent hi'il of Chignecto l>ay, but that the difference in the relative 
Ifvejv aiiinunted to that. The land to the noilh-east must have been 
iiiL'her, wliilc that to the south-west was lower; the attitude of the 
ili-tiiet ll ing such that the general slo[ie was south-westward, to 
eiialile the ice to llow in that direction. On no other hypothesis can 
thel'aets lir explained. 

If this c'liiu'hision be correct, the height of the Isthmus of Chignecto 
'liiiiii:.' the Tertiary period was, therefore, diiferent from that which 
now iihtains, and further, the bottom of the depression now occupied 
by t'iiii;iie(to l>ay and the smaller bays and estuaries connected 
lii'Tiwith must have oscilhited very considerably since. We may 
b'W iinniiii' whether there are any data showing other portions 
ijitlu' re:;iiiii under review occupied different relative levels during 
tii'Ti'rtiary period. 

"iilian'e 12 M reference is made to the existence of a pass in Cobequid Pass in tin.' 
-MiHititaii.s at Halfway Lake, through which the .Springhill and Parrs- >j^,",''t;'ii,i.s at 
b"iii'raiKvav runs. This pass is about six hundred feet deep below the jlalfwiiy 

. . HlVIT. 

-uaiiit of ihi' mountains, and (juite narrow, with steep sides, and the 
drit'teneuiiihcred bottom is, in the central or highest part, now only 
Hdiiy-ti\f t'oet idjove mean tide-level. The character of the rocks on 
':it!ier siile is the same, there being no evidence that the pass was due 

2S M 


t(i fill original transverse! fracture or (lislufation of tin' niDuniiiin 
rani;*!. It is simply a vjillcy of erosion, wliieh can scuvfiy 1,,. ,.^. 
jilained l>y inai'ine eur*rents. No Carhoniferous rocks arc fdimd i|, j, 
Jlow then was it eroded? Evidently l)y tlio slow, inn- cuiiiiini,.,! 
agency of running water. Two small sti'eams head near the cutivdi 
the pass, their sources heing in two small laUes only a sIkui (lisiMin,. 

apart and separated hy a gravel liaids. lialfway ]!i\iT, kw i,\ \\ , 

(the lower jiart of which is callc'd liiver lli'bert), Hows imitji Ann! in 
a low valley, with hoi-dering slopes two hundred to three IiiiikIiciI t ,.t 
alio\'e sea-level, and eni|ities into the north-eastern end nt' ( 'umhcrlaiifi 
Jiasin. TluMtthei", called Parrshoro' Hiver, tlows soulhw.iiil inin ij,, 
l>asiu of Minas. lUit these rivers avo evidently insuHicicni I'mimi],. 
the jiass. It cannot liave ])een formed otherwise than Kv a ii\.i 
Mowing tin'ough in one direi-tioii or the other. In which diicctiiUiliil 
this river tlow and where was its catchment hasin '. IVoiu i),. 
Iliiw fMnucil. physiographic features of the region, it is fibvious thai nnly nn t),,. 
north side of the mountains could there liave been such a catdiiii'Mit 
basin, \ iz., in the district drained by the Maccan Itiver : .iihI it ^I'lu- 
higlily probable, therefoi-e, that in ]ire-glacial ages this ii\cr tlowni 
southwai'd througii the pass just described. Its upper iii-iiiK'ii -. 
indeed, ti'cnd in this direction still, and between S()ntliiiii|iinii .iiiil 
lialfway Lake there is a K)w valley, now unoci;ui>ied by ,iiiy --tiiMiii, 
which doubtless was the ancient \;dley of tin; .Maccan liiver when it 
had a southward course, l)ut was al>an(lone(l when the ri\ci Inciiii'' 
dixerted northward. I'.ut were the waters of the Macc.ui lli\cr ■'.!';ii> 
suliicient to erdde the pass in the ( 'oiu'ipuds '? This scein-. iKHiliit'ii!. 
unless the preci])itation was much greater than at jacsciii. i!ui it i- 
not only llu! Maccan which mav ha\e flowed soiitliu.ud. \\'\\r\- 
Ijebert, o)' rather a river then llovving along its valley mav ahn Iiih- 
had a reverse course with a catchment basin in the di pirvxinii i.i 
which liiver ilebert and Maccan liixcr now unite. 'I'cj ivihIii' ilii- 
jxjssible two postulates havi' to be assume(l ; first, that the lain! totli'- 
north of t he ('obe(|uids was higher and the Cob(^(|uids Inwer, that i\ 
the mountains were then in their incipient stage, — in shml, that tin' 
watershed of the area lying west of i!i\er Philip ami IvoniUiiy w.v 
not the t'olxfipiid JJange as at present, liiit extended across hy >pi'iiiL'- 
hill and Maccan ^lountain, and along the a.xis of the l-thina- "i 
Chignecto westward, and, secoiully, that the basin in winch tli" 
.Maccan and Ilebert Uivers meet was closed to tla^ west. Ii may liavc 
been that even tlu' La Planclio and .Missa(iuash Kivers al-e ilriiiu'ii 
into it. I>e this as it uuiy, it seems to have been in thi-^ "''} 
that the erosion of the pass through the Cobecjuid MMuntaiih 


t-lir llliiiuitiiill 

S<';ili'i'|y Iji' cx- 

MI'C t'dlllld ill it. 

, lnHi;--riilililHlc(l 

■iir till' iTiiii'M i,t 
ii sliiii'i ili>tiini't' 

I'l-, iilic (it' tlll'-C 

I's iiurtii A.-ii'il ill 
ri'r liinnlrcil t'-,>t 
d ut' Cuniliri'laiiil 
ihw.'inl inin tin- 
ulllcirin t'l iTiiili' 
tli;m liy ;i ri\'i' 
licli (lin-i-ii'iiiiliil 
sin ! IVoiii il|.- 

li;il illllv nil til'- 
>Urll !l I' Itcluil"!:' 

•(■r : .Mill it ^I'l'iii- 

this |-i\rr l|(>«nl 

U])]"'!' iil'lUirii -, 

Sdutli uii|i;"ii aiM 

il \)\ any stiviim, 

|;i\ri- when it 

ic ri\''f lircuiiii' 

(•;ui llivci- ;'.!!>iii' 

(M'lll- iKiulittul. 

vriit. I'.iii it i- 

ulliuaiil. lli^'i' 

V iii.iv al-M li i>>- 

r ilcjilT-'-iiiii la 

Til rnnlri' ilii- 
t the land t"lli'' 

InWrr. lliat i:-. 

du'it. that till' 
|',riiiiiilliy "a- 
tcniss liy S]iriaL'- 
tlir l-tlililil- "t 
II ill wliic-ll 111" 
St. It may liiiv.' 
,.,-^ aUii .Iruiu'il 
Ml in till- "'ly 
,.„id Mniiiilaiii^ 


Id M 

W.l^ I'tl't'l't' 
lirfalV tilc 

Til is 

ei'osioii imis 

t, 1 


nave coinmencec 

1 1 


Ti'ftiiiry peiioil and lia\e kept pace witli the upHt't of the 
iiitain range as it proceeded. 
I'll,' till "IT iiutliiied regarding tlie origin ot' the Co\nM|uid Pass, I'lriml wImh 

takes us haik to the incipient stage of the histoiy • 

if th 

restern part ,1,,, ( 

till' criis'dii (if 

nt'tlic Ciil''''Mii<l Mountains. At wliat geological period did thev tirst '"ass icfcircd 

ri-i- aliiivt' 
I.-niiis an 

the surroiindiiiif strata 

No rocks older than the Cariioni- 

tn tn.ik 111 



1 ill this district to tiie north (jf these mountains 

ihil till' fiNt'i's whicliare supposei 


lavf iieen iiislruiuental in erodiim 

tiicpass 1 1,1 VI 


courses supernn[iosed on these strata 


IS theie- 

rcasdiialile inference thut erosion of the pass did not coniii'.ei 

iihulafti-i' ill' 


.Middle! and, perhai)s, the L'jjper Cai'bonif 

erous njcks 


lata iliiwii. 

( )tiier fads lend support to this theory. 1" 


i-Miini'l''. > 

ti'lMI'.S riH'l 



con'donierate houlders heloiiiiinu' to Carhnni- 


paringly scattered on the northern lirow and suni- 
liisiit til'' ( iilii'iuids. The piesence of these in the position referred 
,1- attriliiitci! to the overlap[iinu or transgressi( 

if tl 




Hni:h I'l 


poll tlu! Coheiiuid series in ])ast ages, there 1 

MMiit; no 

.uiation known to nie which could have- transported the 


lit.M'i- witli exist inu' levels. Sinc(> then the denud.tion sul)se(iuent 
il' t'(il)ri|iiid uplift has rcnioved thi^ greati'i' part of the sandstones 

,1 .•iiii'^'ldiiicra 

tcs from the summit of the mountains, leavinir isolated 

liiiiii's an 
i'lii' Will'! 

■on /" 

1 1 

lers merely as remnants. 


it' crodiiiLT till 


(1 !■ 

iss retcrred to, .seems ti 

lave Tis crnsidr. 

*ll I*' *l 1 * 1 1 \. Ml II I'l 

With the ujtlitt ot the range and continued as late with tl 


i ir\ and early I'lcistocene, the river keeping it at hase- 
'.■■vil : iiiii (liiiiiigthe glacial period it received a check and the inov(>- 
UK'iit nt' u]ilir i\-,il i^aiiicd tile asceiideiicy Oil the ero-^ive forces as si 

risill','' iif tlic 





i;;<' lu-t iliat the pass, especially in the central part, is now occujiicd 
licils (if drift. On the retirement (jf the Pleistocene ice 


rcM'iii iliaiiniLre svsteins seem 

to h 

lave h(^en inauLturatcd 



i.iril iiid\ laiii-n 

t ill tli(! western Colieipiids did not, howtjver, c 

'iiitimii'il into t he later 


eistocene and inav, indeed 

^till 1 

le in 

Till- |ili('iidin('iia therefore when co-ordinated, indicate a higliei-' 
-•1 inr the ( 'aiiioniferous series along Xoi'thumhcrlaiid Strait and 
lii'Miiridn iidith of the C'ohecpiids during the later Tertiai-y, jirohjthly 

ni-piiiiilinL; to the level of that of the Mii'aniichi basin in the same 
;i:'«l. 'I'lii^ altitude of the c^iast border was maintained until after 
':.'':ijlvfiit dt' the ice age. 

IWeteiice lias already been made to the initial stage of the local nutf of 

-jli'iivul wliicli resulted in the formation of the Cobequids. The up- 1',''!"'"^'-''/'^ 

' 1 (_dlic(niius. 

30 M 



heaval seems to hiive coinmeiiced after the deposition of tii(> nn 
measures, as the I'piu'r (_!arl)onif(;rous n)cl<s in sonic plaws vimuiu 
dt''l)i'is derived from tlie crystalline rocks of the Col)0(iui(i Mrj, 
!i general post-t'arhoniferous I'ise of tlie whole region also tddj; i,!;,,,,. 
Tliat th(! Coheciuid uplift has ))een gt>ing on since the glucitil poiiiul is 
uncpiestionahle, as post-glacial terraces and deltas, evidently of iiiiirin,. 
origin, found near Halfway lliver, in the northern ]>;irt n\ ii,,. ,,(,^ 
referred to, have a height above mean tide level of aliout 171 feet (spp 
table) and nciar Jiakelands, on both sides of the pass, ot' 2J,'{ tVct ■ 
while well-marked shoi'e-Iines north of the mouth of .Maccaa lii\,.i 
and along Northumberland Strait, occur at elevations of onlv l:)(j to 
110 feet, showing a differential uplift of the Cob(>(|Miil l!.ni:;i; nf at 
least, eighty-three feet oi" more within j)ost-glacial limes. 

rii-t-trlacM;\l During the post-glacial sulxsidence of the region, tlie sea pxtciujiil 

tln'('ul»(|iii(l through the Cobequid Pass from the llasin of ^Nlinas along tin. v;il|ia< 
I'ii-s hy the ,,j; lljilfwfiy liiver, Hiver Hebert iind Maccan River to the \\,w\ ,,; 

Cunil)erl!Uid Itasin. At jiresent the highest point, of what was then 

the bottom of a strait !)y tlie IHver ilel)ert valley ami llii(iiii,'li ihf. 

Cobe(]uid Pass, lies in the central part of the Cobe(|uiils, and as stiiini 

abo\e, is, eighly-iixc feet tibove mean tide level. 

It may be remarked that the foregoing statement in ivfeivnn' to tin- 
initial uplift of the Cobe(iuid ^lountaiiis is supjjosed to applv niilv tn 
the western part ; the eastern pai't may be, and doul)tless is, ejilrf. 

Thes(? differential changes of level in the Cobetjuid .Moiiiiiaiiis ,in! 
in the region lying to tlie north, and indeed to the south of tluni a- 
well, during the Tertiary and I'ost-Tertiary jieiiods (see table; aiv. 
therefoi'e, in harmony with those supjiosed to has'e taken phue in the 
Isthmus of Chignecto duriiii,' the same ecological iv'v. 

liitueill tllC 
cliaiijres (if 
level ill tile 

ami ill the 
1-thiims (if 

Chaufres (if 

level ill tile 
raii^re I if 
-'illtlleril Xeu- 


The crystalline range of southern Xew Jirunswicic, e.xleiiiliiii.' iiimi.' 
the I'.ay of Fundy coast from Shejiody Pay to the liitcriiiitiiitial 
boundary, exhibits some features which lead me to infei' that, ht'siik'- 
th(> general oscilliitions of Post-Tertiary date, a slow, seetilar, ii|iwaiil 
movement rehitive to the Carbonifei'ous area to the north hasiilsuliirii 
ill ])rc)gress. The zigzag courses of the St. .John River in the lnwcr Miit 
of its course, the occurrence of waterfalls at the mouths of this ami ii 
larg(! number of other rivers traversing this crystiillin(> lult aiiilniiMy- 
ing into the P;iy of Fundy, and several facts res])e('tiiig the ^'hu'latinn 
of the region, lead to this infen^nce ; these being eonditioiis which 
would not be likel}' to prevail there been no displaceiueiit of the 
river, beds or differential movements. 

--UBE"!. I 


;}1 M 


Glacial Period. 

iiid Mcmnt.'iins iUii'l 

taken iilnce in m 

j'l;, fXtrliMlllJ.' iU'ill- 

iiitVr ihiit, liiviilo- 

11(111 h Im-iuisiii 

A nniiil"'!' of f.'iL'ts have been ohtaiiR'cl in the rcgidii under discussitm ('li;ui!,'i s nf 
wliiili slidu- tlio iittitiule of tlie coast border with respect to sea-level, ^r\■^^.\;^l (Hjiod. 
ii]iinMxiiii.iii'iy at least, during two stages of the glacial period. From 
tiieilitii at hand it ajipciars that the gr<!at(!r ehn-ation of th(! later 
IVrtiiirv pi'iidd continued into the Pleistocene, and, peihajis, was one 
riiisi' (it' till' ice accunudation. Xo evidence of a subsidence in the 
v,\r\\ stiiiic (if tile ice age has been found in this region. The residuary 
iiiiiii' siuli as rotted I'cjck, consisting of sand, gravel, boulders, etc., 
tniiiiil ill iii.iiiy places, evinces no action of water ; and the hardenecl 
iriit lifd mil with at IJiver Iidiabitants in Cap(! J>reton by Sir J. "NV. 
hawMiu' tcstilies to the fact that the land there must have been abosc 
ii,c >.;i ju^t previous to the deposition of the boulder-clay which oNcr- 

i'-'- it- 
Ill the earlier part of the glacial period, the ice in several places f',,:ist iKudei- 

ixtnuliil heviiiid the present coast border, and its movements were aii- j '!",'■''''.>' . 

■ ' _ ' ' lllj,'lier III tile 

iiiiviitiy iillected by the peculiar local topographic features of tin; bays emly iiaitnf 

' ■ . ,, . i -a • I fi- • I the },'lHci:il 

iii.l otniu'ies. Strne tire nutt witli in many localities running down i,,., imi. 
:»iii';itli liie sea, and as the facts prove that the ice (except jierhaps, 
iii~'iu!lii'ni New jirunswick, near the International boundary), cannot 
liivc liciii thick (ir heavy, it follows that the land must have been as 
iiiijli, it iKil higher than at ju'esent, in order that the valhn's and 
.-tuiirit's eiiuld inlluence th(! ice movements in the manner suiijiosed. 
It tlie mast border were lower, the ice moving outwards and dis- 
diari;iii^ iiitd these l)ays <'ind depressions would have been bi'okeii up 
iui.l liMiiied (itl as icebergs, before it scored the rocks on the low levtds 
towliiili il reached, and could not possibly have been guided in its 
iiiMViiiit'iitsliy the conformation of these valleys as it appears to have been. 

Ciiiuiiiciking at (Jaspe Pasin, where there is evidence of a local ]'M,l,.iifeas t.i 
diKierdiscliareing from the vallevs of the York and J)artmouth rivers tlie iiltitude.'f 

' •' tlie liliul, Ilia- 

iutii it, il('--erilied on page St) M, although no facts were obser\ed indi- tive td sea- 
(Naet height of the land here at this stage, yet from the ^j.,, ' ' 


ultlll:' tile 

l«'^ilillllnt the striieon both sides of Ciasfie ]^asin, iinil of the ice margin, 
it is iutened that the glacier wiis small, and that the land was 
a-' iii^'li us al jiresent and ]irobibly higlier. 

Tin; Westell! end of tlie Pale des Chaleurs depression was ficcujiied At I'mIc des 
I'jii ;;l;uier in the early Pleistocene, which seems to have extended ^ '''''"'"'• 
IS I'lir wistward as Pelledune Point and J>onaventure Piver. This 

*Ac;uii;iii (Iccilii^ry, 'Jiul ed. \). (IS. 



Til Xiprtliiiiu- 




glacier followed tlie treml find siiuiositii's of tlie li(^.stii,'i)iirlii> 

iiiul tlie valley of tjio bay, and this faet leads iiie to inter ilui il,, |.,|,,| 

was I'atlier liii,dier than at jii'esent when the Ljlaeier reaeiied its iiiaxinniin 


ickness and e\tent, u itlidiawiny; to thesluiies to the uorlli 

'>\i'^l am 

sonth (•(iinri<leiitiv with the sid)sidenee wiiieh fipjiourd 


le evidence 

'Spi'clirii;' the attitude of the ar^a cox,.!,.! Kv l| 





Norihuinlierlaiid ]Li;laeier, soct.dled (jiaije :.".l m ) in tiie hi 
shows that it was at li'a>t one htindriil and nine feel ahii\ 
le\('l. The easiern jiai't of tliis iire.i, and ini|ce<l tin' \\|,,i|i. nf t||, 

Cari)otiif(;t'oiis basin, \\as ]>iulial)iy hii^iier; at all exeiiis, it ^ iis ciTtain 

that I'rince Iviward Island was, in the early ,L;laeial iierioii. a ii.ut m 
the mainland. A lar!,^! portion of Northninlx'i land Strait is iinu t'lmn 
sixty to one hundred feet (icr)) only, so thai an u|ilift of njv liuadrnl 

feet aloiK' wonld lav li 

neurlv the w hole inter\eniii 


liiohilnieto ITead and Caiie W'o'f to I'icHon island. Siih-i chic mw 
liave l)e(>ii inaiiuiirated at the time the Xoi'thmnlii I'land uLniei' ivacln,! 
its maxiiinim thirkness and e.\ lent, or soon afterwards, hm ni tliistlnM. 
is no evidence. Certain facts jiointto the still j;reater elcsai Imm or tin 
south-eastern part of Xoithiimheriand Strait, or rather ni' ijie ,iiva 

Iviiiii' l)etweeii I'rinc( 




till' axis ot till 

lllllllS >>t 

Chii'iiocto than that indicated al)o\c as 

retcrred to on jiai^e '2~ m. 

On north side The north west coast of the IJav of l'"niidv seems aNn to have licrii 

lif till' l!:iv nf 

higher in some [ilaces than at present, in the early part of ilip ;;larial 


d. AtSt. .). 


iDiir and westwai'c 

1 to C 



the evidence shows that the Pleistocene land ice exteiK 

'{ ! 

ilr(l !ic\(i|ii| the 

existini;' coast-line m 

ilo lh(! de 

ion of the r>a\- of !• 


1 'an nil" 


sland in St. John harl lour, distant a mile from the mainiainl. 

is :;larl 

ated by land ice, and Canipobello and (Irand -Manan islands have iihd 
been similafly overridilen by it. .\s the ]iassage l)etwecii lii.' iii,iiiilaii(l 

leep and the island .diniit inur 


d (Jrand .Manan is |.") to ")0 fat ho 

hnndred f(!et hiyli. it follows that either the ico which iiiovid laii inuaid 
it has been (piite thick, of tlie coast border stood hijilicr r> lativcly in 
.seadevel than tla^ present. Tin? latter view is in aceordancr witn tho 
facts obtained alon,i,' the coast of other ]iarts of New Hniiisui< k. I'ait 
that the ice covei'ing of the earlier I'leistoceno period wisi ,,t St. .Iulm 
liarbour consisted of one conllueiit massive sheet, is a tliiiii\ not sus- 
tained by the evidence. Vov example, PassainaiiiUMldy \'>i\. wiiieh i> 
'20 to 150 fathoms deep, was filled by an ice-mass at this jiriJMd wliiili 
overllowed Deer and Campbello islands, from -00 to 250 feci liiitli, ainl 

also Letite Peninsula, in radiating lines. 


us does IK 

It jictuki'ii il 

*Ann. Kt'iimt (Icol. Surv. Can., vnl. IV. IX..S.), ]S.S,S-,Si(, [latCf Is N. 

il4ilUi'lli' r>liiJi|'\- 

'I'f llial \\u liiii.l 

ii'il it'^ iiiaxiimiiii 

ii'irlli. «!•>! ainl 


(•'i\r|.' I l,y till. 

• laii-r TiTii;irv. 

(Iiu\,' il, |,|-,MM|I 
IC W liolr lit' ih,. 
, it ^I'lMIIS ci'ltllili 

|)crin<l, a ]iait nt' 
irait i-> iiM\( t'idiii 

1 lit' iilli' llllMilrnl 

iiu' |ia<si^'i' fi I 

Snli>i I'liri' iiiav 

|(i U'lill'il'l' ll'llcllr,! 
, llllt III' t!li>tlnMv 

r r!i'\al iiiii (if tlir 

tlirr III' llir ah I 

■t' tlir i-.!lllllUs I I 

I lia-v '2~ M. 

illsi) ti) have lii'i'ii 

irt <it' llii' L'liii'i.'il 

MaiMii l>l;uiil, 

nilril !if\(iiii| till' 

iiiily. I'ai'iriili;!' 

iii'iainl, is ;^lari- 

is!aiiil~ liavr uK'i 

•II ill'' iiiaiiilaiiil 

land aliiiUt t'liur 

n\ I'll Mill Inwai'il 

cr I'l la lively In 

I'llaiifi- \Mt!i till' 

'ii'iiiiswi k. llllt 

\\,'-l nt St. .Illllll 

I Iii'iir\ llllt sits- 

V r. i\. Ahifli i-^ 

i-, jii'ii'iil wiiiili 

■)ii fri'i ]iii,'!i, aiul 

mil lutiikrii a 

c-uxiiii.] ELKVATIOV AT TUK CLdSi; n|' I'll K ICK .\(;i;. X) M 

,,,iiilii''iii ico-sliciM. iiiuviii;x '!'''> til" "ly "t l''uii(ly. NN'hilf. liuwrN cr, 
li,,. in' 111 IV liiivo hi'oii stilli(! iiiassivo to i-mss tiic |)ii-<-<a'_'i' 1)mIwim'ii 
t||,' III liiilaiiil iiMil (IimikI Ar.iiiaii with existing; nf liiuln'r Icm-U nt' 
r]i,. Iniil, ilit'i'e lire r(!fisnns t'of lu'licx'mL; tliit this tslainl itself was not 
,i> iii^li ill th(i latt'i' Tci'tiary ai\(I eai'ly I'lfistdrciii', as at pirsfiit 
ivl,itivi''v In the maii»liiii(l. I^iike th(( C\ih(fi|ui(l llai\!,'e ami otii r i iili^es 
nt iiiti'ii->i\e I'ouks, it is llllt iiiipi'ul) ilile that it has id'cii iiiilcrLiiiihL; a 
.jiiw ilill'i'i'i'iitial iijilit't het'itre and since tiie Lfiarial epDi'li. Tiie (li\'ersn 
raiii'r'is lit' sti'iie ainii'.,' the eoast of the liiy nf l''iiiiily ami mi the West 
Mi'S Iciiil (•(iimteiiaiiee tu the view that the ii'e caiiiini have heeii su 
hi'avv aii'l massive a-i tn imiveiiiit iiitu the I'.ay nf l'''iiii' I v aiel uM-niile 
(ii'aiul M man with the present le\-els, ami, therefnre, eiihei- the inain. 
';iul Ins lieeii hii^hoi" with respect t(i .seale\-el, or t he ice iinicli iiimic 
iiu^MM' til 111 other fa"ts would wai-rant us in lu'liev inu'. 

li li,iv lici'M shown on pane :.'.") \i that the land a' the iieiiii'i dt' the i',,,!,:,),],. 
St. .I.ihii liiver was JOU feet and upwards hi-iier in the 1 I'er Teitiarv !"''-,'" "'"'", 

' ^ ' I iii'l at iiKiiitli 

than at present. hurinn' the period of in i.\iiiiitiii ex t ens i. in of the ier, nt" si. .Iulm 

, , I , ,. ,.,,, ... . . ,,,, l;i\i'r at tlii.s 

It wit-; jii'iiliaiily not \ery tar ilillerciit tnnii tins. Ilierc is im e'.i- .,|,|,,,._ 

li-ii^'i' lii'ir or elsewhere in Ivisterii (,'anada of any cliaii'^es ui' level hav- 
ing; lu'i'iirird h 'tween the later 'i'ertiary .iiid the periucl nf luixiiiimii 
jr.' iici'Uiiiiilation ; and unless it lie that the sulisidence, which ciil- 
iiiiiiiti'il ill the Ledaclay period, had then coininenced, we kiciw nf no 
niiiiT I'liiiin'cs nf level which coiilil ha\'e taken jilac. it wa^ lait till 
thi' last sia;;c of the ice aij'c in this re;;iiiii that any facts licninc a.vail- 
il'ir sll'ivviliu' the attitudt! of the land with respect to -c;i lesii. 

Ki.ii.iiT III- riiK ]!i:t;iov attih'. DKivMrni!!'', or riii; Pi,i;tMocKyK Ick. 

Snnii .ifti'i' the glaciers of the eastern [)ro\iiices of ( '.mada reached Aitiiiiili' uf 


i'ii''ii- III ixiiiimn extension, it would seem that a suhsideiice nf tli last 

li'irjcr — III', iiioi'i! correctly speakini;' local sulisidcnc s nt' the cna-t 
Imrdi/r— set in. accninpanied liy an amelioration of climati', while the 
'.'lai'ii'i'-i h "^an to diminish. Thi.s cli,'in'_'(Ml attitu ie of the land smfaci? 
;i:iil I 111' thi nil in I,' and break im;' up of the ice into st ill mnre In al sheet-, 
iii-"il il, in m.'iny places, to mo\'e in diirerent directions fmm ihu-i- 
|i.if>iu'il ill the I'arlior stai^c of its existence, ('"ncoinit.-intly with the 
ii.iiviMiiPiiis of these local glaciers, masses nf iloatini,'. or seadmrne ic^., 
Wife caiiii'd in dill'erent (lireotions liv marine ciirreiits. In snme liavs 
liuil straits the tloatinf; ice formed packs, nr ice-jams wiiii h seem to 
liiive liciii capahl(> of striatini; the rouks on which they L;roiiiiiled in a 
iniiniitn' srui'cely distinguishahle from the markini^s prmlueed liy land 

li.' i-('.iiiiM, 
• laliM' tu 
i-ili'M-l. at 


II'- 'jlarial 


.34 M 


At Trois l'i> 

At C:viM> 

ice. Theso icn-jains appciir to liiivt) lioen similur to tliosc iIi'm riliiil liy 
ai'c'tio voyii;,'cfs us occurriiij^ in Sinitli's SmuikI iukI ulhcr .striiit> ci, i],,, 
west const of (frccnliiiHl. 

The licii,'lit of lilt' coast l)onicf with i'('s|i('ct to scii-lt'vcl ,u. tliisstiiye 
of llic I'lfislocciu! ciiii, ill sonic pluccs, lie lixcd with tolcialilc i\,utiicvs 
from the position of striio supposcMl to have liccn piodiK'i'il liy iliuin.' 
icn on liio rock surfuccs. lOxcn at this hUijui the land uuiild sci'in tn 
liavn been still siil)sidin;;, at least alon;; certain purl inns uf Hh' roust 
for marine terraces of Ijeda clay and Saxica\ a sand are found at '.'rcUi'i' 
«'lt!vations than tlie stri;e or niarkiiii^s prodnci-d \t\ lloal in;; ice, iinij m,. 
nndisturi)e(l hy icc-mos-einiMits thoii!,di siil»Me(|uently formed. Iinlcnl, 
it is t(il<'ral)ly certain that not till some time after the tlnid (li.,i|,|ii.,ii'. 
anco of tilt! ice from the coast districts, and pei'liajis alsu tVcim tli,. 
interior, did sulisidence cease and the post-jilacial rise of ihc ,n;i,t 
liorders set in. 

lii'ief deseriplions of tluf striation produced hy lloatiii'^' ice, in inn- 
neetion with the facts indicating tiic attitude of the land with iv-|iii.t 
to .sea IcNcl will now he ni\en. 

At Trois I'isioles station, Intorcolonid railway, line siiadlns |,,i|- 
id lei to the course of the St. [/iwrence N'alley here, and also crnss siii , 
the liitlcr i)roken and irrci;nlar, were oliserved on I'ock surfaics alinii! 
lUOfeel aliovc sea le\-el. These are at t rihuted to the action i,t' ild.itin;,', 
seadjorne ice, showiri;;' that the land was, at least, HlU fret \u\\vv at 
that stau'c <if the ,i,'l.uial jieriod than at i)resent. 

The ledges on which these stria' occui' have a thin sheet uf litiiild-T- 
clav rt^stinu; on th(Mn which was eo\i'rcd with l^eda clay ami S,i\iia\ii 
sand sul)s(Mpiently. A deop trench has since been cut in llie-i' ili'[»]-iis 
1)V a stream lliiwinu' over the ledLces. ( )ii both sides of the r.\r,i\aliiiti 
the marine deposits, which here form an e.\tensi\o terraec, lie umlis- 
turbed bv glacial action, ami show no bcailder-clay or otlirr glncial |p|i]- 
ducts intorstratit'ied or overlying them. The stria- ha\(' c\ iijinily Imvu 
formed first and the ice which la'odneed them has piobab'y rctiivil iMtniv 
the inarint^ deposits were laid down. The fossiliferous i,ril,i clay and 
.Saxicava sands of this part of the St. Lawrence N'alley seem, ilicirtoii', 
to be later than the ice period. 

Along the .south-west side of that narrow peninsula tcriiiiiiaiinu' in 
Cape Gaspt', ii'rcgiilar stria-, foi'ined apparently by some iuiii|iinu Imily, 
occur. The stria- or markings wen? observed at the follow ing jilaci-s; 
The west end of the roail leading to (Jrillin Cove, X. t)7 11.; ai Little 
(Jaspt-, one mile north of (Jrand (xrcve, 7") feet high, X. l-"5 M., N. -'i 
]']. and N. 28 E., and at Urand Girve, 7.") to 100 feet high, N. •-'•'* H. 
These striic occur on ledges sloping westward towards Gaspi' l!ay. Tii 




:i:) M 

1 (IcsiTilii'il )iy 
St^llit^ nil lli(« 

I at ilii-4 staije 

lllllc cMU'tni'SS 

I'd liy lliiiiiiiii; 

Wlllllll M'CllI 111 
«| lit I 111' CIlUsl, 
mini Ml UI'lMll'f 

lILt ii'i', aii(i iil'i' 
iin'il, liii|iMil, 
inal ili .,i|.i"';iv- 
•^ aNu tV'iiii till' 

II lit' I 111' i'iiii>t 

iii'j; ii'i', in lull- 

III W illl iv-|pirt 

■ srlMlrlirv par 
illsii ri'iiss <\v\ , 
c surt'iu'i.'s iiliiiiit 
;liiiii lit" lliiatiii',', 

) t'l'l'l liiwrl' ill 

rt of ImiuIiIt- 
anil SaxicaMi 

llli'^i' ilr]in-lt'; 
till' I'NravatiMll 
■arr, lir llllili>- 
\rv ^larial I'I'il- 
I'vidrlilly l>''i'U 
) V vi'tiii'il lii't'iiiv 
Lfila rlay ami 
ri'in, lllfrrfiilV, 

Ici'iiiiiiaiiiiu' ill 
iillowiiiL; jilai/os; 
!•:.; at Little 

i:; I-;., N.'^:'> 
hi-h, N.-^:' 1"- 
Gfisp.' 15ay. Ill 

iiliici"* iIk'V iiri' <>iu'-f<»iirtli of iiii inch deep or more, mid liiivc ii u"iii'_''''l 
,,iit ii|i|H'ai'iiiic(', l»u( di> nut t'xcri'd t'i'niii two l<» tlirci* t'l'cl in l('ii>,'lli, 
till' iiiaioi'ity licini; tVnin tlirt'tt to iiiiii) inrl»>N, 'llwy an* Ixitli lliii> mid 
ciiitiM' Illl! iiiiM- cNidciitiy Im'(!ii t'ormi'd l»y di-it'l-icf jamiiu'd inln < !iis|)(' 
|l;i>iii uiii'ii iIm" I'liast sloiid t'i'iim 7"> to 1 L'') or !.")() t'iM't lower tliiui al 

(Ill ilii' >inilli-\vcst, sidi' ot' tilt' l>ai('dcs Cliali'urs, idmii^ tiic iiiii'rrol- 
,iii;il I ail way, from ■luci[ui't, llisi'i- to IClmtrt't' iSivt-r, Iwonr innic 
|,iiiici|ial ^ii'ls of stria' occur. Tli(^ ciirlit'st iir*; licavy, slinwiiiLC 
;iii I'M-tward inovfiiiciit. Crossing tlicso iicmly at rij,'!il aimit's mid 
il.d al riulit aii,s,'l('.s to tlic const line, lire nunmrrais line striie <'\iil('iitly 
t.iiiiiiil li\- ice which was pushed a<;uinst the land. On exaniinini; 
ihisi' vtiia' in detail, it is found that the stoss side is insarialily towards 
ilif liav. Where they cross led^'es with deeply cut east-aml-west 
jipiivo, llic rid,i;(> of rock hetween e.ieh yioovt? is found to he stossed 
n:i ilii' ^iiiPii'wai'd side. The ;,'i<'alcr nuiiihi'r of the cmirsrs vary fiom 
S, '.'II v.. In S. JO W.; Iiut as we approach lOlintree lliver, where the 
cuM linr iiirvcs round to tlu! south, the courses of these line striic are 
iMiiiiil trfiidiiiL; from S. IWl W. to S. 40 \V. On explorini; tiie district 
a- I.I till' (Ali'iit of rock-surfacc! covered liy these line stria', it liecomcs 
iMil'iji ilial ihcy are conllned to a ci'i'tain /one which is from liO to 
l|ii(ir |."i(i fii't, in hei;,'ht above sea-level. I'.elow the (lOfoot contour 
111'', iiniii' iif these tliu! striie wc'i'e found, although exposures sliowin;^ 
111' wi's! 1(1 cast striation are aWundant ; nor could any he discovered 
liuvr ilir l.'iO-fout contour-line. I {ock surfaces examined in some of 
■Jic link sell lemcnts, where striated ledges from l-")0 feet up to ."lUO 
!''t liiuli occur, wei'c found to be without any of the tinestrije referred 
1. tii'oii iliciii. liut it was only at wide intervals that cNpiisiiies of 
•tii;i' well' Muied ill thosc liijjlier ,t;roun(ls. 

Thi'ciiiii.'liisiiin to !«' deduced from tliest* facts therefore, is that the 
liii" stria' wcie iii.ide by heavy ice-jams impiiittin;,' .'inaiiist tli<! coast 
'inli'i' while it stood from 7.") to l.jO feet or more lower th;in at the 
pi'i'^i'iit ilay. 

Till' luaiiiie terraces alonj,' the south side of the liaie des Chaleurs, 
imlicalc liial they hav(; been formed subsequent to the stai^e of the 
.'ln'ial |ii'iiiiil when these line stria> were produced, as the deposits in 
o'ltiiin places rest on the ,ij;laciated surface undisturbed. These 
iiiaiiiii' lii'iis ( Leda clay and Saxicava sand) occur at all (elevations fi'om 
-I'lili'Vi'l up to i200 feet, in the l>aie des Chaleurs basin. It seems 
I'mliahlr, ilierefore, that at the period of the formation of these tine 
■trill' till' mast border had not (juite reached the lowest sta,<fe of the 
post ulacial subsidence. 


3(3 M 

m:\v huun'swick, \ova .s<'otia am> v. k. island 

111 •iCllltllC'MI 

part iifCiilf (pf 
St. Lawrcnci'. 

At St. 



SrOtinIl of 

f<is<il>, at 

A I'onsidorablo iuiiiil)ei' of fiicts from eastt'i'ii Xcw Hiunswidc, ii<ii;li 
western Xosa Scotia and I'rinec I'idwaid Island liavc liccn ipUiaii,,.,! 
the details of wliicli arc given (Jii pages T'.'-S.'J m, all ti'iidini;' 

to >i 

iiiw that 

tloatin,!,' lee, or rather lieas-y ic-janis i:roiin(l over |)orliiii 
Istlnnus of Ciiigntu'to and tlie coast districts of Prince !• 

■I tl 



during the clipsing episode of the ice age. Tn order that tld.iiinr [,.,. 
might ipcrform this \v(prk, it is necessary to siipj.ose thai the i-na^t di 
the mainland was from 1 ■_'•") to l.~)() feet, and Prince Ivlward Nlan'l ;:i 
to 80 feet lower than at present. This sid)sidence prnhahiv un- 
e(|iial in dill'erent )iarts of the CarI)onif(MOUs ai'ca during thr glacial a^ 
well as the posl-glaci.-il p( iod. I litl'erential oscillalii.ns in 1 lir Ni Imm, 

)f Ch 

iignecto lia\{' been rcterred to on Jia 


:i M, and suiiilar nupvi 

nients ai'e eNidcnced 



le s 

tri;c o 

f tl 

le closing 

stage of 1 

II' giarial 

period in the centi'al pai't of the N'ew ih' 




IS a lea, 

where there has hcen an apparent swerving Inmi liie castcilv cipium' 
of tli(> earlier stage to a northerly course in the closing siagr. cuimi 
d(Mitly with tile ]irogress of the suhsideiice, as recorded on pauc lUL' vi. 

.\'e heeii fipuinl ,,{ iji,. 

At St. John harlioui', iinei|uivocal jiroofs h. 
lower at( it tide of tlu^ coast hurder during this staj. 
( )ii the west side, a hank of bDulder-clav from forty to sixty fed in hfi-iit 

pf tl 

|c icc 


Is ah 

the lieach from Xeurolnwn Point to i)i 

distance c.f a mile and a half 

or m >re 

This houldcr i-|; 


Ian. I 

i<:e wiiich came from the north, ilic malrii 

belonging to mcks lying in that 
or rather contains intercalated 
fossilit'erous in st)ine places. .\ 
of a mile west of the Xcgr 
series in descending order 





ot st rati lied c a\'. 

y ^iratili'd 
\\liirh an 

•t ion of the bank, about a uiiaitrr 

itown I'oint breakwat 

cr, gl\'es I lie tiillipw 111; 

1. Commencing at the summit -typical l)oiilder-cla\', iiiistiatiliid 


jotildors two or three feet m diameter, mo>t nt t 


"laeiated. Thickiujss eleven feet. 

2. An irregular, wavv, lenticulai' seam of stratilied linulder i!a\, iim 


in iiorizontal position, varying in 
foot or more. 

."5. P.oulder-clay, the same as X( 
but apparently beddeil, or rinlely stral ilied, in 

ness from a tew iiii'lie-< I'p a 

111(1 cnntaining similar liniililcr- 


III llllS 

(Inision ( 

)f the' series thefollov 

it marine shells were iniin 

Ynldid ( Li'ild ) iiniii'it, abundant an 

(I well 


ipU'-ii wH 

the epidermis on. 


(iuiix ririiiitiis (fragments), S'lrn'rim riiijn 


a m-i) 

inriii (a single vahc), J/" 

t'tnitfl I'ltl I'll I't'ti 


I III t'lt'll!i 

(much broken), Jinrritmin sp. .' probably inii/ii/iiiii (a fragiii''iii i. ''''' 
All the spi'cies except Vo/'liit are quite rare. The fossils appear te 1" 




jiiili^oriiiiiiiiilt^ly Hcuttorcrl tliroujili tlio iniiss. Thickness of (liis part 
nt till' lH>ul<lor-cl;iy six to ten t'eot. 

1. Sir.iiiliiMl, (lark nul, touijli clay, distinctiy lainiiiuti'il, witii a tc«- 
ii,iHlili'r-< lit' till' s:iiiio kinds ot" rocks as tiiosc met witli in tlic iinst lati- 
licil |i(irtioiis. Tlic wliolc bed ii'i'Ciiulai' and \va\y. not in a lioi'i/.oiitai 
;iilitiiilc, and soininvjiat Icnliculai', or ratlicr not inaintainiiiy tlic saint' 
tiiiikiic^^ tor any distance. I^iaycrs of this division of tlic scries arc 
..iMictinics seen to run U|i o]tli(|ncly into and terininatc in tiie un>t rati lied 
liuiililcr clay iinniediateiy al)o\(', and in otiier ]ilacos apiiarontly to 
^iiuhiaic into it. Scatti'red tin'onj^dioiit are shells of Ydhlid ( Li'iln ) 
iu:-i',,ui, ucll jireserved, often, in the liottoni, with the \al\('s closed, 
:iiii| iliee|iideniiis on ; Xnciiln ti'miis (broken), /lii/iiii IIS rn'ji'i/iix (frai;'- 
],',ru<-~}. S'l.rirarif niyiisii. Munniiii rii/riirnt, Jiiiccinn ni and Mi/ii (frai;'- 
iii'Mitsi, and one or two undet'-riniiunl sj)ocies. Thickness, four feet. 

."i. Till' lieii,'lit of the whole hank here is about forty-tivf feel abuse 
iiii' lieacli. so that there is still nineteen or twenty fi'ct of it beiow 
(livi^inii No. I. Iiut this [lortion is concealed from \iew by land-slides. 
Fi-iiii llie aiipearance of the bank, however, it would seem that a thick 
i..'/| lit uii-l ratified boulder-clay underlies the stratified seam No. I, 
wiifilr •■ipiitaininn' other stratified layers and fossils it is al present 
iiiiiiiis.-i ,e In sav. 

At tlie I'eiii Ledi;os, tlu,' l)oulder-clay bank is upwards of sixty I'eet 
ill iimkrie-~s, and also contains stratified seams of clay, though nuie 
liinv vei prosed fossiliferous.* 

Tiir iiiiereiices (leduciblo from the foregoinij; fact,s in reference ti the 

[i-Miit'eiuu^ boulilei'-clay at Xegrotown I'oint are, that in tin? later 

.■,-(■- lit liie glacial period the land was snbsidin.:,', and that the stib- 

-iii lire hail reached one hundred feet or more below the present le\el. 

Fill' wesiein partof tin; iioulder-clay bank is os'erlain by fossilifcrnus;i clay and Saxicava sand foiinini;' a consecutive series. .\s the 

iiiti'i' depi.sits are nowhere in this region overlain or iiitersti'at ilied 

«iiii liiinlder-rjay, it is evident that the ice had retired, a; least fr<im 

'ir.i.i'-lal ,111(1 subineru'ed districts, at the time of the <lepo>ilii>n of 

ill' Led.i clay and Saxicava sands. These deposits occur as terraces 

upl'ia lieiijlit of from two hundred and twenty to two hundred and 

"lirty fe i al)o\e mean tide level, and it would ap|iear. therefore, that 

■ •laiiil alnie.;- the Hay of l"\tiidy coast continued to subside after the 

; '-silifi iDUs portions (jf the boulder-clay (U^scriiieil above were laid down. 

rill' (lata relating to the attitude of the coast bortlei' in the later or (j, .,„.,.., ] 

''^ill^ siaue of tlie ylacial iieriod, therefore, indicate that subsidence **'•''' ",'.'"' , 

. I ' l-e;_'aV(llll|.' till 

Ann. K.|.. C.ul. Siirv. r,iii.,Vel, IV., (N.S.) Isss-Sii, I'artN.; Bull, (ienl. Soc nf 

Aii.'iiin. Wl. |\.. |,|i. :tiii-;f7o. 

38 M 

altinuU'of tlu" had so far advunced that the land stood from one hunched \i> uu,. 
(if f.'l,itiiil huncu'eu and htty teet lower than at present on the niainhiiKl nf .\\.h 

''^'"" r>runswick, witli perhaps a somewhat less amount in Prince llilwaid 

Island, tlie nioveniunt being apparently dill'ercntial. This siilisidencv 
seems to have eontiiuied after the elose of the glacial jjcriod, niid did 
not reach the point of greatest depressiijn till the depositimi dt' tin- 
Leda clay. Mow long it remained at the lowest level it is iniiiossilile 
to say, hut if deposition of sediments and sul)sidence are cdiicuni'm 
piienoinena, as is usually held, the niarint; border must ha\e ((iiiiiiiui-d 
at the stage of maxinnim depression for some time. 

lie this as it may, the subsidence was followeil by an ujiwaid 
movement of the land. This movement pn)gresscd, as is evidrmi'd liv 
tiie nature of the dejiosits around the coast boi'deis and the cliaiaciiM' 
of the fossils entombed tiierein, until the land reached an I'lcxatjuu 
with respect to seadtsvel somewhat higher than it is at j)reseiit. Tlii< 
may lie regarded as closing the Pleistocene, or lirst, division i,t the 

P[.i;isTo('i;.\i; <ni PosT-Cii..\(iAi. L'imikaval or tiik Coast liiiijiujis. 

Altitude of ''"' "ttitude (d' the land at this stage with reference to tln' present 

the coast seadesfd inav be ai)pi-oximate'v (ibt.iined bv the addition of tln^ li^rmvs 

iMinlt-f at colli- . ' . , 

iiieiici-iiieiit of in the secdild and third cnhnnns of the table on pages '2---'i M. Tlm-i- 

in the second column I'c presenting the existing height of the I'lcisinccue 

ri>e of tlle 

!"'"'• slioredin(>s or the amount of the post-glacial uphea\-,il le^s ihc sidi- 

sidence of the recent jieriod. are accurate within a small limii cii 

error : but tho>e in the third are meagi'c and indidlnite. In iiiea^uiiHi; 

the Indglits of shore-lines we us(h1 a Y hnad and rod, twn or iliirc 

aneroidsand a hand level. The barometric work repr(;sents tlie mean of 

a number of obsei'xatifuis tal<en at each locality, and the railway lc\el-i 

are from the proliles of the iiiterc(donial, l*rinc(! JMlward Islaiej, Slimv 

Line and Spriiiuhill and ]*arrsbom' railways, the dillerenee lieiueen 

datum and mean tide le\(d luMng worked out, as carefidly a- jios>il)lp. 

The methods adopted in this in\t'stiga' ion were: — liist, in iiaeeinit 

a v.a\e-cut ti'ri ace, or onf! formed of sedimentary maleiial, foi' ^ome 

distance along a coast or estuary until we were certain it n'ally ivpiv- 

sentcd a shoreline. Ila\ing ascertained this, measureineius weie 

then carried out in the manner most practicable. 

A compai'ison of the facts rtdatin^ to the uiiheaMil of the rei;i(iii 
I In- iipliraval , , . , , , ' .,/,,.-. i 

piol,.,lil\ ijif- einliraced ni the south-western enibayment of the (.ultot M. l.auiviRO 

''■"'""'''• (hu'ing the I'leistocene ]i"rio(l, U-ads to the conclusioji thai ii ui-iin- 

eipial or dillei'ential throughout. At first it would seem as it' iliere 

nuist have been two systems of upheaval independent of each other, — 



39 M 

('AST r>nl!li|'.l;s. 

I II iniii'-ui-iii;' 

|(l(l, tWII 111' llllVf 
MitS till' liirallMt 

l',M-,.lici' l.riwoi'l 

llsun-'llll■lH■^ wrie 

1,1 ,, I' I lie I'CU'li'U 

,,iK' !i uciici'iil moveineiit of tlie entire region, tliough sonunvhat un- 
,nu;il ill (lill't'i'cnt localities ; and a second which was local and con. 
linnl to hill and mountain ranges, to which the term orogenic might 
iiK.jirriv !'(■ applied. The latter is exemplitied in the uplift of the 
i'i)iii'i|ii!d ltam;e and the crystalline belt of southerti New llrunswick 
linnli'i'iiiL;' tlu^ Hay of i'\indy, descril)ed on a previous page. In both 
lit tlif-r i','iiil:'(>s there appears to have been a slow secular uplieaval liad its beginning far back in geological time independent of the 
(.«iilliitii)iis (if the PhMstoc'Mie period. Was this a separate and dis_ 
linct iiiuM'iiient from the latter, or were they both a ])art of the gen. 
oral iiu>t il oscillations which chai'acterize the eastern border of the 

riilltillCIlt .' 

All iN.iiiiiiiation of the height of the shore-lines in the second column |-|,ijf '.jrcatii- 
III till' lalile, in connection with the geohigical mat) of the older rocks 'M ili<''.ri'}rioiis 

. . . . Ill CI-VStMllMK! 

~h(i\vs that these are highest in the regions of old crystalliiK! or nuks in 

iiltiTnl iiiul (listiiibed strata and lowest in the Carlxmifercais basin .„'„,,'!'''.','" 

wiiCi'i' till' rucks lie neai'ly horizontally and where little or no disttirl)anee 

ii;iMici'iii led. I'rince I'Mward Island and the Magdalen Islands lie 

muir-t the centre of this t'iirlMiniferous l)asin and, accordingly, we lind 

till' I'lri-iiM-eiie Uplift to be less tlierci than on the mainland. It is 

pussilili' there may b(! a centre of least oscillatit)n or zero point to the 

i:iirth lit I'l'iiu'e Ivhvard Island, fi'<pin which the oscillations increased 

!n\vaiil> the |ire-t'arbonifei'oiis rocks on either side. Low undulations,> and synclinals traverst- the Carbonifertius strata, and the 

iliis licuoiiie liiglier as we a{)proaeh their limits, indicating greater dis- 

luihaiu't's iir osrillations of the older rocks beneath. 

Fi'iiiii the table it will also be observed that the post-glacial slifire wi„.,.,, 
;ii]('s air highest at (;asp(', Dalliousie, Imlian or Lutz Mountain, Hills- h'^'hcst 
i •m. Si. •iiiliii, etc., and on the ^lagdalen Islands they were also 
iiiUiiil til he higher than on Prince Ildward Island. Inall these places 
nlmal Hi' ni'iigenic U|dift would seem to have taken place as well as 
•11" ;'iii('i'.'i| I'h'istoceiie uplift, thus raising them abo\e the nuriiia! gra- 
iiii'iil siiiiil Illy to the shorelines in the Cobe([uid I'ass ret'erreil to 
111! pa;'!' ."it I M. Investigation show tlies{> ridges and hills toha\e a 
oiiitial mass (if iutrusivt' rocks (dolerite or diabase, felsitc, etc.), to the 
iirt'smiii'iit w hicli inall probability thediiVei-ential movement may bedue. 

lliis t'ari may be taken as indicating that shore-lines on the slopes 
ot iMilati'il 1 rystalliiie riilges or hills are nnsafe guides as to the geiu I'al 
I'l-t-ulacial uplift of the region. 

It will he (il)served, further, that the general Pleistocene oscillations T,,i,.;ii ni- 

ii'it mily iiiMiUcd the larger portion, if not the whole, of the Carl 
■lil'tiius ana, but also the I'ising ci'ystalline ridges and mountains 

>riiH'r:il "SCI 


T— -^ 

40 M 

M:\V liliUXSWKK, VOVA SrOTI.V AN'I) V. K. Isr.ANIi. 

loffilly. For fxaiiiplc, tlic iiiariiic tsliore-lincs found tliroiiuhimt t]„. 

rcgiuii ]>r()ve tliat a gencnil ujiliciiviil, tliou</li unequal, tunk |ihiic in 

tlie I'lcistipfcnc, sinin'tiuic'iusly, or nearly ho : hut the local or ni,].^f,.||j,. 

uplift of the C.'ohe(|uitIs and other local ridges proceeded coiicini. nihi 

and ap))arently continued after tlie geneiul u])hea\al ceased. lUn jf 

ihe supposed local and genei'al upheavals ^verc due to sejiaiMlr ami dj,. 

tiiict cauM's, should \\i> not exjiect to tind the latter niorr uiiiiniiM 

throughout this region, especially in that jiortion occupied liv ( ' n hui if- 

ercpus rocks, instead of diminishing towards a central or pi\(ii,il ]H,ii,| 

north of I'llnce Kd\sai'd Island, as it appears to ha\e done .' Tlic I'ui 

that this upli<'a\al was greater in the vicinity of the crystalliiir hills 

and ridg(>s and gradually lesseiu!d as we recede from these, cciiiiinlv 

indicates that the orogenic nio\cnient alfected the Carboiiiferou.slpiiMii 

Tn iliiilily (inly also, l-'or these reasons it is assumed that the two reallvhelonucd tu liir 

oiif sv.-tmi iif . .,, . , ,,. . , 

i):cilli'itiiiiis. same system ot osculations, ami are eilects ot the same cause or c:uims 

the a]iparent diilerenc-e heing due primarily to the fact that tln' forcis 

producing the upheavals did not at all times exert the same aniotnitut 

pressure: that is to say, there would he periods of almos' |iai'ii.\vsiiial 

intensity when they would all'ect the crust over large aniis aiid u 

general upheaval would take place sui'h as that of Pleistocene liiius- 

These Would he followed hy periods of comparative repose, iluriic 

which slow sidisidence would go on, this heing the general tendeucvut 

the crust from its own weight. AN Idle this secular suhsidenre wm- 

jiroi'eeding, whatescr lateral strain there was imposed on tiie erusi 

Would tind relief in linear uplhrusts such as tiiose of the C'ehci|iii(l 

l!ange, the crystalline helt of soutliern New J>r-uns\\iek and etlier 

minor ridg( s. these local orogeidc uplifts heing merely eonelative 

movements of the gradually suhsiding wider areas of the Atlauiio 

coast border as it sought a posititm of statii- e(|uilil)i iuni. This iilatimi 

is Well exemplilied in that existing between the secular suhsideinv ni 

the recent period, as shown by the drowned jieat bogs, etc.. alnUL'eui' 

coasts and tlie slow, progressive uplift of th(^ crystalline ranges ImnliM- 

ing the J>ay of Fundy and other parts of the Atlantic coast rctVnnl 


(Iranting this theoi'v to be correct, it serves to explain ilie -iipiinscd 

local and general oscillations oi level which occurred in this rii:iiiii in 

tli(^ l^jst-'i'ertiary period, and probably, with some inodilication, in piv- 

ceding geological ages. The apparent (h'creasing oscillation et the 

(.'arl.oniferous are.a from tin; circumferenc(> towards the ceni re. niaki'-: 

it a]ipear as if the tangential force had partially spent itsi If in diat 

direction upon these untlisturbed, unaltered rocks: though \\li,v tlii-< 

area sliouUl have occupied a more .stable attitude than the hells ef 

C-i;v!»! \ 

HUltSIDKNCK IN 'Mil'. liKCKNT I'KinOl). 

11 M 

ii'ler rocks siu'rnuiuliiif^ it is not evident. Tin- hrcjultli and lioi'izontal 
.ii-itioii lit' the strata may liavo bei-n (iik; c'iiusu. In this last r('s]>o(-t 
•',.v dilTii' tiiini tlio older strata hordcrin,!:; tiunii, wliioh arc often iip- 
•■;i!ic(l :ii iii-li ani^ios. The Camhrian slates of St. .lolin, N.l>., wliiili 
,.,. iit'iulv vertical, exhibit slips and displaeenients that liave i);,|,„-,.|ti(,iis 
oaiiicil siiiee their surfaces were striated by IMeisloctMie ice, the; up- '',' '':iiiil"i;iii 
itV \n'\\vj. iiiKstly, so far as ol)servations liave extended, on the sea- .lulni. 
Miiil -i'l''. Xiine of tiiese disphicenients were seen ti) exceed fnini 
;,,,! 1(1 live inelies, nevertiiciless, sli]is of excn this small extent, if 
nniinnms. as liiey appear to be in these slates, when addeil to^ethei' 
rivi'.i total c if many feet. This is doubtless one way in wiiiuh local 
ciiiCiiviiK take place. 


•clv Cnl'lTlaUVe 

■-UOSluellci' II 

III the -ll|'l"is('ll 

Till' Hi'iMMit Period was inauj^urated with a land surface alonif the Sii)),i(l,.iici' in 
Atlantic coast border .somewhat higher, in many ]ilaces, than at the |„.|i,,.|' 
'itsi'iit ilav. A (lillerential subsi(lenc(^ of a small amount has taki'ii 
lav -inn', -.unX may still be in progress, but with a diminisliing 
•.■ii'i-ucv. The facts on which this inference is liased are the sunkt-n 
feat line's and forest be<ls, oriu;inally formed in sliallow basins around 
the iMii-its, tlie margins of wliicli are now being ei'oiled by the sea. 

111!' I'xtt'iiL of tliis subsidence as given in the third column of the .\t IumiI of 

... , 1 , -1 i • i 1 • .^ i 1 1 1 i- I'avof I'uiiilv. 

laiiii' i.< more or less jirohlemat leal, exce])t m the region at the head ot 

'},{<• H:iv of 1'iindy. Here we hav<> good evidence tiiat there was, at 

tliH'.vcst cirl of the marine ship rallwjiy, a subsidence of 1U'J^(» feet ;"■- 

AiliU' Si:iiion, liitei'colonial railway, 79 feet, and at Edgetts Land- 

.,:.iiitlii' iiioiith of the Petitcodiac River, lo-.'JL' feet, below mean tide 

'x\A. Tiie liLiiires for Aulac station an^ fi-om borings for a well sank 

'. ii'iinili'i' till' direction of P. 8. Archibald, Chief Mntiiiu'er of t he Inter- 

C'v'iiial railway. (seediagram,p.l21)^i). This iioring discloses, in dcscend- 

i:;.'"nli'r, si'feet of marsh mud, I'U feetof peat, etc. 'I'hegreal sid)siileneo 

s:i!ii<|ilarc isdiieto a fault along the noith-west side of Westmoreland 

ll>i:". wiiirh lies a few hundred yards to the south-east of Aulae station' 

Li-iid^i'treiiiN north-east and south-west, is 1 tU feet high, and con-^ists 

t Miildlc ('ail)oniferous or 31illstone grit rocks dipping S. I']. <[ •">0\ 

ilriiiiwutlnnw or dis])lacement is .'501 leet, that is, assuming the l>i-|ila(i ni.nt 

l'>>nt -urtace of theridg<> has not suH'eredany appi'ccia'jle denudation, .\iil;ur 

;i it lias, the amount must be added to th(> abo\e ligures. How much 

'Hiiis(lis|ilaLeiiient occuri'ed before the glacial period and how much 

'Xce. it is (liilicult to tell; but in the recent period, i i; since the 

'Ari'lian (;,,,|n<;v. SuiiiilciiU'Ut, ;!nl c 

1., pairc i;!. 

42 M 


peat beds began to grow, it has l)('cn 7!i feet below inoaii liilo lev,.] 
Has tliis (lowntlirow or subsidence been accompanied \i\ ,i cdrri'lativf 
upward movement in the adjacent district 1 It seems p(i>vil,|,. to uive 
an allii'mativo answer to tliis ([uestion. 
Ili>;u1 (if r>ay Jt was stated on a previous pagi,' tliat tlie ••egion arDund thclu'adi.f 
)?i-.',it"(')s'cill;it- the I>ay of Fundy lias been remarkable for great clmngcs nf lovol. 
"'"'"'"• The subsiilence or downthrow at Aulao is doubtless I'elatcl td ihc ui,. 

lift of the Wi^stmorcland llidge and of the parallel ridges h ing Iji'twcin 
it and Petitcodiae Iiixer. These all bear evidenct; nf (lillcrcutiiil uii- 
heaval of a gi'eater or less amount since the glacial periml. Strinaiv 
found on the summits of these ridges ;iOO or 400 feet iiigli, cviiltnilv 
])i'oduced by the land ict; referred to on l)ag(! 27 M. Tn ciiiililc tliis 
ice to How otF the axis of tlu; Isthmus of Chignecto in a -DUtliwcsteiJv 
direction into the Bay of Fundy and produce these stri;r in iis|i,is-;i:v, 
the land around the lu^ad of Chignccto Uay nuist liaM' linii lower 
relatively, for no elevation exists to the north or norih-cisi sutluieiit 
to give it impetus to <»verride these ridges with the IcxcLs df the 
present day. Hence it. is inferred that, they have sustained ii ]iii~t-, diflerential uplift whii.'h is doubtless complemiMitary to tlir sub- 
sidence shown to be going on in other portions of the >aiiii' I'l'^imi, 
Suii.-idcnct' as Tlu^ slow sul)sidence in progress in several places ai'DUiid the south- 
western (Mubayment of the (iulf of Ht. Lawrence in the ivniit 
period, as evidciicid by the siid<ing of tlu' peat i)ogs, i.-, prulialily imi 
general, although its ojcurrence along the coast bordersni' the t'ailioui- 
ferous area and on the north-east side of Prince I^dward i.--lai;il iiiliniil- 
ities where there is much less oscillation than around the luail nt the iluy 
of h\indy, would indicate that it may be. Indeed, it wnuld apju'iir tu 
have altogether ceased locally on some parts of the rMa>t, liut tuir 
tinues in other places, though at a \ery slow and apparently iliiiiini^iuil 
rate, showing, however, that tlie coast border has jiot yi.'l leaclwila 
position of e(|uilil)rinm. 
IJcmarks eii V^ reference to the hypothesis of ice-load weighiiiu- dnun thocTiist 

liypethesisuf ,^| (-j,p jj,,,^ ,,j.' ||„, Pleistocene subsidence; while this is net iiicoiisistcut 

R'e-lnail calls- _ _ , . ,. • 

with the facts and inferences Ijiought forward ni luvcrdiiig paL'fS, it 
does not seem to he reipured for the explanation ut tlie |iiieiioim'ii.i ill 
this region. The great ditliculty apju'ars to be not so imuli tn a.omnt 
for subsidence, which is the natural tendency of the nu-i, as frnthe 
upliea\-al of the larger areas. It has been shown on a juvn'.liiii;- pii::''. 
that duiing till' epoch of ice accumulation, at least, the rnast ic^'I'M 
stood higher thati at present, and that the perioi! ef iiu'ltiii!.'iiiiil ; 
retiniinent of the Pleistoceni^ ice was also the period of sulisiiU'iur. It j 
this ice, by its weight, had been cajiable of causing a sinking nf the | 

(■\ i'lrncrll liy 
siiikiiii,' ]icat 

iiiy: sulisi 
ill ■lice. 


nioiin liilc level. 
I by a tMinvlalivc 
lis possililr til i.'ive 

iruiuiil llii' licail i.f 
t (.'liaiiiii'S lit' Icvi'l. 
rcliiled tu till' u]!- 
duos lyinulji'tWH'ii 
ut' (lilii'ii'iitial iiji- 
lifi'ind. .Stria' iuv 
Mt lii.u'li, t'viilently 
I. Tu (Miiililc this 
ill a ~.()iitli-wi'sii_'rly 
stri;i' ill its[)us.-au'e, 
b iiiui' lii'i'ii liiwor 
iKirlli-casi Millirieiit 

the Icvi'N ut' tile 
vc sti^taiiH'il a [m-t- 
im'htary in tln' ^ub- 
the >aiiir fc'^iiiii, 
's ariuiiiil tin' smith- 
■lice ill the ivrt'iit 
>us, i> |irii!)al)!y luit 
(Icrsiii till' (.'ailinui- 
wanl l.--laiiil iiiliii;U- 

thi'liradiit' the Hay 
I ii woulil appoar tu 

the rna.-l, lnU nur 

Kuviiily iliiiiiiii-hi'il 
^ lint Vi'l ivai-lii'ilii 

lilU; (lii\UI till' rni>t 

lis is uni iiiL'iiii^i-ti'iit 
|,n.i'i''liii,L; pii::i's, it 
L]' ilif iilifiMiiiicnaiu 
, iiuii.-ii tiiaa'uiiiit 
Itlir riuM, as fur the 
„, ,1 |,r,v.'.liii^pii^''. 

.■isl. till' '■"■^^^ I''-'"" 
i-ioi! Ill iiii'ltiiWiiwl! 
n,l(it siiliMili'iuv. It : 
[i„,r;i-iulxinu"f the 

^^.v'.«5. j 


4:5 M 

^nihs crust, it ini,i,'ht natunilly be aupposc^cl that such a inoveiiiont 
5„ultl liaM' coiiicitli'd with the ice accumulation, and an upward 
jiiviiiiriit should have occurrod during tlio nielting period as the crtist 
'[,v;iiiu' I'l'lii'M'd oi its weiglit. On the contrary, however, the coast 
bniiier si'ciiis to luive remained at a h)w le\el loiigat't(;r the retii-emont 
Hiihc iec, tlial is to say, during the time tiie Leda clay and Sa\i- 
i.ivii samls were being deposited. All the evidence available 
tfiiils to >iii>w that in this region the Pleistocene ic<! was not ot' 
■'.illRii'iit tliickncss and weiglit to sensibly adect the crust of tiie earth, 
Afw it' the livpotiiesis regarcUng its sensitiveness to load b<^ tenable. 
1: iiiiiv 111' ailded, tliat the (h^pression of tli(^ recent period just 
lirMiiln'il, wliiili Ills l)eeii going on at a time when, as tlu; evidence 
!i,i\vv, iiii ici'-cov(!ring existed in the region to atl'ect the crust by its 
wijit, materially weakens the force; of any arguments that may be 
ailvauci'd in t'avmir of tiio hypotiiesis. 


Ill this icpiiit the general term Post-Tertiary or (i)uaternary will be ci 
;-ii, anil it is intended that it shall comprise the whole series of 
lilirliL'ial diposils from the close of the Tertiary or IMiocene u]) to 



Tlif Post-Tertiarv, accordiiiu' to the liest autliotiti 


mill Ilir 



Pleistocene and the Piccent or Pre-liistoric j)eriiiils. 
le to embrace all th(> deposits from lli(\baseof the 
lav to the summit of the S.ixicava santls ; the liecent includes 

irnu'i' I.-- iiiai 


tefiii'matinns Iviiii;- al)ove the latli.'r. 


li'l^tnri'lic o 

if the 

region iindi'r review may, perhaps, be sub. Sul.div 

divideil s 

tratij.;iaphically, if not jiaheontologically, into two periods 

if tin 

>!' I'll 

jtte'S,— (IMC 

rt(Mize(l bv extreme irlacial coiulitioiis, when 


|tttii|iieil thr land and lloating ic(.^ tiie adjacent seas, and wlu'ii lift 

[fS'i'lit that iif ail arctic eliaract 

er, was vei 

■y scanty. The di'i 

losits or 

|t'a^ ]«'riiiil ,iri. liDiilder-clay, moraines, osar, glaciated boiildeis, eti 


.'lit 1, 




period propei 

Fossils occur in ' 

|trie>i; ^'huial deposits on the; l>ay of l''undy coast at Saint .iolin, 

P'*' I'.ruiisw ii'k, and in tiie Saint Lawrence valley at Itiviei'e du 

|Liii[', Me N'erte, etc. TIk; shells denote a liiglily arctic climate, or 

tlii'i'a ti'inpcratiire of the adjoining sea as low as that now ni'evail- 

■"[v<t ili\i>iii 
f till- I'l.i^ti 



I ifii '111 the 

st iif (ireenlatKJ. 

Ilii' vjcniid division of the Pleistocene may be made to include all Sin. mi 
'^estriuilied sands, gravels and clays overlying the deposits of the |'|,.i.i,,L,.ni' 



'I'l'xt r.iiok of (ti'iilciirv, '.Wi 

iiiii-il.H<i.', 'rill' (Iri'at li'i' Al 

:. .1. 1 1. 

1., is;i;i. 
(1.. istij. 


al lit (J.'i.l.iuv, Ith I'll., IS'.C) 

■il M 

Xi;\V lilUNXWlCK, NOVA SCOTIA AXl) I', K. I>I..\M) 


iil)ov(^ ilcsigiiJitcd i^liiciiil period and undorlyiiij^ tin? t'urinntidiis nf k,,, 
recent period, iind eonsist ut' ( 1) tlie nwirine depusits. Lcda iluv .iml 

Saxic'uii sands, wliicli are a coast tun 

1 est 

iiarnio serie-^ Ivni:^ 

) I lie frc>|| 
ii'Hlialilv III 

ii))perinost sliore-line of tlie pt)st glacial suhnierj^cnice; and (: 
water deposits occurring on tlie inglier l(!V((ls, 'J'liese arc i 
contenipnraneuus oiigin. The Leda clay and Sa.xieava sand a 
ally fussiiit'ei'dus, espocially tlie lirst-nienlioned, and cnntain, ji, .i iiair 
localities, an iilamdant mai-ine fauna, the ])rinci]ial sjiecii's uf uliirh 
exist in tlin oli'-shore or deejier coast waters of ea^lern Canada and 
Lalirador at the ])respnt (hiy. A small pait, prol)ai)ly almiit ti'ii nr 

twehc iier cent, of the wh 

low, and occurs only m arctic and suharctic seas. 

lole asscnihlauc, is not found 


i\\ III 

cse t■(M^I^ 

ii^cn as a \\| 

the marine fauna of the Leda clay and Saxii-iva sand, while dciKJti 
a more I'igorous climate, oi' rather a somewhat lower teiii|iei',i!iii 

(. lit 


le coast waters than jire\ ails in tlie region at present. ni>\citlii'l 

e\iiiiM's consideralilo amelioration troiii the 
preceded it. 


colidiliniis wlij,' 

The marine deposits ri;ferred to are usually well delined at ilic ]■; 

and summit 

md distinct f 


the l)iailder-clav 1 

(cliealli anil ti. 

tli(( formations of the recent oerioi 

d al. 




lev cdiilaiii 111 


iterial which can projierly 

i)(^ cailei 



inorainic matter interst rat died therewil 

o liimldiTclav 

or o\-eil\inu' thciii. ihr 

sand, gravel, Ixaihlers, etc., coini)rising the series, e\en tlic InpiiMi'!'- 
clav itst'lf lK'nealli,l)eing almost w hoi I \- d( ri\'ed from the nuk t'diiuitiMi.. 

of tl 

le district in which tliev li 

At or near the mouths ef ri\(i> 

deposits are always 

er asseinl)lai;e 

)f greater thickness than elsew 
of fos>sil shells. That the J'lei.-.t. 

lerc and idiiiaiii ,i 
e ici' !iail ipii 



I'etired from tlu 


grounds of the region wlirii the lnuir 

portion of the Jjcda-clay was deposited seems possihlc, tlidiigii in 
evidences of the a.tion of land or lloating ice are shown in the stni'' 

tui'o of the heds, nor 

lire any dr 

• turl) 

)ances aiiparent, such as we wmi 



expect to 111 


and ice nio\cd down the slopi 

sulisciiuint til III'' 

deposition, or lloatnig ice ground oNcr the areas oiciij 
In their character and mode of de[iosition, these ; 

icil hv thrill. 

siiiiilar 111 iiiiuihi' 

lilt ot M. 


beds now heing formed on tl:e north side of the ( 
and on tlu; coast f)f Isewtoiiiiilland. < )ecui'ring, as tin y do, al iLidi- 
t, \ew Ih'unswiidv. and other localities in the mariliiiic iini\inii~. 


with ii ve 


ranue o 

r thickness of one hundred and sr\rnl\liie 

laid diiwn wlini tin! ] 

to two hundred feet, without any intercalated or ovcilyiiiL 
deposits, it is evident they must have lieen 
extreme gk'udal conditions oi the region had \(M'y nearly, if 
passed away. 

mil w 



l»;i\i(iliN lit the 

Lfdii I'liiy ami 

ly'mu' lii'lciw \\\r 

nil (-) llic t'|■l■^ll 
arc iifMlpii'hly ni 

I sali'l a 
ntiiin. ill I'lTiaiu 
iiiccii's (it wliii'li 
rrii ( 'luiada aiiil 
Ills aljiiul \r\\ nr 

II (Ml lllor l(ia-N 

"ukfii il^ 11 wlmlc 
1, while ('.rlKitiiii; 
,■)• ti'liil'i'iaturi' III 
I'llt, iic\i'ltlii'li'-s, 
col alii i')ii~i ^^'I'i'^^li 

flilicil .It ill'' '''i-'' 

Dctif.-Uli and tiiiiii 

TIm'V ciiniiiin iin 

no liduldcr i-lay m 

,.,lyiir^- llirlll. die 

even tin- linuldcr- 
]\(> nn'k-t'oriii^uiiiib 
luiillis (if rivns. i!ii' 
hcri' and cniilaiu.i 
tncciie ice !iad ii"i 
,„, when tin" lower 

,,»ilile, llii'llull 11" 
hdWll ill lllf ^'™''' 

. sueli as we wuulil 
[sulisenlient to thfiv 

.irclliued iiytliem. 

,. ^iuiiliii' lo iiiiiiii"' 

ih' lit St. Lawreii.r 
S thrv do. nl l'''>ll'- 

iiaritiiiio iiriivui.i-. 

,.(1 and N'VeiHy li^'- 

,. .iverlyin.L: >'"'^ 

,1 a.iNvn when tin- 

irlv. it not wl.iiHv. 



tr, M 

Ii, ii>i.'ard tu tilt! ffesli-wiitcf ilo|)();?its, so-cfilhul, of tho spcoml (iisision I'loh w 



lie, wliieli consist, ut" sti'atiliod sjiml, eravcl iiiul clii\- 


,„viiiivini,' iliosc |ioi'tiiiiis of tli(! rcL;ii)ii iil)o\t! the hiL,du!st in.ii'ks of tlio 
,il,iii,ii.'eni e iif the I'ost-'rcrtiai'y imm'IoiI, ih) fossil rcmiiiiis luivc vet 
;,,,,ii tuiiiid in thoiii in the ni.iritiiiu! provincfs of CiiiiJid 
the liouldi'i'-clav find inor.iinic niiUeriul 

,|j.;inctly aliove 
llii.]i('iit and niiii 

1 l)t'ds : Idit arc often lliin find si 

.'■'■' 'i'licy lire 
and underlie 
lie upon the 

]ii.i' i.TiiuinU, Aloni{ i'i\(M'-\iille\'s find in lake liasins, also in local- 
ty- Hillside lit' these, they blend insensiMy into the sands, ervivid and 
■ iviif the leeeul jiei'iod, So tliat it is iiiiiiossihlf! to tidl where the one 
■llll^ iiiid the other l)(!L,'ins. The i)ottoin imrtions of some of these 
, I, mill less hern deposited hy waters from the melt in;;' ice of 


!li.> u'l'ii'ial iieriud 

hut no hiuildei'-clfiv or morainie material has 1 


1 illlel'i 

dated with or o\erl\inLt ' '" 

While, iliereforc, in the 

-jiiu in i|ne-tiiii 

1, it seems (lillictdt. if not impossiide, to dilii-re 

ti,itt> the siratilied dei)osits diii' to melting ice from those furmed hy 
iHuvial .ind -^idia'Mi.'d fiction, there appears to Ix; no douht that the 
ii\i'!s, st reams, lidces, and titmos]iheric deniidat ion of t he laml 


nerallv. wore the [)rineipal a^Ci'iUs to which these deposits 

.«:■ their iiriuin. 

1ai'']iI wiien nee 
,1 inlci'aliiv well d 

iirinir idon;/ with osar and moraine! 

tliei-e is nsiiiilly 
'lined line of demarkation fit the hast- (jf these st r.iti. 
liril, tri'sii water deposits, their contfict with the tnio h.mldcr-clfiy 

li-vili:.' heeii iili^ei'N t 

tr;nv;ill|e, espeeia 

. '.!i!~ n'^iiin. 

'd in iiiiinv idiices, Tliidr ii]i[)er limit, too, is often 
lly when they fire o\-erliiin, ;is they are iniiifiny plfices 
liv pe;ithoL;s, shell-marl, etc., of th(M'ecent perioil ; hut 
in^t'iiiTal their limits fire poorly deHned and uncerttun. Tt is hidie\('d, 
ix.wivcr, that they have been deposited conttiinporfineously with tlie 
nlav and Saxicti\'fi sands, timl c(jiistitute the fresh water eciuiva- 


lit uiese marine lie 


As ivu'.nds the elassitlcfition of the forniations of the recent period, c 
tMv iiiv here few fficts indicatiiii,' succession 

ill tl 

lese, as m tn( 



iivlir, tlie ilepi). 

iits find their contfiined fiiunfi find (lor;i hetokiMi- iieiinil. 

if fiirinatiiiiis 

if thr 111 rllf 

iri.'oiiiililiiins (if (diiiuite tlirou;;liout the whole period not ditl'erent 
tViu iliOM' nnw p'-evtiiliim. [ll the efirly stfii^e, however, the laiul 
ia viiiii' |\i)rliiins of the iiifiritinie flistricts fit least, stood from ten 
Vj tweiitv-lU e t'eet or more iihove the present li'vcl, and the clinuite, 

III tin ^Miiiiii' I- I if is; 1 1 file remains I if a tisli almiit ci^iiitiiii inehes hi liiiu'tli were 
:.! I' llviinV l.i ick van I, Kre'lerictnii, \. !'>. It is iv|inrii'i| In have ineii iiiilieddi'il 
■trutilifilflay at a ileptli iif twriity si'Vi'ii fri.| lirmaili llie >iiffaee of tlie uriiiiiiil. 
'i> ■k'li'tiiii i-i now ill tlie niiiseuin nf the I 'nivi.i~ii\- nf New I'rnnswiek. 'I'lio 
'■;;-iii wliicli tlie fiissil tisli was fnuml lie in the valley of the .St. .Inhii lii\rr, 
^;iii|i|'iili.ilily iif lliiviatile origin, ami (if pnst-gliiciiil age. 

4<; M 


( liiicr:il clas- 
-itir.itidii nf 
till' I'.i-t- 

or ratlici" till! t('iii|ici'(ituro of tlu;' .'uljacoiit wfitcrs \v;is waiiiior. It 
wiiH at tliis stfiyii tliiit tlio iiiiiriiit! iiKillusca, wIkisc Ii,il)it;it is ii(,\v ii, (1,^ 
coast wators soutli-east of Capo Cud, aro siipposi'd tn li,n,. ,s|,|.(..iii 
noi'tliward and sottlt-il in c(>rtaiii localities around thr .(nist ut' \,,\;i 
Si'otia, and fsjKH'ially in tiie soutiicrn t'nihiiyrncnt t!t' tlic ( lulf nt St, 
LawifUL'*!. In till! latter jilai'c thoy still continue to exist. 

Tlie deposits of tlie recent ptM'iod may also he cLissiili.ii im,, tuu 
di\isions, marine and fresh-water, supposed to he of coniiinpDiatHMiu. 
orij,'in. rsiially they are arran,i,'ed into two ^^I'oups, \i/,: (| , illnvial 
that is fornKMl by th(; sea, Ity rivers, lakes, etc, uikI (l'; iiiiii:,'('ii(iu.s, 
/. '■. foi'ined liy the <;ro\vth of ve^^etahle or animal matter, as |i('at-lj(i:.'s 
shell-marl, infusorial earth, v»',i,'etal)h* mould or huiiiiis, ric. l',.,it l^s 
been ol)s(>rved in a jjfreat nund)er of places restiiii,' on saml, :-iiiiirtiiiii> 
blown sand (sand beaches) also (Jii shell-marl, while it uiidei lies tiic salt 
marshes around tilt! head of the IJay of Fundy. If \\(( le-ani aiiv ni 
these asof successivo formation to others, it would seem that shill-inari, 
infusorial (!arth, etc., weie lirst formed or deposited, alt i-rwaids lif(K 
of peat i^rew upon these, then the (le])osition of the luat'sh tiiuil ni i\\c 
l<ay of Fundy tides followed. It is probable, however, that tin' ;.'iuutli 
of all the peat bo,L(s in their earlier stages was not strictly incval. Imt 
commenced at irreLjular intervals, eontinuin;,' till tlie jiresciit, hi 
i,'(meral, therefor(!, it may be stated that in the rc:.'iiiii in i|iustiijii 
the whole of the recent dejiosits, marine and fri'sli-walcr, aiv >till in 
process of "growth and accumulation, and the foiiiis of life, aiiiinal 
and vp<;»table, buried therein are those existini,' arumid its at the 
present day. 

The whole series of deposits in the Post-Tertiary of the leuiim umjii 
review may, therefore, b(^ classified as follows : — 

1. Iiiilijrciiiins (pear Iim;_'s, ric.) 

I'osi' 'ri:nii.\i(Y. 

liKCllNT I If 


[~(. Alliivi 



■I'sli-watiT anil luaiiin' 

rliv. fiv^ 

statrlncl\t iif 
(li'piisits ill tlir 

1. StratitiiMl saiiils, jn'aviK ami 

watiT ami iiiariin'. 
L'. (ilai'ial (liiiuliliT-clay, iiioniiiu-*. n-ar, ilniiii- 

liiis, ^lat'iatcil iMiiildcis. iir. i 

The ,<i;eneral character and succession of the Post-Teriiary (li'pn>it< 
is shown, so far as it is possible to classify them, by the folluwin;,' 
table : — 

M :?. 

DKI'OSI'I'S oil I'OHMATIONS OF Till-; lii:('i:NT I'KliloU, 

Fresli-initfi: Mni'im . 

(a) (1.) 

I'eat lirtffs. 
. Liifiistriiii'— sliell-iiiarl, iiifuserial 
•■aitli, etc. 
3. Kivor-tlats, intervales (alhiviiim). 

1. 1>tiii('S, 111' sand luailii-. 

L'. Mstnarine Hals, iiin— i-l nr nv-ti rMs 

natural dyUi-s. etc 
3. Salt marshes (alluv iiiin). 



17 M 

M L'. 

|ii;i'()slTs OK loiniATloNS OF 'IIIK I.A'IKIt ri.HlsToiKXK . 

(al (I.) 

t i;i\(v ;iii'l l:iki' trri'iicrs iiiwl their 1. Sii\i(':ivii siiiid iiihI Lcda diiy iilid 

,niniM|Mii\ iiiir UiuiH's, (tc, kiiiiii's fiii'iiicd I !>' imiriiio u^,'l■ncy. 

._i s' iiil Mill ^TiiM'!, siniil and 
(■l;i\. .iii'l kaiiii-> assiiciatcil tliiTc- 


M 1. 

I'lipiildi'i'-t'lay or till, niiiniiin-i, licnildirs, erratics, cti;. 

I'UK-cLAriAi. on ■ih:i;iiaiiv. 
Hotted l'uel< ill nitii, aii),'idai' lidulders, ^rravel, saii<l, etc. 

of till' ic'iiim uikI'V 

T;:i;.iAi!Y oi{ Pni;-<ii,A('iAr, Ghavki-s, Sands, ktc. 

ribtratilied materials of pro-ylacial ()i'i.i,'in exist in sporadic inassos and 
iiinhcd slieeis ill many jiai'ts ot' New llrmiswick, Nova Scotia and 
Frincv Edward Isiaiul, es|iecially in districts oeeuiiieul by Carboniferous 
links. The -iaeiatioii of these Hat areas lias been of a less \ii;oroiis and 
ivii'iiiii;; fliarnctc'i' than in tlie more ele\ated parts of tiie country 
ihi'lcaiiiiareiilly haxinu; l)een sliii,fi,qsh in inosenient, passinfj; over the 
,i„.,m|i|iiim1> and rock surfaces without erndini^ thern deejily. f)niy 
;; ;ii nitain low ridges, or from the brows of liiils exposed to tlie full 
tuicvot tiie urindinii' ice did it reinov(! tlie wholti of tlui residuary 
iiuteriiil and score tlie solid rocks beneath. In New Ihunswick, the 
tiikkest lieiU of this material met with are near tiie c(jast of 
Niitliuiiilieiland Strait, wiier(! in a ft>w instances it was found over- 
bin liy iioulderclay, which in turn was mantled by stratified 
!;•■[« i<its lit' iiost-glacial iige. L'jjon the hii,du;r <j;roini(ls of tlie interior 
idif |i!(iviiiee, non-glaciated areas of greater or less extent occur, 
ijiril with iir(?giilar slieets of tius decomposed material belonging 
titiie sulijaeeiil locks. On tlu! sloping surfaces and tle(di\ities, these 
Lvi- siillereil more or less transport fi'om glacial and atmospheric 
iti-miiliitiiiu and they ar(>, therefore, more uneven and irregular than 
J[«i:i the llat I 'arbonifermis tracts referred to. 
TheiKiitheiii llanks of the Colxvpiid Mountains in Xova Scotia and 
'"iC?liilio lift ween these and Northumberland Strait, are also masked 
^ithlenticulai', detached sheets of residuary material of great(!r or less 
stent. This can be ob.served east of lialfwiiy Lake, at Kodney, River 
Rii'.i|'. Williaiiisdale, Westchester, Wentworth station, etc., and in 
Kii-rou:, places 1 (('tween the mountains and the coast of the strait. 
lo the latter area great (|uantities of such dejiosits have been kneaded 
Milnwved ^'ivateror less distances and changed into a kind of boulder- 
uylivthc Pleistocene ice. 


I n \eW 

Fn Xciva 

».S M 

SV.W IIKINSWK'K, \0\A SCDTIA AM) I'. 10. Isl, \S|, 

III I'l 

Wall I 

ii I'M 


In M; 



III Prince I'Mwiii'd Island, luv^v purliuns of tlic luusc (IciKKit 
ini.' tlic solid rni'ks consist of rcsidiiiuy niatcriid, and sheds ii 

tiid cxcn isvciity t'cct in liiickncss iiic not, uii 


> ciivcr. 

iii'li III' t], . 

I'cscinhlcs lioiiidci'-ciav 

texture, (iioimli 

■ I'lMl .sfriiicli(.(| 

polisiied [lohhles or iioiildeis, and lias evidently .leen ciiiii|i,ut(ii 
weii,'lit of till! snow and ice of tlii) ;{lacial period, and iniu 


lilini I 

loUi'UT. ill 

alniosplieriu action since. The i,'reat liiilk of ii i-;, j 
o.\i(h/.ed condition, showini,' thai il is notatriie houlder (■|;i\-. j'tntl,,., 
it contains no tiav(^lled houldei's Of (h'ift, hciii^ wliolh locnj, mni tli, 
nialei'ials aro unwoi-n. I'eds of it may lio seen in M\(r; 
the I'i'ince i'Mwanl Island railway liel ween Suiiiiiieisidi' ami (' 
town, in cuttiii;;s and ;,'ia\el |iits restinj,' on noii-ylaciaied i 
It occnrs aloiiL.' tlie coast also in nninerous localilii 
Alhci'toii, Caiiiplielltoii, AN'ood Islands, etc., often in h, 
twenty feet thick. I'poii the uplands Mot infi'e(|iicni Is ii 



c>|ii'L'iiil|y at 
ks t(.|i ;,, 
riiliii'- ti) 

the surface and forms the soil, having' apparently umlcrui 

l(! denudation. 'J'ransportecl houlders are oc isiona 



llv f 

lie occurrence o 

f such extensive sheet.^ 


iiii' I'liii.iilfr. 

iiIIIhI oil t||.. 

iiiil iiii|. 

points to thefact of liyht ;,daciation in I'rinceKilw aid Islaml, 
es'erywhere upon the C'arhonifermis area on hotli sides nt' .\Miiliiiiiii,.r. 

land Strait. If the ice which o\cri(ide the island f 

rmii \\r>i III (.;i>t lia.l 


■n hea\y and of iiuu'li erosisc ji 

iM h 

it 1^- 
I th 

idem I lie liiul 


lave l)t!en ^really (lenuded and the rock surtans ur-uura, i.\ 

■, hiMi'ii 

[loscd as it would ho to tiie full iniset of the mainland ula 
of this liciny tho case, however, (ho lieaviest heds of resid 
occur on the lii:,'lier ridyes of thoccnlral part of I'riiicc ivlwanl 
while the thickest dejiosits of houlder-clay are found uIuiil 


I III' I'li.lSt 


here they seem to have been jiroduced by tlu^ heavy impiiiui'iiii'm ul 

coast or 


tiiS ife ajfainst t he 

'I'he Mai'diilen Islands exhihil the most reniarl 

•cable null u'liii'iatcii 

dition of any part of tlm eastern provinces of Canada. Mul 

I i--laii(i liib i 

a nucleus or central mass of intrusive! n 

appaii'iilly thrift iiji 

into tli(( Lower t'arhoniferous, jL,'ypsiferoussti'ata, hrcakiiiL.' iliiniiu'li'iinl 



these into vai ious attituilos. Around tl 

ic margins 

if til 


iiuls overlviiiii 

the L 



loniteious rocks, occurs a latrr MTic^nt 
)h, hriyht-red sandstones, with false hedilini;', wliiili t'nr tin' iii"-t 

It! crvstalliiu! sciii'- riiii>ist iitl 

part occupies a horizontal position. 


doleritcs or diabases, porphyiitic and aniygdaloidal fclsili 
etc., forming conical-shaped hills which rise to altitiidi' 
to 600 feet. Ill some places the dykes of these rock 
overlyin.ii gypsiferous series in such a manner as to re 

or ti'ap- 

lit tinlll 



tc the] 
(luce tlio wliiJ?! 



OlIHilN OK TIIK lilvSIDlAltV M.\TKI£I.\t,S. 

t!) M 

MISI" (|l•l"l^l^^ I'liVi'l'. 

11(1 slici'ts live, (iMi, 
•on. Mui'li lit' tlih 
.iniit M.'rak'li('il 111' 

'II cdlilli irtnl liylli- 

il, mill iiiniiiHi'il liy 

is, lluWi'MT, ill ill! 

ildiT rliiy. l-'iinii'i', 
i liiill\ IiiimI, mill !l' 
scvcnil jilari^ iiliiii^ 
M'sidi' iiinU'liiii'IiiUi- 
iieiiilcil riii'k >urt:i't>. 
ililirs, ('siii'L'iiilly at 
I'll in liiiiiks lull :ii 
|Uriii ly it (.■iiiiii'^ ti) 

UlllliT-i'll'' I'lill'illi'l- 

,iiiiiallv I'lmml on tlii' 

i|)II>imI nnks /(' -'''I 

inl Islaml, ami iiuli'il 
sides lit' Niiiliiiuiii»r- 

I'l'Ulll Wrsl 111 filit ilH'l 

lit. iln' liiulii'i'liarliiiii< 
surlari's irr-uiirn. I'X- 
laud ulai'ii'V. lii-l'^ii 
(it residuary iimtmu 
riiice IvUvanl IsImU'I i 
iiiid idling ill'' '■"''* I 
("avy iiiiliin^'-iiirlil "t 

dilt' iinM','liifiatwl >■"!'•• 

Iiuia. Ivii'h isliimilw^ 

a|.iiaieiiily thriHt \\\< 

liivakin- tlinni,i;li.iii'l| 

the iiiai-ins nt ili-' 

„.,.ursa latei-i-m-'t 

M-, Nvhi.-ll t<il'tlll'lll"-tj 
ilK' series nillsist "t | 

[l,il t'.'lsitcs or traf- 

|tit.ud.-S of t'liiMl t"')! 

e n.rk-l"MirlMti-tlie| 

to redur'^ thr wll'ilo 

till ciiiit'iisi'd iiiiiss iijipiirciitly witlmut order or iirrjiiii,'««ii>('iit. I'pon 
i!ii' siiit'aee of tilt' wlioln lie tliick licds of rotted ruck //( si/n witluuit. 
ain liiiiilili'ffiay or f,'lficiat('d materiiil. On tin; iinrlli-eust sides of 
Aiiih'T-i and (ii'lridstotu) isliiiids, ii fmv poliMcs mid Itoulders weic 
i,|i,i||vim1 \\liiili may !)« for<'i;;ii to tlicni, liiit cxeii tliesc were not 
iiiiidiili'd. 'I'lii! residuary materials were niodiliod on tlie siiifaee 
lidiiw till' 1 10- to 1 ir)-foot contour line by tlie action of the sea duriiii; 
i'lliiiicrj^i'iiee, wliilo above that love! no trace of marine or i^lacial action 
iiiM 1)1' iiliM rvi^d. rndecd, the wlioio examination of the surface of 
till' t'lHir laru'i'st islands, vi/., Amherst, l-jitry, (irindstone mid Alrii^dit 
tiiltil to sill iw any i!vid(Mie(!of ^laeiation whatever.* United rock alone, 
with striitilied marine beuls up to tlie hit^hesl marks of the I'leistocene 
<tiljiiit'ri,'i'iic'', are everywliere, tin' prevailing superlicial deposiis ; alio\e 
tliii shoreline referred to some stratilied lenticular sluM'ts, due to 
atiii'isplici'ii.' action, occupy the surface; and overlie the residuary 
;,iiti'i'i;il; hut the pebbles and debris are mostly ani,'ular and unworn. 
It is ]l^^-illll•. however, that more detailed imcsti^ation iiiiiiht 
I'lSiilt in shelving some evidences of, at least the iiiipingement of t!t)at- 
iii,' ico in;ainst the slopes or coast borders of these Lslands. 

TlH'oii:,'!!! of residuary prou "Is is a (jucstion which lakes ns Oii'/inniiln se 

iivunl till' limits of Post-Tertiary geolo^'y. Their oi.'currenee lieie [|.i".|!^|!,'_"'^ '"''' 

jiviiciti's dial in pre-glacial ages the land surface? was, for a i;ieal 

Ifii.'tliot' lime, above the S(!a. The peat Ijeds found by Sir.). W. |)aw- 

•■■11 imili!ilyin'4 luaildttr-clay at Kiver Inhabitants, attest to the same 

lid. Wlieilier the deciaiipO'ed material formed as thick sheets here 

Iriiire it u.-i-- eroded by Pleistocent? ice, as it does now to the south of 

tlii';;liiiMiU il /.one, is not evident. In r(;gions swathed in snow and 

K". with the ground fro/en to a greater oi' less dejith for live or six 

iii'iitlh lit' llie year, as the eastern part of Canada must li;i\e been 

;:''.iiiii> 111, ,is well us duriiii;' the Pleistocene and since, there wuiild 

W a .oiiseivatixe etl'cct, checking and, indeed, practically arresting 

atii.iisphciic disintegration of the rocks every winter. It is Line that 

til" iiii'ltiii;; period each sjjring is, owing to the loosening o.' the beds 

l:":a the uiilurking of the prex'ious winter's frost, one of greater 

il't.uilaliiiii than is usuid ill non-glaciated or tropical regions, but these 

C"iulitiiiiis last only a short time. On the whole, howe\er, the 

Hi">tiiiii lit' extensive and deep-.seated pre-glaeial roi'k decay in these 

""iuuli's, may be said to I'cipiire furtlier investigation liefore it can be 

wiTi-laicd with of non-glaciated tropical countries. 

, Mr. .liiiui's IJicli.-inlsnii says "umvlii'i'e cniiM (le|Hisits nf day or trravel lie (listiiin- 
'''•iii-l-ucii av aiv u-uallvattriluiteil to the drift lierioil." (Kepurt uf rrot;ress, (icul. 
•Mmy„f(,';u„i,i;i^ IS71.) iSi), pafe'e .S (1.) 


50 M 



iuid liimlilrrs 

(M 1.) Deposits of tiik Eaiu.y Plkistocenk, ok tii.AciAi, ri-iiiou, 
]hiulder-rh(y and lionhlcrs. 
Tlio l)oulcler-clay iiiicl bDiildors of the region are so intiiiiati'lv rclatoil 
and tlioir distril)ution lias been afl'ected to sucli an oxteui l)y ili.. sum,. 
agencies that it seems best to describe them togi.'ther. And lirst it 
may be stated tliat no bonlder-clay, bouklers, or glacial inuduots 
have been found upon the higher grounds of the region uiidcr (Hmus- 
si(jn, exc(.'f)t such as belong to rocks on the south side of the watcish,.,! 
of th(i north-east .Vppalachians t)r Xotre Dame mountains, sd t',u' as 
my observations have extcnuled. L'jion the coast distiicts, whirli wen. 
sul)mei'g('i.l dui'ing the post-glacial subsidence, scattered boulders nccur 
which do not seem related to the rocks of the region. These \va\\- 
dcjubtless drifted from the Labrador coast, from the Magdalen Ulaiuls, 
from Ca|ie 15reton. and perha])s fr-om Newfoundland. 

The districts which best illusti'ate the dispersion of boulders ;ui' tliM 
Carboniferous aiea of New Brunswick and Prince Edward Island. 
Vpon these large quantities of boulders of granite, diorite or diabase, 
felsil(>, Lower Carboniferous conglomerate, etc., are strewn ami 
embedded in the sheets of b(julder-cla\' of greater or less tliickiic-s. a 
considerable portion of them having undei-gonetransportali<in Ihhl; dis- 
tances across the New IJrunswicd'C plain. 
Talilesliowiiijr To show the disti-ibutioii of boulders in the area referred to, ci-rtaiii 
(lis|M.fsi,,ii ,,t i,n.;ilitiej^ were selected and th(,' boulders upon a mven space in raoli 
I'eKiiiii. counted. The following table will illustrate the iiietliod ado|i(.'d. 

But iirst a list of boulders from two localities on theprc-CarlmnitVidiK 
belts to the north-west of the Cai'boniferous ])lain will begi\en. te diuw 
the relatiiin of the boulders on the two areas. AH boulders abuvu a 
minimum size of three inches in diameter were counted. 

At Pleasant Ridge, Northumberland county, on an area lit'ty twt 
sijuare the following boulders occur. 

where best 

( ''-anite 








<JiliUtz 1 

Near Hayes' JJrook, South-west ^liramichi River. 



Each locality in the following table represents a measured aroa nt 
tifty feet square. 


Jlaciai. Peuioi). 

ithnatoly nMntod 
:t(Mit l)y tlif >iini(i 
r. Anil lirst it 
r gliicial iiniiUuls 
;ion uikUt disiiis- 
Mif the wMlcr^hril 
mnliiiiis, ■^ll t'liras 
ti'icts, which WrlV 
rcil houUlcrs nccur 

:;i()l>. TltCM' ll.lVi' 

Magdalen Islands, 


of Ixmhlors are the 
re Edward Isliiml. 
iliorito (ir diahiiso, 
ar(! siiTWii ;mii 
tr less thirkni-s n 
isportalinn ImiL' tli"- 

ret'erreil to, certain 


s|iai;e in I'lU.'li 
nu'tlwid ailnjiti'd. 

ill lie 


. tnd 


1)1 lU 


al ii->\t 



1 ail 








nieasiuvd arm "t 



51 M 


Xi;w lliilN'swicK. 

1 \i Lu'lL'"' 

■Illlll' llll'l' illlllVC lidicMtllWll 

I AtMii 



Ill Itivcr, cipiiiisitr l''n'il- 










z . 


— -7 



■^ J^ 

,5 it 



^ - 


•.-tr: I 

— * 



; N.-ar 

11. Tt 

llavis's Lanihii),' I'lrmik. ."i inilcs 

li uf iiiniuh lit \>\ 
iwii. 1 list side cif 

,' iiiiir i; 

mile lii'liiw lust . 


11 l'„.fAi-ell 

iL'N'iar I'.lackvillc 

III aiinllicr pliicf. 
Dnaktoii mill iJimpliy's 

33; 32! 

I I 
2011 ' 

3IMI • 

3: 1 . . 
2 1 . . 

10 ill 1 7S .. V 


lii.l milt i. Ill nt l\i..iiiiiis imil Dniitraivim 

if 1) 

I Dii 

l.M'i.tW'iii Kiiuais ami |)iiiij,'ar\iiii river 

111 N'.-ar 


ille, I. ('. I{ 
iieoiii-t statiiiii, 

IsSaliiieii Ki\er, near ('astawiiv Kiver. 

P. (.). 

I. C. I! 


7i 34 
040 20; 

711 5 




0!) 14 

...m (■) 10 

1! 1' 


Meailiiw liriiiik. 
Srtflrllli'llt, Sniiliurv eilliuty. 

MM (i 


30 4 


:'.' I'.iiiiis'iilleii. Siiiilairy enmity, 

XoVA SriiTlA. 
it On iiuitla-ni ~loiii. of Ccilieqilids 

>iiliiii II .iM 
I -lain 

'imils oil I'oai 

to F 

lliJiii hi^'lie-r uauuiiil, South .Toi,'j;iiis . . . , j oCi 

'!'. MalL'ill "I Millinlie UKllsll 

• .v.. 


! •>-)l 

At Atlii.l,. , : 511; 

;il >|ai 


.'At Halt 


nil, east side 

iiraii liiver. 1 

I'Mr foot of Coliciiuitls. 

uav liner 




1 34 

0, 10 




■t San 

d I! 

SI At Itivii' riiili; 

ar iiiili> imi 

til of (Ixford, 

'.131 . 
31 . 


;N'.ar lilark l.'ivrr 03 

I Ni-rtli ol'i'lnpiiiiisoii station, I. (.'. J{. 

■ Wrv 


:ii'iii lii'l'iiit liiver mild. 

I'lX'llI' I'llL'HasI 

MWVst -idi iif I'liL'wash Kivi-r, two mile 


mill iiiiMitli 




e-^ Wrsl of Coim's Mills \ 1 2S 




HN.iU'Wallaee villi 


another iilace. 

01 1: 


■f. ^ H 

Oil I! 

1' C, 


ill Xnv; 
•' Seotia. 




NEW rmuxswicK, nova scotia and p. e.,an-i>. 

Ill V. V. 









I'mxcK KiiwAKi) Island. 

Xortli C':\]\i' 

Mills" rciiiit, iiiii'tli-f:ist. sliiirc 

At AllpcrtdU 

.Vt raiiiiiliclltdii 

At Kii.T-.iicsiiiti.iii, 1'. K. 1. n.... 

At I'.irt Mill 

At Cili'iiiaii stiiti.iii, ]'. ]•;. 1. K. . 

At I'.)rtii},'.' .• n 

At Wflliii^ftfiii .. " 

At iioitli-i' cast, nciir Margate 





















C5 C 

* * 
, .i7r)3!l]2 

-f 1.' ~ ' 1 

■r. r- -'- l.\ 


ll.llll.l.M'S til.' 

.saiii.' .>n til.' 
an as .if N.'W 
ISniiisw ic'k 
ami I'l'iuc.' 

Tioiildcrs ill 
Nova Scitia. 

Til Prince Edward Tsliuid, the lioiddcrs wore not foimlc.l. tli" .lilHr- 
ent kinds only licinjj: noted. The relative proportion .it' tr,ui>ii.iirril 
cry.talline boulders to those of local origin is, however, nun li !r>s ili.i.- 
than on the niiunland of Nmv ISrunswick". 

From a study of the foregoing table, it is apparent that ilii' trmv 
ported or crystalline boulders upon the Carbonit'erous aiva ..i NVw 
JJrunswiok and Prince Kdward Island, are identical with ih..-r uhmi 
the surface of the pre-Carlioniferous rocks to tht! west. I'ikhi tin; 
latter ar.'a no sandstone or grit boulders were met with, ainl this fart. 
taken tilong with others, goes to show the dii'ection .it' ili.' lirit't 
nio\'ement, \ iz., that it was from west to east. XotwiilistaiHliiiL.' tli.' 
immense ([uantities of material trans]iorted in this direct luiwivcr. 
everywheie upon the surface of the Carboniferous plain the ^ivai pt- 
ponderance of boiddei's derived from the uiulerlying --aii.lstiiiK's. i- 
es]iecially noticeable. ' >nly in a \ cry few localities near the w.-ti-iii 
margin of the area do the boulders of the older crystallini' ini'k- t'iniii 
the west predominate. Tieyond a di-tance of twenty .ir t u.'iity live 
miles from the margin of the crystalline rocks, the sanilst.iii.' h.iuiilii- 
outmnn))er all others put together. 

In New lirunswick and Prince Edward Island, the 111. .~i aliiiii'iai.t 
of the crystalline boulders are granite and dioritc, whiili a.'.iiii lai^.'lv 
prepondei'ate over all others. .Slate and felsite com.' w\\. ih. 11 1:11. 'i-\ 
etc. This relative |iroportion as regiirds the number .it' ih.,-.' hmililfi- 
upon the Carboiiiferous pliiiii is not far diU'erent from thai jnrx ailing' 
on the surface ttf the cry.stalline rocks themselves, so fai as .il. .'r\ atimis 
hiive ex' ended. 

Turning to Nova Scotia, we find the distribution of b.iuhh'is in tlu' 
district occupied by Carboniferous rocks north of the Cobi'iuid Mmm- 



53 M 

(liri'ctiuii. liowi vrr. 

near ilif wi-tcrn 

• iitv <<v uvciity-tiw 

winch n.'niii 

ItVoni ilmi l'ii'\!U: 

,;iiiis to 1"* somewhat clilTerent from that just describt'd. Sandstone 

ami i;iit l.irnoly piedoniinate, and among the crystallines, diorites still 

,i,iui>y ii inominent place; but boulders and debris derived from the 

OilMiiuiil Mountains are elements wliieh have to be taken into account 

Ii,,iv, Hence the great abundance of syenite and fclsite boulders 

uiiiii llii-^ slope, as compared to the portions of New Brunswick and 

Piiiuc !-(l\vard Island to which these i)b-:er%ations have reference. 

riiiin ilic iioitliern brow and sunnnit of these mountains, a few sand- .M,„„'it.'ii,iJ 

-tunc anil grit boulders occur intermixed with those belonging to the 

uiiili'ilving crystalline rocks, and an interesting jtroblem has arisen in 

iv:;ir(l to them. (Sir J. W. Dawson explains their presence there by 

liir ibiiiiii ot' floating ice, and it is possible he may be right. Uut I 

li;ivc liccii miiible to find any system of glaciation either by land or 

il'jatiin; ice which will account for the jihenomena without raising 

iiihtT (liliiculties, some of them insuperable, and have therefore been 

oiuiiicllcil to adoj)t another hypothesis (page 29 M this report). The 

suulstiiiics (lip away from the mountains wherever they are sc(!n 

ir^tii);; nil their noithern base, and in some ]ilaces are found In situ well 

u[i(in tlic slopcis, r.g., at Willianisdale, where they occur six hundred to 

,-f\(Mi Imiiiircd feet high, and west of Wentworth station four hundred 

ami sixiy-livc t'eet high. No stossing from ice action was found along 

tliiMioitliciii slope of the Cobe(iuids, and the inference, therefore, is that 

neither land nor lloating ice has impinged against their sunnnits from the 

iioitli. < Ml tlic contrary, wherever glaciation is found, the proofs are 

ml wanting that it is due to ice which moved down-hill northwardly. 

Tho L'iilic'|uids have been uplifted hirgely, some parts perliajis wlioUy, 

>inic tiic Middle Cai'boniferous age, and certain j)ortions of the sand- 

Muiic strata have been raised with them. Extensive and deep-seated 

ili'iimlatiou has removed tliese strat.a, except very small patches on the 

lliiiiks, iuul scattered boulders of sandstone among the local debris on 

the Mninnit, which still exist there. Wherever the debris showed ice 

aetidii. it was founil that the sandstone boulders were glaciated 

similarly to those belonging to the crystalline series underneath, this 

L'kiialioii. I lake it, l)eing all due to local land-ice. 

lliiuliici' rlay <iccurs in low, rolling, or lenticular-shaped mounds near ''""il'lcrclay, 
•' . . iiioik'of ocmii 

the ciiast of Xorthumberland .Strait in Cund)erland county. Nova ivnce. 

f" 'itia, and Westmoreland county, New Brunswick. These often have 

H thiekiicss of ten to twc;ity feet or more. Back from the coast here 

tlie l)iiiil(li'r-clay, as a rule, becomes thinner and more sporadic in its 

'listrilmtioii. Along the nortiiern slope and base of the Cobequids, it 

is "Illy licic and there that it is to be seen, long stretches of the slope 

lieiii',' c(i\i red with residuary material. On the summit, howi'vcr, it 

51 M 


occurs ill slieets of liinitfid extent, local glaciers having apiianntlv Imd 

gathering grounds there. 
]!i)iil(liT-c'l!iv Heavy heds of luHilder-clay occur upon the Carl)Ollift•l■ml^ juvn nf 
(IMS ;uiii (jf J>ew l.runswick whicli apjiear to l)e tliickest in the vmIIcv ot tlif 
Xiu- liiuiis- Xortlnvest and Soulliwest Miramichi rivers. These val 


leys, wliicli iiiv 

pre-glacial, were in the glacial period pretty nearly tilled with li..iiM(i. 
clay, containing a large proportion of transported niatcii.ils. dtu.n 
including lioulders fmni live- to ten feet in diameter derived t'luin thr 
pre-Carbdiiiferous rocks to the west. The \alleys lia\(' sinci- Ikm.h 
deeply eroded by tiie rivers, ami the great numbers of Ituiijiiiis Kjnw 
in them are such as hive been exposed in this way. In i;iiii.|;il 
there are a gre/iter number of boulders in the lower portions ui \\\i- 
valleys than along their ui)i)er nvielies, whii'h is mainly (hn- to the fait 
tliat erosion has been greater therci. '{"he beds of these ri\ei-. mav in' 
compared to an inclined plane, the upper jjarts being neaily as h\<^\\ a> 
the general level of the country, or of the boulder-clay lilliii;;- iNuh 
valley, while the lower porti(jns have been cut down more decjily intu 
it. For (>\amiile, along tli(* upper jiarts of the bit lie Sduihwc-i, 
llenous, J)uiigaivon, Main Southwest Miramichi rivers, eic, lluwin; 
through the Carboniferous plain, the terraces and banks iinlnsiiiL; 
them become lower and lower with respect to the rivers' Ix'd as wr 
ascend, and it is evident that the rivers llowecl at liiLrlier Irvrls iu 
early post-glacial times, probably upon surfaces very nearly as liiL;lia^tli'' 
general level on both sides of their pr(;sent valleys. Iiiderd ii wmiii! 
appear that in some ])laees their waters must, at ^iul;"', lia\i' 

diverged from the \alleys aiul inundated eeitain tracts iiiiti >iili , 

remodelling tiie boulder-clay and transporting boulders. The iij'|fi 
portion of the ]i(>nous Ixiver then (lowed into the fiitth; Soiitli\\i'<t l>v 
a wide \alley .along tin; western margin of the Midtlie t'.irliiinitVinUv 
^lav not the wider distribution of gravels an 1 t-lay inid the Mvittrriii:; 
of boulders oxer the surface of tin; Carboniferous area h.i\e lufn ai 
least ]>artiaily aceomplished in this way .' It would seem that iu 
early post-glacial times, as these rivers debouched from the iiieiiiitaiii- 
or higher grounds of tli(> pie-Carboniferous region to i he w' si uimii 
the plain, they s|)re,ad their waters o\cr the le\-el eoimtry ly iiiaiiv 
devious routes, until after a time tliey becimi^ conliiied to hih' paiti- 
cular valley. .\t the present day, they llow along their lower narh'- 
in deep trenclu'S of greater or less width cut into b,ink.^ of iniiiMri- 
clfiy which, in early times, iilled their valhys m tin' hiini. 
This feature is especially noticeabh; along the .Miraiin'chi iiMr-- n- 
ferred to. 


g ai.iiaiviitlyha.l 

mifiTiiii^ arcii of 
111' viiilcy iif til,. 
.'fillcvs, whicli III,, 
led willi ImuldiT- 

iiiutfi-ials, nt'bMi 
lorivcil tVniii till. 

li;i\i' s'uMx' lici-ii 
of buuldiTs lyiii:; 
iiy. In L'(Micr;il 

jKirtidhs III till. 

ly llllc til til"' tart 

!.se ri\-('rs inav he 
noai'iy ;is liiirh as 
•cliiy tilliii-' cull 
iiion' ili.|.|ilv iiiiu 
Little Siiiitliwi-vt. 

I'ers, ell'., Illiwill;;' 

liaiiks iiii'lnviii^ 
'i\('i-s' lii'd a< wr 

liit;hcr jrvi'ls iu 
'iirly as liiuliastlH' 

Tiidrnl it wimlil 

'lat sIul:''. lia\i' 

S (111 rillu'l- >iili'. 

fs. Tllr lljilil'l' 

tlr Si.ulllWi-l liV 

(.'ai liiinii'iTiiU-. 

il tjir ^i-,ltli'liim 
v.a li,-L\r lii'HIl ill 
I -rnii tli;it ill 

11 t lir liinUlltailh 
) I lir \Vi.>l 111" 111 

mill I y liy many 

■(I t II' I'iiiii- 

ir luwrr ivaclii'-' 

Ills, III' iiiiiililir- 

Icvs III till' liniii. 

M.iriii iiv('r.-> ri'- 



■ )■) M 

Tnwai'ils the of Northuniberlanfl Stniit, near Miramichi River, 
th(> liiiulili'f-clay, unlike that of Cumberland county, becomes thinner 
and iiiiM'c sporadic and in many places is underlain by rottenrock in Klfii. 

Tiie western pai't of Princt; I'Mward Island i.s covered pretty rxten- 
siveiv with boulder-clay in which j^cbbUjs and boulders fi'oni the 
crv-talliiie rocks of central New lirunswick and a few from the Middle 
(';u'liiiiiit'i'i'i>ns ai'e embeddtid. The debris of Millstone grit also occur.s 
in Miiiii; Inraiities intermixed with tin; boulder-clay. On the higher 
^'I'ounds of the central part of the island, tlu^ superficial beds (.'onsist 
lai'Ki'lv "f residuary material often fnjm ten to twenty feet in thiek- 


The heaviest bed.s of true boidderclay in Prince Edward Island occur Win-ic ln.'ni- 

n I ,, . ,, " ,, 1 ■ 1 I '"^t 111 'lis of 

mi the coast. Ijanks or it from ten to twenty Tei!t tluck may be seen i„,ni,i,.|.-cia\- 
iifMi'L'aM'udish and Capo Turner, also on the .south-west coast near Cape '."'[''"' ,'" 
TiaM'i'sr. OxH'rlying tlu^se and strewn o\er the coast districts, especi- 
ally nil the north-east side of the island, occur a inniib(,'r of i)oulders, 
iu iuidititin to those transported from New Brunswick, which do not 
M.'Pin related to any of tiie rocks of the region under examination. 
Iliiw till"-!' reached there is a ]iroljlem. At present it is sup[)osed they 
havi' lici'ii liiirne thither by floating ice. 

Vi'i'v interesting deposit.s )i Ijoulder-clay were met with along the 
iiditli-wi'st coast of the May of Fundy, some of which hasc been dc- 
M.iilii'il ill |ire\ioiis reports. -•- 

Oil till' .Magdalen Island, a few small ciystalliiie boulders were :\ra:_'i!alc.ii 
iiw.i'Ni'd on the north-west sides of Amberst and (Irindstonc islands; ,,^t"i',',,uij|'.,. ' 
iiiit whrllier transported, or derived from the central crystalline hills >^'l''.v. 
ni I'aili riiuld not be determined in the limited time at my dis[iosal. 
It i-imt improbable tliey were borne thither by floating ire wheii 
i-laiuls .stood at a lower level, though none were found in the sand 
lii'ai'hi's of the r. 'cent period. As stated already, no boulder-clay was 
I'lHiul nil the four largest islands of the group, vi/.: Amiu'rst, tirind- 
siiiiif, I'.iitrv and Alright. 

Ill ilic study of the boulder-clay of the region, iiarticidar iiii[uiry y 

was iiiaile II 

1 respect to the occurrence of intercal; 


.f Cli 


gravel, or wl 

lether there were anv other tacts teiuliny- to 

lii-iN ill 

iii\v a (li\ ision 

of the glacial ileposits. Exce[it ;it (Saint .lolin, Ne 


I'li'uiiswirk, however, noim were found. The origin of the defiiKsits 
tiii'ii' has been explained as simiily due to local oscillations of the ice- 

liiiut ill a sulisic 

iw' area, wi 

th tl 

le nuirgin, for part of the time at 

'Aimiial f;i.|iiirt(;i.()f. Siirv. Can., Vol. IV.,(N..S.) ISSS S!l. Part X. liullrtiii (icol. 
i. iif Aimiica, Vol, 1\'., iip, IJGl 370. 


5G M 


least, i.i'., (luring the local advances, extending some distiuni' licvrjiid 
the then existing coast line. 

Tn a number of localities where the boulder-clay exceeds ,i 
of eight to ten feet, the upper and lower parts exhibit the dillcrences 
due to oxidation and non-oxidation. A deposit of this kind uicuis ut 
Alma, Albert county. New Ib'unswick,* and similai- e\;nii|il(s were 
noted at other localities, showing the upper portion of tlie liniiMi.i..,.];^. 
to be oxidized, while the lower portion consisted of blui>li i:iay, enm. 
pact till. No int(Mvalated beds were observed, lutwever, aloiiu tlu'Jino 
of demarkation between the oxidi/ed and non-oxidized jiortions, iiiid tlie 
infertMice is, therefore, that the whole mass is really one lied, tho 
chemical change in the upper portion having taken pluce siiac its 

Glaciai. Stki.k 

Gliiciiil striiu. The following list of striic, end)races all that ha\e been disinvi'icil 
in the district ref(!rred to in this report. An attempt is here iiiadctn 
difl'erentiate tliose produced by the ice at the period of its niaxiimim 
extension from the stria' foi'med wheri it was diminishing and rctiie- 
ing, tho movements at the latter stage having been ajiparently iiiine 
local and affected to a greater extent by the minor inecjiialitics nf tin* 
surface. There are, howev(;r, a considerable number of stri:r whicli 
it is ditlicult, if not impossible, to correlate in this way, or tn iisvii;n 
to aixy pai'tieular stagt> of tin; glacial period. 

Stria' ])i'o(luced by iloating ic(!, or ice-])acks, have been fuundina 
number of places along the coast. These will be placed in a si'panitr 

The ])earings of the stria' are in every case referied tn ilif true 
meridian, and the elevations to mean tide-level. 

Striip i>ro- St)'i(r SuppoH/'d to hare buen J't-odnrol at the Maxim nm S/aijr of 
<I.K...<latniMxi. ahiriation. 

IlllllU I'Xtl'll- 

sioii (if the ice. 

Alukut CoixTV, N.B. 

In Albert Co ^- ^^ Dawson settlement, S. 4-1' E. and S. 57 Iv Stnss side to the 
KB. ■' N.W. Height, 4.TO feet. 

2. On upper cross-road leading from Weldon Crerk- tn Turtle 
Creek, part of it west of sheet No. 4 N.AV., S. 52 E. Stoss si.le X.'\V. 
Height, 22.") feet. 

;>. South of Mary's Point quarry, S., S. 8' W., and 8. lli \\ . 

Aiiniiiil Kcport (icnl. Surv. C:in., Vol. IV., (X.S.) ISSS-S!), w- iM-L'"' s. 



57 M 

n'lvd U> lla' true 

i.i-tiiiinu >''(','/'■ ';' 

Stoss siilf to the 

I. .\ -Imi't, distance south of road I'uniiiiig out to Mary's Point, S. 
^ i:.. S. li» AV., S. 23- W., 8. 28 W. and S. ;3;$ W. .Distinct and 
will (Ifliiiid. Slojte to N. Heiglit, 110 foft. 

j. Still t'lii'tlicr south, on saincs road, 8. 25 W. 

I'l. liiili a niilfl north of Little llidge cross-roads, on sliore road, 8. 
: i:., S. -j:; W. and S. 28' W. 

;. ()|[ mad to Cape Enragt', about one nido from Caj)!', 8. 2.") W. 
Steep sl(i|M' to E. llcight, 150 feet. 

S. Haifa mile east of All)ert (Hopewell Corner) on Crooked Creek, 
<,-i:\ W. Ileiglit, ;U0 feet. 

',1, (miIii.;- snutli from Aihei't (Hopewell Corner), on cross-road lead- 
ing' tnwanls New Ireland, 8. 28' \V. <)l)scure. 

10. On Iliad going up from Kiverside, through Caledonia settlement 
iiit liend lit' rnail), S. 2;'. W. Height, 77U feet. 

II. Oil mid from liiverside, going through Caledonia settlement 
iitt'inf ivii'liing cross-road hviding towards Alhert Mines, 8. 2 M, 8. 
- E. anil S. 12 E. ; a .short distance beyond, 8. 4 E. and 8. 12 Iv 
I In otliiT r.Kposures near liy, 8. 2' E., 8. 7 E. and 8. li W. l)is- 
'iii.t i^riMivcs. Height, 1,120 feet. 

]:'. Fuiilicr north, at extreme height tm this road, a small exposure 
ixhiliits, S, i; !•:. Hciglit, 1,2;{0 feet. 

l.'l, Siiutli nl W'oodworth settlement, one mile above cross-roads, 
>. I- W. and S. 2:'> W. 8loiie, 8. Height, 500 feet. 

U. \\ till' tup of the hill further up, on same road, 8. 18' W., S. 28" 
W. ami S. ,")(.) W. Exposure here shows southward ice-movement 
vmclraily. Height, 590 feet. 

I"). Ill Sauinill Creek valley, 2J, miles south of Hopewell Hill, 8. 8" 
W, llci-lii. .".(10 feet. 

III. .\t u|ipi'r cross-road, on west side of same valley, 8. 7" E. 
>:i.l»'K. Ilridit, 950feet. 


1". Aldiut half a mile north of Catamount siding, T.C.I}., in a gi'avel n W.'>tniorc 
(■nttiiiir (pi'iliaps on a b(mlder),=i^ N. 79 E. Very few signs of glacia- '""'C<'.,X.]5 
ti'fluii wairrslu'd here. 

1^. .\i lliiuiireau quarry, 8. S. S= E., 8. 9 E.. 8. l.T E., S. 12' E., 
> :':; i;., S. 24 E., 8. 1 \V., 8. 8 W., 8. 11 W., 8. 28 W., and 8. 
o" W. lli'ight, 420 feet. Great ledges striated. Courses persistent. 

'Ti.i«ti-i:ilril li(i\il(lcrs notwl ill this list lire sncli as tin' ici' lias a|i]iaii'ntly gnuiliil 
Wtrwhili- tliry wire iii-kl in tiic honldcf-L'Ia.y, ('.(.. I'liilifdili'tl in it, tin- stria' licint,' 
aHlnsiiiiMilini'tiiiii as tlidse upon the rork snrfairs in tin' iicii,'lili(iurliiii"l. Siicli 
'Xcnmiifi's -.[]■:■ ciiinnKin in tlio CarbonifiTous areas nf New I'ninswiL'k, Xova Scutia 
ad I'riin-c Ivluiril Islaiiil. 

58 M m:\v iiiirNswK'K, nova scotia anm> k e. island. 

11). Oil slope facin<,' Petitcodiac Rivt'r, S. 7 1^., S. li' i;,, s. j-j K 
mid S. ;5S W. Height, 100 feot. 

20. On (ippositi! .slope, fiiciii;^ Moiiiranu'uok \alley, S. :; !',.,.>. i^ 

E., S. .'VJ H. Tlie S. 1' K. and S. Il' H. striir are well dnin.d an.i 
alanulant. Ileiglit, 'jnU feet. 

Jl. On iiiil neai- Dorelie.stec Cape, on road leadini,' t'l'mn hmvliestcr 
to (I rand Anse, S. li Iv, S. S \V. Tlie S. l' IO. set dcrpr^t. 8t(is> 
side to tlie X. Ilei-lit, ;5U0t'eet. 

'2'2. Alonj.; Intercolonial I'ailway, east of Doreliostor, five m' six niile-, 

s. •_' !•:., s. ;-) !•:., s. 1) !•:., s. n' m, s. :] w., s. .-) w., s. ,s w,, s, 

12 W., S. 1 I W., S. L'U W., S. -JS W. iindS. iL' \V. The ,S > W, 
St ri;e are tlic! most aljimdant, eovering tlie wlioh; siirtace in p.-d'ali.; 
lines. Sto.sssi(le. N. 1 leij,fiit, 100 feet. 

li.'5. At Second West cocl<, half a mile south of forks on roiul, ,•<, ;; 
E. and S. 8 W. Stoss side, X. ilei-iit, oUO feel. 

L'I. On westernmost road leadinj{ from Second AVestcuck to i'ctit 
codiac lliver, about two miles from forks, S. 2 I'i. liei^hi. ■_'•")() t.vt. 

The S. •_' \']. course is seen to i)0 remarkahly persistent (in the ridges 
at the head of Chii,'necto Uay. 

L'.-). I'.eh.w I'eck's Cove, S. 10 W. and S. 2S \V. 

'Jii. West of \Vestc()ck, oil road runniiiL; in icntiv "i 
^larin^otiin jii'ninsula, S. M.'i W. Height, 150 feet. 

27. Two miles west (.f Four Corners, on lieecli Hill in.-id. S, i' E 
Height, 2.")0 feet. 

2S. doing out from Sackville hy road leading tow.inls Oilonial 
Copper .Mine, aftei' pissing third hrook, S. S \V. ,in.| S. lo W. 
Height, 70 feet. 

21*. South of Colonial Copp(>r .Mine, on road coming tVniu ."^arkviile, 
S. 8 Vj. and S. \^^ !•]. Height, .S.j;*) feet. I''urtlier west lirynud niiul 
crcssing, S. 1 \V. and S. IS W. Height, .•}20 feet. 

.■?0. On rojid leading from Meniramcook Valley to ISnih llillroail 
S. 2 !■:. and S. S W. The S. 2 I'], .set heaviest. iieiglii, :luii m. 

31. On summit of ridgo Ijehind .Meniramcook, S. is \-]. Height. 
320 feet. 

32. On first east-and-west road north of Rockland siati m. I.C. lly.. 
about two miles from Mt'inramcook River. S. 7 10. ami S. 12 Iv. 
further east, additional .sets, S. 17 10. and S. Ill K., ami in a tliini 
locality near by, S. 4 E. Height, 280 feet. Slope tn math. 1.'^ 
movement apparently southward. 

33. At a railway cutting a mile and a half east ot' Alidgic. station, 
New Brunswick, and Prince Edwaril Island railwav, 8. ■)! l^v-*' 


]•_' K., s. -n F. 
y, S. - !■:.. >. 1:; 

well (li'lllinl luiii 


59 M 

cr. I'lvi' nr >ix mill- 

•) W., S s w.. > 

W. 'I'll.' S. ,s W. 

; surt'acc ill puriilW 

I Wcsti/iK'k to IViit 

llcii;lil. --'"lO iVri 

•sistcul nil tlii.M'iil;'<s 

lll-W.'St ill IVIIIIV "t 


liiwunls Cnli.iniil 

11 II '4 t'l-Miii S.u'kville, 
'\- wi'>i lii'Viiuil 1'":''' 

t,, r,r,vli llillivwl 

s. IS i: ii«i-!'t' 

V K., ,111(1 N. 88° E. The N. 78' E. set most numerous ami distiuft. 
l|,,i^-|it, ItiO feet. 

:il. N'lar the north end of the Tantramai' marsh, on the sonth-oasl, 
.:,!,. lit till' last mentioned railway, S. 28 W., S. 31 \V., and S. ."JS W. 
>iii|n' siiiiili west towards marsli. Toe doubtless moved in that, dirtiu- 
;ii,ii. il.iu'ht only a it'W feet al)o\o the marsh surface 

:'i.'i. Ai W'ostooclc, S. 8 W., and at \\'()od Point ([uari-y, S. IS \\',, 
>,:;;; \\.,S. 4;} \V. and S. -is W. StosssidoX. ileiyiit, 90 feet. 

.'111. At (M>l lirant'h of Barnaliy Kiver, along I.C.Uy. track, X. 8(5 |„ \ 


Stll^> side W. Height, 207 feet. 

forks on roiuk S. : ^| In :iii'iili''r place, at first brook south of cast brancli, i'>arnaby River, 

\. •<^ i:.. X, 78 E., X. 70 H,, and X. OS' M Stoss side distinctly 

X. 15. 

W. Ilri-ht, iTiO feet. 

MiKn si( 

Aliiiiii iiiic-fourth of a mile north of IJogei'sville station, l.(M\y. 

E., N. 8(; E. and X. 82 K 

I (if 

road goiiiLf eastward, S. 7-'i 

Ic west, llei'dit, 2.")0 feet. 

till this cross 

road, n(!ar head of IJav du \'in lliNcr, S. 82' Iv, S. 87 

K.aiul N. ss .!•:. Sloiu, S. AV. Height, 280 fec^t. 

>. Hall' a mile south of east branch of Iiarnaby lliver, along I. C. 
llv., X. 7^ Iv and X. 88 E., and in another place, S. 77' iv, Iv and 
N >.'l 1',. batter heavy. Stoss side W. 

:!'.i. Two or tliice miles west of Jvogersville station, I.C.lJy., S. 81 \]., 
■iMS. 7s i:. Height, 322 feet. 

I'l. Ill L' ravel and rock cutting just north of liogersville station, I.C. 
lly. S, -i; i:. Stoss side W. Height, 298 foet. 

11. tine mile north of Acadie-ille station, l.C.l'y., X. 59° E. 
M'l^siilr \V. Height, 290 feet. Ijoulder clay three t(j live fc(^t dceii 
Mil 1('( !,:;('. 

\'l. .Vhoiit ,1 (piarter of a mile north of Kouchiliouguac l!i\('r along 
li.' I.C. 1 1 v.. .\. 81 E. and X. 89' E. Stoss side \V. Hei'dit, 278 


Half ,L mile east of Indiantown, Southwest Aliramichi l!iv{>i-, 

iwr-t side of Canada Eastern r 

n railway 

S. 82 Jv and S. 88 E. X 


At Indiantown brook bridire. S. 88 E., S. 8G' E., S. 83" E. 

"1 ■•^. 7S !•:. The S. 88' Iv .set is tl 

le most luimerous and heaviest. 

I', "ii iKiilh i)ank of Southwest Miramiclii liiver, 13-") pact^s a))ove 
I'liioiiili (if the Kenous River X. 87' Iv (deep ruts), X. 09' E., X. 
^ K., N. su E., X. 74° K, X. 73° E., X. 72' E., X. 70 E., ami X. 

60 M 


02' E. These striii' have the stoss side distinctly to llic W . il. i^ht, 
10 to 15 tWt. 

■16. Two miles iibiive T)ei'l)y fui tiio snutli aide ot'lhe livcr, N, 7u i;,, 
N. 5iS^ I']. Tiu!.se striie, also hiter ones pi'oihu'i'd hi'ii', slimv il,,. in 
fluence of the vidley of the S. W. Miifiinielii upon tlie irr iii.i\ciii(i,| 

47. Alont,' tiio Canada Eastern railway, at first liii,di\v,iv i iiis~iii^r 
east (.£ lUaekviUc-, N. S8 R, S. S-2' H. and S. 71 K. SU,yr i,, X. i; 
Ilei'tht, no feet. 

48. One to two miles id)o\-e mouth of Uenous l!i\rr mi 
side of S. W. .Miramiehi iiiver, S, 71 Iv, S, (w Iv. S. ic' I!, and S. 
r)2 E. The S. 71 I'], set heaviest. .Sloju! X. W. tow.irds ii\cr. Ilii-ln, 
70 feet. 

49. One nule east of last place of observation, at hciid in -uiali in 
river, X. 8S K., S. S4 E. and S. 71 K. lli'iuht, 10 fert. 

50. I'ive nules and a hidf below Hluckville, on tlu^ soiitlif.i-i -^ii|r (,t 
the Southwest Miranuehi Uiver, N. 8S E., S. S4 K. and S. ;\ \], 
Land sio])es to S.W. Hei,u;ht o.") feet. 

51. On Cain's Itivcr, on X\ side of tirst big bend alin\c Si\ .Milr 
brook, due I-:., S. SJ K. and S. 7l' E., Striie light. Si.,>s ^ul \\\ 
Height, l-_'8 feet. 

52. A short distance below (he bi'aneh of hnngarvnu l!i\i'i' ciiniiim 
in from Dungarvon L., in rivei's' bank, X'. 70 Iv, Stoss si Ic W. 

53. On X. sid(! of S. W. Mirannehi l>. one mile below r,uii'-.ii.\Mi, 
N. 08' E. Height, 2t;0 feet. 

Queen's Couni v, X". 1). 

In (Jui'in's 
Co., X.K 

54. Half a mile IC. of Castaway brook, on Salmon l!i\er V'<:u\. N. 
78° E. and S. 72 K. 

55. Along (Jaspereaux Rivei-, 7 miles from its mouth, S. ."i | I',. 
50. On west side of Caspereaux Iiiver anil half a mile ,i1hi\.' iliiid 

brook from its mouth, tine distinct stria', S. 5(1 J-^, S. 5S I",.. S. lii' I",., 
S. GO' E., S. 07 E. and S. 72 E. Slope S. \V. Hciglit, liiu t.rt. 

Kent County, N. B. 

In Alhi'itCd. •^^"' J't'tween St. Anthony's station and Little J3u(tnuciit' H'imi'. 
^•l'- along, Moneton and JJuctouclu! Ky., N. 59' E. Height l'.'"i tV.i, 

Several other sets here veering towards the N. indicate ssvoivm^ ire 

movement during melting period. 

58. In ]\Iacdougall .settlement, one mile from railway station, N. ''•' 

E. and N. 50' E. 


^V. I|,„tit, 

fi', N. T'l i;., 

sllllW I lie ill. 
rf lnii\ I'llli'lit. 
WUy rldsxi||._; 
lujlC tn X. i;. 

on siiiith-c'ist 
til' i;. and S. 
VIT. Ili'iulll. 


t;i M 

.VA l".a->t of PcU'i'iu HHttloment, on Liltlo Huotouelio Uivor, N. 59' 
i;, ll,.ijit. 214 tVft. 
1,11, On X, side of Sliediac I5ay, S. Si H. 
1,1. ( )n X. .Sido of .Sliodiiio Kiv»!i', just wrst of Kichibiuto road, S. 

«1 I'.. 

I,:'. 1,1-; tliaii half a niilo south of I luicourt station, I.C I{y., uno 
„.t, S. 71 II. * )tli('rs swerviiig to the north. 

iiji. III u I'OL'k futtiiif,' aloiij,' I.C.I{y,, about t miles south of 
llaivniirt >latiori, N. SI K. 


ll III ■■HlUll 111 

lll-c;i-l ~h\i' nt' 

irui s. ri !■;. 

li()\i' Six-.Milr 
StoSS s\dr \V. 

I!i\iT riilllillu' W. 
i\v Iliiii'NidWii, 

1\(.M' lii.K 

I. X. 



•'... ^. 'i 

1 i:., 

jlilt tV, 


iiichi' IIIm'I'. 

It I'.l.'l tVrt. 

ill mil. 

\ i',:; 

I'.'l. ( III .\inhcrst and Fcnwick mad, a short distance west of junction |,| f,,,,,),,,,.. 
wiili mail to Nuiipan station, I.C.Hy., S, 158 \V. lamlCn., N.S. 

I'll. I 111 Iliad li'adin;^ from Salem to Fenwick, half a mile or so from 
i,,iiii<i' piare, and just north of I'lrst laidi^'c, S. Iti \\'., Stoss side N. ; 
; I:.'.' Iiiukrii oll"al)ru[)tly on S. side. llei,i,'ht, 400 feet. 

>'•'>. (Ill mad from Fenwick to Uaird's laook and thence to .Maceaii 
-Mii'iii, 1. *.'. K., on hank of Ijrook, S. 2 Iv Stoss side X. 1 bright, 

lii'i. A .|iiarter of a mile from Salem, near Leicester, S. LS" 
W. S|ii|,r S. Height, I^S") feet. l'"iv(! rods further west. S, 7" E.; 
-till fiirlliiT west, 8. is \V. 
''<!. .\ mill' anil a half alon.g Leicester road noilh of junction with 

E luiiiv n.ail. S. C-J. K, S. S W. and S. L'!'. W. 

Till' la-i tisT sets ha\(' Ijeen luiiduced by ice coming from tlie wat"r- 
i.lii'iliiii ilii' north, / ''. from tim Leicester and Maccan heights. 

'■'"-. I 111 Lricester road, two miles fi'om Iv'onomy rcjad, X. IS E., 
N, ■.'•; i;.. X. •_'(! H. and X. IM) F. 

rii'si' si lia' occur on leilges near thesununit of thi- r.oicester height.s, 
Inn oil a noiihci'ti slope. Land to the south, in immediate vicinity, oO 
UiiUlti'ci higher. It seom.s probable, thei'efore, that the ice pro- 
lyiiii; ilii'sc moved northwards mainly by the valley of Shinimicas 
liiv.r. llci-lit, 510 feet. 

'''■'. I'll!' mile east of last striie along Leicestei' I'oad, X. 2- E., N. 
:■''■ i:., X. LV, L, ,ind X. 28 E. i [eight, 550 feet. 

.V tiw iiids to the west of these a good ex]iiisure exhibits deep 
ii'iovi's line inch or more iu width, X. 8" 1']., X"^. i;$ E. and X. 22' E. 
il"ii;lit, '>'() feet. 

'". Two anil a half to two and three-quarter miles from junction of 
L't'li' liivir and Leicester road.s, X. 12 W., X. 14' W., X. 18 E., X. 
■-■- i:.. X. :':l E., X. 26' E., X. .'58' E. Height, ;580 to 400 feet. 


02 M 

Ni;w iii(i;\s\vi('K, N(»VA sronv ani> i*. k., 

71. On siuiic road at lioiul of Sliiriiiiiiciis Hiv('r, X. js |;. ||,|j;, 
<.f U'ih^i', IIU tV.'t. 

'Mm iiM) pi'odui'iii;,' tlu'Ni! .striii' has also (lowcil dnwn the \allcvoi 
SliiidiiiicaH Kivcr. Tliti atosw side is muwIumc well cxpuscd. 

7-'. 'Ill LfcMiiL,' tVdiii Lf'i('(vst(M' road to < )xt'ord hy Liiilc liivcr, 
(III l)ank oF lilack liivi'i", N. I'D Iv or tlic rtncrsn. Stosssidi',ip|i,ii|.||||\ 
N. Ili'i,iilit, l.">U tVet. 

7.'^ Oil sliort rrnss-road to iioitli-\\t!st, threw iidlcs mhii li u\ .Mniuii 
Ph'usant, course N. IS lv, N'. iM V.. and X. :,'.'{ !•;, oi' ilic ii'misc, 

74. On first (.'ross-road to west on load leading; tinin i >m'i,|(J ^,, 
Mount I'loasant (may Ih- on a l)ouldcr) N. 8 W. or the ivvci^c, Siu-- 
sido apparently north, lleiyht, 270 feet. 

The last three sets are on a .-oulhward slope, .Mount I'lci-ant licin,' 
to the ninth. 

7.'). Alonj,' .senii-uircular road on west side of .Mo\int I'lia-ani, S. ^ 
W. and S. 2t \V. and a few paces fui'ther north, .*>. 12 W . ami s, .1:' 
AV., or the rcnerse. Stoss sidi' apparently to the ikhiIi. ilri-|ii, 
380 feet. 

These .striii- are on the south side of the summit of .Munni I'lr.bun, 
and it seems probable the ice may liave moved in ihr iliriLiiuu 
indicated into liittle River and IJivcr Philip valleys. 

7<>. On the north side of the sunuiiit of .Mount Pleasant almii; iln' 
straight road goini;- towai'ds Leicester road, N. 8 Iv, X. 7 \'.., N. Ill 
K., N. 12 E., X. ;'. 1-:., N. 1:5 !•:., X. 20' E., N. 2 W., \. > W. and 
N. 12 W., or the re\-erse. 

These stria' are all on the s|o))e of Mount Pleasant facing Nuriluini- 
bcrland .Strait. The llnely glaciated surfaces e.vhiijiteil alnm,' ilic idails 
mentioned, do not enable us to decide the (juestion of the sinssin^ : on 
a few of the ledi;e-< the stoss sid(' seems to be to the ikhiIi, ami mi 
t)thers to the south. Tin; glaciated surfaces slo)ie nmi liunil^ tiuiii 
400 to 280 feet, and the uppermost ledges show, nii.', the 

soutliern faces stossed, ((.me is cleai'ly roiindiM' ,, n, laii' 

abruptly broken oiF) while the lowr ' 'iii\iiiL.' 

stria' are a common feature on these ,. .\i) iuuini« 

are tlu; X. 8 E. and the N. 8' W. ou' ihelattci . icing tliu^c in whiih 
the })rincii)al curved stria* occur. The X. 8" ^\'. set i.s the oMii' a.iil 

77. On the oast side of Mount Plcasa,nt on the cross-road going iliiecl 
to lliver Philip, N. 14^ E. and N. 24 E., or tlie reverse II"i,i;lit. 
300 feet. Slope, noi'thward. 

78. On a cross-road one mile south of Mount Pleasant, (imi on nn, 
which runb westward from the Oxford and Mount I'leasam ronl. ^. 


'. lis K. ||„i.i„ 

iwn the \alli'v (,i 


Mull' Kivcr rciinl, 


S Sdlltll (if Miilliit 
<il' I lie ri'\cisi'. 
; tViim ( tst'iHil tn 

111' rr\ rr^l'. Slii.« 

III l'li';i-;iiil liriii,' 

ml I'liM-iuii, S. ^ 
iL' W. ;uii| s. :i: 

' imilli. I|i'i;'lll, 

.Miiillil i'ic;is:iiit, 
ill llir ilii'i'i'iiuii 

li'jisaiil aliiiiu ilii' 

X. 7 !•;., N. 10 

W., N. ,- W. anil 

. t'iloilU Nnl-llllllll- 

'li all 111;;- llic ivails 

t lie stiis.siiiL; : 111! 

IKII'tll, illlll I'll 

Hurt liw.inls tViiiii 

IIIU'. llif 

:''l'li lur 

'. 'tirviii;' 

I'li I nmi'Si's 

llU'tll'i-i' ill wllii'll 

is tlir iilili'l' il.lil 

mail <;iiiii'_'ilii''t'' 
(ni'isr. ili'i^lit. 

lilt (lint (111 nil, 

'Icasaiil rn.ul, .'^. 



M M 

]•_; \V, anil S. 18 W., oi' tlii! luni-i's*!. Stoss side, apparently ixii'lli. 

II, .j;;!,!, Illlll tWt. 

\'iruiiiu' il"' ;rlaciiit ion of' .Mount Pleasant, as a wliolt', it sccnis iil.n'iiniMii ,,f 
,„,<mIi1i' I" explain it l)y sup|)osin>,' tlu! summit to iiavc liccn ii joial ,^||'|'J"' '"' 
.'laiiiil fiiiti'"' : iiidffd, till' evidence i-alliei' points in tliat diieciion. 
Till' ciiiiiM' of the iee nortliwai'd would take it to the nearest and lowest 
|,;,ii iif the eiiiist, just west of I'uiiwiisji hai'houi', Tiiese striie, liowe\or, 
mil ilianmially aei'oss the northern slope of .Mount Pleasant, and I lie iee 
wiii'li |iii"lii<'e(l them must, therefore, ha\c! hei'ii inlluenced, to sonm 
.\ti'iii, I'V the \idley near its nortlmrn base which tri'iids in the 
,ljii.,'iiiiii lit' the striie. Were it not for the rlilliculty of explainini^ a 
-riUtliwai'il ice-iiio\('nient here, 1 would he inclined to say that the 
uiiiiji' iinHiiitain had been j,'laeiateil hy ice which came from tjie north. 
Wiii'tlii'i' the ie(,' which produeed the easterly-treiidini,' stria' in the 
,iia>t ilislri<t (;ast of .Mount I'leasant, deserihed helow, reeciis-ed an ini- 
P lust'iiiiii the liiLfher j,'i'ounds of Leicester road ami this UKaint.iin, is a 
,iiir-tiiiii that may be answered in the allirmative. And the evidence 
ifiiii-, fill I her, to indicate southward movement oil' tlw; Blount. I'Icasant 
-l,,|irs liirally, 

7;). ' 'ii the south-east side of liiver Philip, just below the eross- 
inail Icailiii'; to C'onirs .Mills, S. S.") {•]. Stoss sido to the W. 
Ili>i-lit. I'.tn feet. 

^i). Almiit I'UO yai'ds west of Pui^wash Junction, Oxford and 
I'idiiii I'laiich railway, S. T^V E. and S. T-") K. Stoss side, W. 

^1. I 111 aiiiit iter rock cutting; near Pn^ijwash .Junction S. 08 Iv, S. 
Mi;.. >. 77 K. and S. S2 I]. llei;,'ht, (lU feet. 

>i I til the east side <jf Pui^wash harbour, on boulders and ledges, 
line []. anil S. (IS E. 

^:l, .\ mile west of cross-i'oads, which are two miles north of Thoin- 
^im station, Intercolonial railway, (perhaps on boulder), N. 73 K. 

Ili'i-iit, -i::'. 

M. .\t Mackenzie Point, north of Wallace hailunn', S. (32' E., S, G7 
i:.,S. rl i;.. S. 74 E., S. 77 E., S. 82 E. and S. 81 E. 

Thrse stria' extend alonj,; ledyes on the shore a distance of 400 to 
JOOt'cet, and are well marked. 

■^■"i. Half a mile south of Wallace villaj,'P, S. 77 E, ITeight, Ifiy 

This set is noteworthy as exhibiting older and deeper stria', then later 
~tii:i' trending nearly N. 

"•'I <iii cast side of Wallace Piver, a quarter of a mile nortli of si.\ 
riiili-ruail (uii bouMer ?) N. 72 E. Height, 80 feet. 

64 M 


87. At Wallace quarry, S. 83' E., very distinct and inuncroiis, ilIm, 
S. 72' E, The overlying boulder-clay is from five to ten t(cii|ri'|, anil 
contains none but local l)Oulder.«. 

88. On road f'nnn AVallace quarry leading straight sduthwaic] to 
Deware River, near brixik, due E. and S. 72 E. 

89. On east-and-west road, north of Scott's Lake, S. 87 K. Slii.„.s. 
Height, 90 feet. 

90. Half a mile noi'th of cross-roads, at Jlornsey, S. 8'_' I], .iinl dn,. 
E. .Slope, S. Height, i:)0 feet. 

91. Al)i)ut two and a half miles east of Wallace statidii, < ixtnnl .iml 
Pictovi railway, at a rock cutting, S. 8-1 Vj. and S. 8G \]. Stdss side, \\\ 
Height, ] 7.") feet. 

92. A1)()Ut three miles east of Wallace! station, (). and ]'. |',i, 
railway, E., 8. 8t) E, and S. 88" E. Height, 15U feet. 

93. About tw()"niiles west of Wallace station, N. 78 !■;. 

91. On east bank of W allace I\iv( r, just above rail\Miv hiiiluv. >, 
72 E., S. 82 E. and S. 8;5 ]•]. Stoss side inetly W. 

9-">. On I'A'onomy road, wist of W'cstclioter, on \. slupc .,i 
CobiHiuids (on boukU'r .') X. 2 ^\^, or the reverse. Ilciulii. liSii tVt-i. 

9G. On short east-aiul-wcist road, a mile, or a uiilc and a Imlf. soul':, 
of Purtly's inn, Westche-tei-, S. 2 Iv, or the reviMsc. Sto-cs >iili' ap- 
piiivntiy N. Height, 9(17 feet. 

97. ' )n Castlcreagh road, half a mile fi'oin iiorlh end, S. L' K. 

98. Three nules south of Sutherland's i^ake, on soul li i::^i'Miiiiin-i 
road, S. 2' Vl. Stoss side, X. 

99. On Economy road nearfouitli i)rn<ik crossed west et' TlinniMiu 
station. Intercolonial railway, iind W'illiamsdale, N. 7^i 1', 
Height, :iOU t' et. 

100. < )n road south of Folly l.nke. neir horder of sln'ci (N.i.l X.W.. 
S. 2 E., S. 22 Iv, ar,d S. 27 F.. St,r,s si,|i>. X. 'I'Iicm' >tii,v lueoi. 
th(> southern Haid< of the lJobe(|inds. Ilei-hi. iI.'jU ti it. 

101. A few rods fuithei' ma'th on t!ie sinie road, S. | W. 

102. < )n a hill on same roMil furtliei' north and U'lir w iifi-parlin:'. 

>S. 22 I']. Cour-e of ice here nearly in direction of \,ilir\. iii'iilii, 

72.') feet. 

On a hill bi'tween this and (''oily bake, and slightly lli^l:^^ lln'ivai' 

no signs of glacial ion. 

lO.'k At first cross-road north of ^^'esl<•hester (I'lirdv - Inn). N. -' 
W., or the reverse. Probahly on bouldei'. 

104. On Hconomy road just noi'th east of Claremont llill,8, t'c' II. 
S. 78 E. and S. 82 E. Height, 120 feet. 



()•") M 

it sdiuliw.ird ti> 

lO'i. < 'a I'oad from Sjjviiighill to Salt .Spriiif*s on cusit^rii slope of 
hill, N. - ^V. or the revorso. Stoss side appaiently to tlio X., hut ail 
thiims ruii.sidiu'ed it seems probable that tiie ice moved northward, 
l[,,i^|,t, ;ilU feet. 

]i,)ii, (111 cross-roads south-west of Kiver Philip P. <)., X. i> E. 
Sto-s >iili' S. 

|()7. (Ml sunnnit of Springhill, highest point, S. 28 W., (ir the 
ivvn-c. Height 010 feet. 

los. At Springhill near Coal Mines Ci'eek, on east side of railw.iy 
tiark. S. II W. A short distance farther east, S. l:> W. and S. 

:■■; W. 

lii'.i. Tu'i miles snuth of Springhill Mines on road going dircrily 
Miutliw.ii'il ending at branch of L'}>per Maccan lii\'er. and at last cross- 
,,1,1 hcrme reaching river, S. 1 1 AV. Iliiglit, :'.()0 feet. 

Iln. ( )ii road near fntercnlonial railway west of .Vthol stiitiim. 
S. -J^ W., S. ."iS \V and S. 10 \V. Stoss side distinctly to X.K. and 
\,,y. lirdkeii ofl'aijruptly to S.W. Height, loO feet. 

111. (iiiiiig along L'^pper ibucan Kiscr towards S()utham])ton abinit 
•wo iiiiirs from end (jf M;ipletiin road, S. CkS W'., S. -Is \\'., S. .'iCi \\'.^ 
mil S. .'!:i W. The S. OS W. strife are the olilest iind are nearly 
!iliif'i;ite(l, side not distinct, but appiMis to l)e tn X.l'>. 

1I-. ('II southeriunost cross-road in West Brook settlement, light 
Mi.l iiTCgiilar stria' S. 1*S \V. Stoss side XMv Height ;5.')0 feet. 

A -liMit distance further west on the .sanity road, S. 8 \V. to S. :i,s° 
\\. S'.e-- side X.K. 

Tlicsr --tii.e hav(> Iteen j)rodiiced by a very sm.'dl Ineal nl.ieier, or a i ;!;i,.j;uii.ii nf 
• 111 'iir nf the Larger one which followed a small valley tiixMiinu' into "'."/)",'""■'"!"' 
'ill' l;ui:ii \ alley of West iJrook, Tlu> ic(» producim;' them does ndt 
.i>|"';ir In liase ascended the Cobeipiid ^^ountains, for, ;it gi-eaier e|e- 
vatiniis nil tlii'ir northern slope no sign of glaciation was ol)^er\ed, the 
M.iifriiil lieiiig angular, the roek surfares wherev.'i- e\|iu-e(l. iagu'e<l 
ami lii'ok-eii, iiidieating suba'rial weathering only, while houlder-clav 
ii.v\ iitlitr e\ idenccs of glacier action are .absent. 

U.i. Along West i'lrook between two cross-roads and .-dioiit tun 
:.i.l. ■■ t'i'Miii the Sprinnhill and l';irr.>iioro' railway (on a boulder ii> .-li/n) 
>> W. 

TIrMIiivi' l.'i^t sets of striie show that- ice fi'oin the ,'Spriiigliill dis- 
tii.t iiiijiiii'ied .against the northern base of lln' Cobeipiids here, but 
'!'»■- lint siTiii to have been higher than the |(l()|'oi>t contour line above 
^iik'vrl. I'idiii this district the ice llowed south-west w.ard lilling the 
iii('i|uiilities of surfaci! along the northern base of the mountains 
reailiiiiL' up the Parrsboro' gap .some distance, but does not seem to 

()G M 


liave gone tlirough. How fai' westward along tlie foot of the HKmn- 
tains the ico extended is not known, as tli'j surface is liea\ ily -dvcivi] 
witli su{)ei-ficial deposits and no glacia»^ed surfaces were noted. 

Ilk On roa<l from Halfway Lake to Southain])ton, half a mile mn 
on cross-road on N. W. side, S. IG' W. Height, 180 feet. 

115. In Pai'rsboi'o' Pass, through wiiich tins Springhill and I'arrsboiu 
railway runs, just south of border of sheet (Xo. 1 N. W.) iam 
striation S. 12 K. Stoss side apparently to the N. 

T!ie latter stria> have ])een produced by the extreme snutlicni oinj 
of the ice lobe which (lowed south-westward and southward almi;,' uiitl 
towards the northei'n l)ase of the Cobeijuid Mountains here, t'luin the 
Springliill district and other higlier grounds to the north-east, as re- 
ferred to abo\e. 

llo.l,. On road along X. side of ^linas Channel, near .'^iiiMin'i'^ 
Island, f^. 67' AV. and S. 70' W. ; well detined. Stoss siiic a|i|i;uvntly 
to the E., ice ha\ing doubtless naoved westward into the Uayof' l"iuiilv. 

11(). On the road leading fi'om .Maccan station, liitciiiilriuial lail- 
way, to River Hebert, near Patrick Aline, S. :2.") ^\^ and S. |ii W. 
.May bo local. Heigiit, 175 feet. 

117. On southerly ro ul going from liOwer Govt; or Boss I'ciint, unrtli 
of the Soutli .loggiiis towards ]{iv(M' Hebert, two miles mii tVnui 
quarry, and on the east side of the watershed, S. 18 W., S. I'li \\\ 
and S. ;'.8 AV. Stoss side doubtful. I leigiit, 210 feet. 

lis. lOigiity rods further east on same road, S. •_'.'> W, aiisl S. :i:l 
AV. lleiglit. 180 feet. 

nil. On road going from Piver Hebert to South .roggins, half a 
mile from river, S. (V2 W. and S. 03 AV. Height, 150 tVct. 

lee producing these clearly moved south westward. 

120. ( )n the coast <jf the Wtiy of I'linily, just sotitli of '|\wi ItiMis, 
S. :V.\ AV., S. 38 AV., S. 4:') AV. and S. 48 AV. Hei-hi. •■/''oiit loO 

121. Two miles further soutl;, bi'fore crossing a ludok, 8. ."iil \\'.. 
8. 38 \V., S. 42 \V., S. 53 W. and S. 58 AV. Height. 2mii tn't. 

122. Half a mile south of last bidok rcjferred to, uliieh is almiit 
half way between Two Pavers and Flat iJrook, S. lU W. ilii.'ht, 
100 feet. 

12.">. A iiuarter of a mile further to the .south-wi'st, di-timl ^tii;i', 
S. 38 AV. and S. 11 AV. Height, 50 feet. 

124. Five rods further to the south-west, S. 48 AV. 

125. Half a mile beyond l''lat brook, S !3' AV. and Ini ii« Is fur- 
ther to the south-west, 8. 48 AV. and 8. 51 W. Height, W tirt. 

Eighty rods furtiier to the south-west, 8. 10 AV. 



G7 M 

liiil. ( Mic iiiid a lialf miles north-east of Shoulee River, S. 43 W. and 
,< IS W. S loss side on X.E. Mciglit, 100 foei. 

1:''. • 'ii slope towards Sand IJiver and about one mile from it, S. 
;;l W. ,11 m1 S. ;]8 W. IIei,^ht, 210 feet. 

Ijs. Twd miles south of 8and River road, S. 30 W., S. 27 W. 
.,,1,1 s. .'l.'i W. Height, 300 feet. 

Ill aiHitliiT jilace a (juarter of a mile further south, S. 28 W. 

fill niils fui'thcr to the south-west, a splendid exjjosure, .S. ;')0 W. 
;„„l:;:l W. Height, 350 feet. 

l:;'.!, il.ilf a mile or more further south, 8. 33 W. and S. 3.^3 W. 
,i„| still tiutiier to the south-west, S. 33 W., S. 28 W., etc., numer- 
,,ij<, Sidss side to N.H. Height, 380 feet. Small projections on 
.'.aiiUcil surfaces of the sandstones with crag-and-tiil form, show 
-mulnvaid ice movement. A perceptil)le veering to more southerly 
nivM^ is .qiparcnt as we ascend the slope of the Cohequids, which is 
iviiiukalili'. aiul can only hi.' ex])lained on the hy])otIiesis that Cliig- 
i.ct'i l'>a\ was lilifd with a local glacier moving soutii-westerly, whosi; 
-I'uiitastrrii liorder oN'erlapped the district in which these striic occur. 

PiuNCE p]i)w.\i!D Island. 

■st, (li-tiurl -.tllii'. 

\?M. Ai l.iiikletter's shore, on llat surface, under boulder-clay, dis- 
::,ri <tii;,., N. (;? E., N. 7 r E. and N. 7(i E. Stoss side to AV. 

I'll. Along Prince Ivlward Island railway track, south-east of 
Kiii^iiv:ioii siatioii, \. 71 Jv Stoss side W. Hciglit, IKifect. 

r'l'.'. A loll-- Cape Traverse railway, about one mile from iMuerald 
.1 .iniiiiii, N. T'l 1'^ and on another letlge near by, X. (')7 E. Stoss 
■ 1. W, ilright, i;50 feet. 

I'i.!. I iiii. to one and a (piarter miles north of Kinkora station, X. 
v" 1-. Stiss side W. Height, 100 feet. Fi'om two to five feet of 
"iilili'i'-i'.ay overlies the rock surface, and contains numerous glaci- 
:,iiil liuiiMiTs, all local. 

111. Halt' M mile north of Albany station, S. 78' ]•]. and X. 82 E. 
ll'i-iit, 1 •_'."! feet. 

lo"i. South of Albany station, on boulder Iti i^ifn, in a gravel pit, 
'vliicli tits into posi.tion in a ledge, S. 7'J E. and X. 83" E. Height, 
^'1 fet't. 

K'l''. At IWvadalbaue station. Prince Edward I.sland railway, 131 
Mlii;'li, \. (1!) E. 

13". Two miles west of Hunter Kiver station, N. 89" E., X. 73' E. 
:dN. 7:; K. 


Til 1'. K 



138. Whei'o a mad crosses railway ti'ack alxuit halt' u,iy lici\vf.,.|| 
Hunter River and Nortli Wiltshire stations, S. ST I]., N. s(i |.; 
N. 85-E., N. S;] X.T'J H. Tlie X. s«J Vl. sxn:au,u. uuum;',nl 
lleiKlit, L'lO feet. 

The ie(> pi-odiieiny these striie lias followed valleys aloiiM wjijrli tli,, 
railway runs. The glaeiation of the hii^lier j,'roun(ls in tlii^ niut ,|f 
tluf island has l)een light, as great masses of rotted rock nwiir in 

139. A ([uarter of a mile east of cross-i'oads, South \\'ili-lii:v, dn i 
.small exp<Hnre, sloping eastward, N. Si' Iv Height. L'sn I'ni, 

110. At the end of road between I'lalt I'.iver and I'x'utiik {_',j\,., 
N. 07 E., N. S.") 1-:., etc. 

in. 'I'hree ijuarters of a mile to cast of County l.iiic .m X,v. 
15ede(iue road, N. G'.l E. lI.Mght, 200 feet. 

142. West of intersection of County Line and New l"'i!(i|uc loaii-. 
N. 77 K. Height, 2 It) feet. 

ri.'5. At intersection of above roads, X. 77" E., N. >"^ V,. auil V 
02 !•;. Height, 250 feet. Slope X.W, 

111. Xorth-east of Middleton whert- road crosses hi , null m |)u:,k 
]vi\er. N. 71 Iv, X. (i7 H. and N. 77 1''. Height, ■''> net. 

1 I'). On Southwest rt)ad, ime mile and a half south ot' New l!c(lt'i|U'' 
road, S. SS K. Height, 150 feet. Slope S. 

140. Ninety or <nw hundred rods east, of junction ot Sl)Ulll\v^•.^t ai.i 
New ISedeque roads, X. S7 Iv Height, 170 feet. Ship,. W. 

147. I'Mfty rods west of County Line on crossroad, one mile N. ; 
Try(m, X. O'J E. Height. lUO feet. Slope, W. 

148. Xear end of rt)a(l, X. of I'n'ntick Cove, X'. 77 I".. Tiilr Ii'\.'. 
A few rods furthei' W., X. 07 Iv 

149. A ipiarter of a mile east of feriy over I'/llis l!i\e:', N. '\' ]'.. 

150. On west side of Sai)le Kiver bridge, X'. 7-'l I"... N. 'i:i L ma 
N. 77 Iv 

151. < )n east side of Sal)le l!i\-er on I'oad to lionsliaw, X. " ]'.. 
He ' t, 170 feet. Slope W. 

152. A "[uarter of a mile east of Cape Traverse, S. '■'> i! ami >. 

71 !•:. 

153. .\t i'oint. Cape Traverse, S. 7."> l). 

154. West of Cajie Tivuersc, S. 71 \]. 

155. A f(nv yards further west, S. O:) {■]. and S. CiS !■;. Si ill t'lirtii-T 
west, S. 08 K, X. 77 K. and S. S| j]. 

loG. Westtjf Cumberland Point, S. 75 !•;. undS, S| I!. (iii ann'h.rl 
exposure a short distance to the west, X. 72 E. ami S. r,7 i;, !?ti.lj 
urther we^t, S. 71 E., S. 73 E. ami S. 7'.' E. 




0!) M 


i:,;. Ili^l of Cumbefland Point, X. 7:V' E. and S. 67' E. 

ilalf.i milt' flirt he 1- west, 8. 7.'5 E. 

i.>. N'.ai' siMiill hrook one niilo and a half north of Tiyon Head, 8_ 
K. Il'i^lit, -'0 feet. 

iji.i. .\i iiid of sliort road west of Paul's Bluff, N. 87' E. 

|r,ii. Ai junction of l>(>(lo(jue road witli east branch of Tryon River, 
> V, i;., N. ?<!• E. Hci.nht, -20 feet. 

lill, (tii ui'st side of Augustine Cove, a ijuarter of a mile west of 
,.;i,v'l l.rnnk. S. 7:! E., S. (;8 E., S. 81 ' E. and S. .s.", E., distinct. 

,(■,•.'. I 111 iM.ul cast of AU)any, tt^n rods north of 'J'ryon iJivcr, X. 87' 
i; slu]i.. SIO. J [eight, 7") feet. 

;r,:',. At |Hiint west of Gordon Cove, 8. C3 E., S. GS' E. and S. i^' F. 

y.\, Ai r.n>|nct Point, S. Si K. 8. 7."V !•:. and 8. 03 \]. 

11;, aiintlii'f cxpoMirc, 8. (is E., 8. 7l) I''., 8. ()."» K. and 8, 70° E. 
';', i. alt' iwii inaiii courses, 8. OS !■]. and 8. 711 \]. A little further 

,.'. S. li.'i I"., and 8. 7."> Iv : and still further east, 8. S3 E. ami 8. 
1.. Tiic litter are a (juarter of a mile east of I'.otjuet Point. 

.ii."i. On Inl^jcs liclow hiudi tid(! level, one mile west of railway wharf' 
r,i,. Trav.M-c. .<. SI K., 8. 7S |-:. and 8. 5.") !•;. 

>;.;. Xniili c)t' Cordon Cove. 8. 7! E., 8. C.S ]■]. and X. S7 K. 

!■;:. At Sr,i Cow ilrad. 8. ti8' i^. and 8. Si K. Hei-ht, 5 feet. 

iiN. i',a-i 111' Indian I'oint, X.S7' !•'. 

y.'.t. Al Sinipson's Point, north of IKjpe l!i\er, 8. S2 1]., 8. SH Iv, 
> > I'., amis. S'.J Iv PeculitM'grooM's indicate eastward niovenieiit. 
llu'ii rV"iii tjiioi' feet below liiiih tide kncl to four feet aboN'c it. \ti 

rti'i'iflil r\[](isure. 

;:i\ N.-ir head of Trout lliver, 8. 8S E. and X. 80 E. 8toss side, 
'V ll.i-'ni. III.-) t'eet. 
\'\. W'liiiv MilUale road bends northward down TiMUt lii\'er, S. S3 

" l|rii;!ll. 1 In tecl. 

'.'.'1. Sfw buiidon l>a\', one mile north of Stanley IhidL^e. 8 7S E., 
^ ^ K.. s, s:i !•:., 8. S3' i:., 8. 73' !•:. and 8. SS' ]•;. Ilei-ht, fi'om 
■ r .'M'! Id tuiir t'ci'l aboN'c it. 

'i"i. Hid I'liiice Town road, forty ntds north of Margate, X'. G-") Vl. 

llLllI. tit) t'rrl. 

"I. A (iiiaiier of a mile north of road end. Mill's I'oint, X. t'>7 Iv 
\'A. At Mills I'omt at end of road, X. Go Iv 

.""' Ill Maliieijue !>ay, neai- end of road west of Mill Creek, X. ~y 
LX. 71 i;. N, (;7 E., X. 7'J Iv, X. SI Iv. N. 77^ E., X. G'.t !•:.. 
s u'l v.. >'il^B^ '" i- and N. .■)!• E. Near hiyh tide level. 8triie numei'ous and 
s>:iiliim- across id paces of rock surfa<-e. 

halt w ay lirtwfv'i 
7 Iv. N. Ml i;.. 
•iatiuii- iiinni'i'ir.v 

s aloiri whirli tl|,. 
ids ill ilii^ imt i,t 
ted roi-k nri uv in 

ttli W'iit^liiiv, mi 1 

it. L'SIt I'ert. 

and I'eiitick t'liw 
.intv 1/nie nil NVv 

S'ew r>ei!n|llr 
;.^ >". SS Iv ami N. 
scs bnuirli lit Ihiak 

lit, "l^l leet. 
lUthot New I'.cir'iU- 

111 of SnlltllWl'jt lUl'i 

Slo].,. w. 

Ilij. one mile N. "t 

r: Iv Ti.ic ii'vi, 

is itive;-. N.''T K. 

:; iv. N.'i- .H-'''^" 
r,oii>li;i\\. N- ' ' '■■ 

h aii'l 

(iS Iv Still turil"'!' 

;_«;1 |.;. ( 111 alio'Ii-'f 

fO M 


MriiB at St. 
I'.tcr's l'.MV. 

N'>u- l',iun>- 

w irk icf ..]| 1 
!•:. M;ui(l. 

170. Seven liuiidi'ed iiiul seventy piiees west of lasl nicntioiii.d lo.i,] 
end, N. 8:5 K, N. 51 E., \. lU K, X. G7' E., N. 41 i;., \. n:. i 
andN. 87'E. 

177. North (if St. Peter's P.ay, near railway station, N. s; |-; 

178. On S.W. side (if St. Peter's l>ay, west of railway staiiun X. 
8-i E. lioulder-clay i>lentiful. 

Three sets of striic oeeiir at St. Peter's P>ay, vi/,., (I ) ,ui cast' ilv set 
wliieh is tlic oldest, ('_') a nortlisvai'd set made l>y local ^laeicrs llowiii' 
northward from the hi,;,dier j;rounds of the islantl the 
CJulf, and (.S) a set parallel to the depression occupied hy ."^t. Pctim 
l>ay, and a]iproxiiniitely parallel to the N.E. coast of the island, pi.,- 
ducetl a[ipar(Mitly l)y floating ice. None of these sets arc. Imwivtr, 
very well dctincd. 

17'J. Ncai' Lii^ht at Souris, N. 87 E., and in a rail\\a\ luttiii:- 
cast of Souris villiiiic, X. 71) E. 

On another exposure east of village, N. 87' l\. and S, ,■-,'5 1]. 

No transported boulders occur in the boulder-clay here, t lie wlidV 
of the material being local. The inference may In ^ drawn ili.u ti.'' 
glaciation is also local, but this is, perhaps, incorrect. The imn occuntinv 
of for(Mgn material in the eastern part of the islaiid rallur < 
thai the ice was of local (Prince I'^tlward Island) orii;iii, t'uniiini; aii 
outlier of the mainland sheet .and moved by the im[)iuLCt'Mii nt nf tL- 
latter, thus producing the glacial jihenonicna noted. It' llir Nfu- 
Prunswick ice itself had passed over the wholi- ishind. iiisUad nt milv 
over th(? western half, where we find boulders and otiici' jirn- 
ducts fr(.>m the inaiidand intermi.\(Hl with tlie bouldcr-clay. we >liiiiili| 
expect to meet with crystaline boulders embedded and iutciiiiixiil with 
tiie deposits here also. Their absence, except on the iiinncdiati.' coiisi, 
where they li.ave Ijeen left by Moating ice, is otliei\vi--e not eiisiiy 

iliu-i-il li\- Ineal , . • T , , 

Kiafii-rs diir- '/"' /«/'■'/■ of I'htauHj stmir nj lln- Iir J,ji>. 

iij; i/le.-iiii',' 

i"ii"'l- ALDKirr CocNTY, X.B. 

bi AlliertC.... ^^^- -^•' llq't!\vell Cape, S. 80 E.,'S. 82' E. in two plaicN 8. m.) K. 
-^•''' due !•:. and X. 88 E., also further N.^ S. L'2' K. 

181. A mile X. of Hopewell Cape, X. 82 H. 

182. At Mar3-'s Point (|uarry, several striated expcjsures, 8. L' E.. 
S. 3 W., .S. '2-2 E., S. 32 E., S. 37' E. and S. IG E. il. aviest stri; 
or grooves, S. 22 E. 

iist riicntiiiiM'd roa,! 
. U !■:., N.i;:, k,, 

ion, X. S7 |.; 
railway siiiimn, .\. 

(1) ail cii';! rlv sft 
)cal j^-lauicfs lldwiii.' 
.and tiiwaivl.s tlif 
pied by St, Pctci '^ 

t of tin; i>l;il;(l. ]i|m 

sets arc, li(iwi\rr, 
in a railway euttin; 

.nd S. ,^;] i;, 

flay here, tlu' wlmlr 
\>v. drawn iliat tL- 
'i'lic noil iicfU!i'(.'iif 
md fallicr imliuiitr- 
) orin'iii, t'liniiiiii; aii 
ni|mi^ciiii 111 of tl.'- 

lilted. It llh' NrW 
anil, in^^^'a(l nf nuiy 
il utlii'i' glacial |iiv. 
ildcr-clav. wr vlimijil 
mil iiitct iiiiNril \vii!i 
:lic inniK'dialr cua^;. 
itliL'iwisc lint easilv 



(iLAciAL ktri.t:. 

71 M 

IS.l. ,\t point where Cape Enra-d brandies off to the east S 
:rl R, S. G2^ K., S 77" K, S. 8- E, due E., N. 78^ E. and X.80='e 
llnVlit, 1 DO feet. ^' 

l<l. Xear mouth of Demoiselle Creek, S. 2' E. Stos.s side X 
>|ii]ir. !■;. |[eii,dit, 170 feet. 

is:,. At Jasper Creek, on cross-road from Demoiselle Creek to Saw- 
mill fivok, 8. 2' E. and S. T W. Slope towards E. Heii,d.t r,SO 


( 111 -anic roac 

1 further up hill, at height of GIO feet, wh 


the N, S. 1 W 

lero slope is 

IMI. Oh road going west from Curryville, S. 12' E S 
j|H', i:, Height, 400 feet. ' " " "' ' ' 

On ;iiiMtlier good e,xposure here, S. l!J' E. and H. 22' E 

20 E. 

<l|l till' s 

ame road a little further eastward down tl 
S. 2 E., S. 8 W., S. 18 W 

and S. 28 W 

o slope, S 20- E 

T^^vllty feet from this e.xposure another exhihits, S. 32 E distin.'t 
Slopo, H. Height, 300 feet. '' ' 

la \V 

[■'.. i'lat ex 


(■issuer settlement, on l.aidc of J3att 

posure. Height, itO feet. 

man"s brook, X. 10 I 

n W'c.^tiii 

i>^ Along T.C.l{y. track between Painsec J 


I'lii'-liT niai 

l-crossing, just X. of :\readow brook, X. 5.V I 

uncti(m and Dor- 

-Mav be 

at ci'oss-road. 

Isli. .\i .southern base of Lutz IMt. 
.nys .Mills station, I.C.liv., X. 48 I-]. Hei-d 

\'M\ Xrar C 

ay be on 

miles east of 

It, 300 feet. 

X. l:' W. Height, 80 

I'tpman, on slope towards Xorthundjerland St 

ght, 80 feet. :\Iay be on a boulder, 




exposures, S. '1' L. 
E. lleavii'st stri.i' 

At ihc Tickle, junction of X.W. and S.W 

|il"isiti' iJei 
. <»i, X. 1 


Il ruers. 

Til X 

^"l-ir's Island, S. 17 E. and S. 20W^. S.ria. H<d,t' '-i^nuM 
'fuik ofS.W. :\riramichi P-- ■— ■ ° " -^■"- 


'■ii"ii- i;ivcr, X.2 iv, X. 10 E., X. 2: 

'•'•i. Twii 111 
■lii l!i\ci-, S. 

iles above Derby on the .south side of 

liver, just above mouth of 
E. and X'. 32 E. Stoss side S. 

•> — I ^ 

J^., N. 28 E., X. IGM-.and 

the 8.W. M: 


X. 4 3 I 

•>:i"Miiv two hundre.l feet further west, X. 31 E X 30 F X 
'-• ■'^"- I'i !•:. and X, 40 h 

iiavc I 


Tide level. The X.E 

'i.; on another 

(■ iiMi'ii 

I»'oduc(;d by local ic following the vallev of tl 

''■''i'ii''ld liiver he 

course .seems to 

le S.W 


72 M m;\v mkuxswick, nova scotia and p. e, island. 

Tn Quicn".- 
Co., X.I!. 

In ICfiit C'l) 

104. One to two miles ubovo tlic moutliof Uoiiuus Itivcr on llip .^,|; 
.side of tli(' S.W. Mininiiclii lUvcr, due N. Wliolcsiirt'fici' of i'\]m,suic 
with ])!iriill('l tfi'oovcs in tliis direelion. Heiiflit, 70 t'cct. 

The two niiiin set.s ot' sti'iji' are well e\iK).sed here, one iniliiatin^f 
«^!islwiird ice-niiiveiiient, as reeoidcd in No. I"), and the secdiid a |,(i|,|. 
.and independent (low noi'tliwaid. 

1 '.••">. ICiglit miles and a halt' helow Doaktown, along Canada ivi-ii'in 
l{y. traek. N. ;!S R 

lOti. lOiglit miles helow Poaktown, along I'anie railway (at "■.'■nj 
nnle post), X. L'l !•:., X. IW K., X. -JC) Iv, N. 32 K. and X. ;i- i:. 

I!l7. I"'ivi' miles below Doaktown, along Clvity,, N. l.'i \]. anil 

N. 2S ]•:. 

lys. 'I'hree and a half nules l)elow sarnie plaee, along failway, X, ]i; 
E.. X. 20" I-:., N. 2;y' H. and N. 2S !•:. 

The X. 2f^^ ]•:. set most nnmerous. il.'i-ht .'520 feet. 

A few yai'ds fuithei' to X. IS Jv, N. i'.", \]. and X. :i:l K. 

]!<!•. A quarter of a mile al)o\c the eross-road at J)unphy'>, mi dir 
north sidi' of the Miramiehi IJiver, X. 24 \-] and X. 2S }•:, 

200. ( )ne to two nnles al)o\o lilaekville hriilge in the S.W. .Mii.i- 
niiehi N'allcy, in ri\ er's haid<, X. 1 L' \\'. and X'. 22 A\'. 'riii'>c r(iiii>cs 
art' closely parallel to the ri\('r-\ alley here, and may lia\i' lifcn 
produeed hy rixcr ice. 

201. At mouth of liett's brook, above Doaktown, line distinct ^tri:i', 
X. 12 W. (heavy), X. ll \V. and X. 2:i K. 

202. At Ludlow one mile and a half south of JioieNtown, wlnic reiid 
and rivei' diverge, on south siih; of river, X. 12 ^\'., or the rc\cisi'. 

20.). In railway cutting at coverecl bridge just west ot rpuicsiuwn, 
X. is i;. and N. 2s Iv Htoss side, S.^^'. 

204. Along S.\\'. .Miramiehi l\i\er, on X.^\'. side of Hayes' hrcjnk-, 

X. 2s I-;., X. ;];; !•:., x. ;i,s i-:. andn; i:. side, li-iiiiniy s.w. 

Height, 520 feet. (This is in Yovk county). 

(^>ri:i;N's Coixrv. X.l!. 

2(t.'). Along (laspereau.x Itiver, seven nules from its mouth. S. ."i I b. 

Half a nnle above the third brook from the mouth of ( ;,i<]ici'caiix 
liiver, several deep gi-ooves have a bearing of S. .">■_' 1-1. in adiliti'm te 
nioi'e easterly courses. ,Slop(>, S.A\'. Sloss side, X.W. Ilci:;lil I'iO 

Ki;nt Colnty, X.n. 

20G. About one mile east of ^lacdougall station. .Moncten and 
J^>uetouehe railway, on road to Cocagne, X'. 18 10., X. ."iS I''.. : and en 
another surface near by, X'. ;3S Iv Slope, X.W. lleight, l.'iiM'cct. 


ivcr (111 ill,, s.i;, 
tacc of cxjiii.sui'p 


one iiidicatiii;^, 
a ■sof<in(| a lut,.,. 

C'uiiada Ivi^tc 


lilway (at Tl'ml 
iiid N. .'l^ il. 
N. i;; K. ami 

•railway, X, lH 

-11(1 N. :;;i k. 

iiipliy'.s, 1,11 thf 
II'' S.W. .Mii,i. 

'I Ih'-C ciiui'-.cs 

lay haw Imvii 
i (listilicl sll'iir, 

^\ii, where I'diiil 
the ivMTsc, 
t (it' ridicstiiwu, 

I I aye-.' iii'imk, 
li>tiihi:v S.W, 

ddlIi. s. :, I K, 

)t' ( la-^|irifaii\ 

ill aililiti'iii III 

ll.'i-lil liiO 

.Miini'diii ami 
■^ !•]. ; ami on 
lit. l:;ii feet. 



(ihACIAI. STIil.K. 

.'1 M 

■Mj. Oiii' iiiilo south of St. AiitliKiiy st.'ition, M. tV l>. I!y., u uood 

i<)>, ,lii~l WDst of C()caj.(iie villiii,'f, on sliorc, N. .'^S I],, N. l^l I',. 
juli. Just iiortli of St. Aiitliony Hliition, Moiict'in imd lluciouclu! 
r.iiiuiiy. N. II !•:., N. 4'J K. and N. 51 E. 
■>h) llriwi'cn St. Anthony station and Little riiictourin' l!i\ci', 
•.ii:; niiUvay track, X. 'M K., N. lit |;., N. .") | i;. iiiid N. :>\> K. 
Ill iiiiiiiJiiT |ilact' N, 41 Iv Hciirlit. l!i"i tVct. 

jll. .Ills! N. of Littlt^ I'.urttaichr llivcf, alon-- M. A- 1'.. I!y. N. I'V 
il and N. .".'.) I''-. 
Jl'.'. Al iMPldiT of slicft (No. .") S.W. ) our mile soutll of lillctnucln) 

liner, S. :;i i;. Il('i,<,'lit, !)U feet. 

::l'i. Aliiiut, two niiifs from St. .\ntliony station, M. iV I!. Ity. 
...iiix' iiiwaiiN ('oca.!,'nc liivcr, in Ohioscitlcmcnt, N. Ill I!. Nunfcfons 

>;;,! wll (IdiniMl. Stiiss side, S.W. ilri-lit, 1 .')(> feet. 

111. On ilic north si(U' of Shcdiac l!;iy, X. L".i Iv, X. .">!! \]., vtr. 

JiV "7 1 1 sards son til of ilai'court station aioiiLf tlic I. ( '. l!y., on one 
■\jM«iirt', liiM', curNiiiif sli'iii', tho ncncral trend liciiii; X. :!:! \\ . 

.'Ki. !)'.iii yards fi'oin Hairoiii't station and just so'itii of last jjoinl of 

-Tvaiiuii, urcat llat cxiiosurcs ociMir in urasrl pits im Iml li sidc^ of t lu- 
ll Ky. Hack, witii well marked stria, X. L'7 il.. N. 17 I',.. N. \>'> \'.., 

N '.:'. i:., N, 1 1 !■;., X. il !■:.. X. 7 iv. X. i; r, X'. 1 !•:.. x. ;; !•:., x. i 

:: N. 1 W.. X. :! W. ;inil X. If. W. These stria' h,i\e evidently 
• II pruihiccil hy ice niovinu' northward, hut there is no distinct 
■■-ill-, ilciuhl, .•d)ollt r.lO feet. 

'.\'. Alioiii two miles south of Ilarcourt station, in a rock cultiiiu' 
\:i i:., N. I !■;.. X.5 !•:., X. II !•:.. X. ll i;. dieiisy;, X. iL' i:.. X.' 

• i:„ N. -I X. L".l ]•:., X. 1 \V. (numerous), X. (i \V. .and X, L' 1 
|\. Till' >tiiss .■,ide is also dolltitflll here ; hut several'es 
: M'lr ilir cniii-lusiou the ice moved northward, 

-iv A mile and a (juarter north of ,\dams\ille station. 1. C 
ii;. ill II inrk cuttin.u-. X. 1 I-;., X. •_' Iv. X. :; i-!,, X. 1 

'.N. ^ !■:.. N. t; !•;., n, 7 ]•:., x. s }•:.. x, ;i 1:.. x. 1 1 1;., x, 12 

• NM:! 1;.. \. 11 !•:,, X, 17 11.. X. lH Iv, N. :;i i:., X. I \V., 
^ •' W., N. li w., X. ,s \V,, N, ](•, W. X, ;;;', W. ,St,,^s side not 
'.'iriii : hut 'ioiiie facts were ol)sei'\ed on the south side of the cx- 
;■'.:■■ will, -h >liow that the ice movement mu--t have heen uorlli- 

■■' .lA. 

- ' '111 ilie--iniih hranch of ("oal ih'anc'h, just east of 
-''V tni.k. in an old ([uarry, X. 9 K,, X. 1 il Iv, X. liii K,, N. 
■I-N. :W i;.. X, 3i) E,, X. l-J Iv and X. IH E, Stoss side dis- 
'•-;•'" til" S.W, J [eight, 20;i feet. 



INiiiMiks (111 It will l)(i <il)S('r\cil tlic conrscs iiloii;,' the S.W, .\iiimi|i|.| ; 

iir.^' !(•.• "'"' tln( liilcropJdMial niilwuy lit llnrcinirt, Adiiiiisvilli', ( ',,a| \W;in,.\, 

iiioMiiinilx nj. ^^.,,|i „^ ,„,,^,. ,1, ,n^{ lictwccii Itiictouciic ami Sliclin,- iIm-is Ai<,\\ 

siiiiilui' ii'iMiinvcinciits. 'riicsc striic, it seems to me, iia\|. LcriMi,, 
(lined \)\ the i( e (liiiiiii,' llie period of iiM'ltiiij; or ret ireinrni, iIioumI, ,i 
few limy helling; t(» the curiier nr iiicreasiiiji^ staj,'!' | re\iiiiis id \\^ m.,^ 
iiiniiii extension, '{"he liner si ri;e, liowcscr, clearly iinlicuie tlic|,ii,.| 
movements, when the i(,'e was in'eaUiiii,' up intddetiiejied siiects ami 1/c 
eame diverti'd more and mor(' from its east waid eourseiis it (liininlNlinl 
the mo\'emt!nts heeoininL! more eonfnrniable to the slopes, ;iiiil td th,. 
trentl of the ri\('r-\alleys. This swersini,' is a eiiaracleri^i jr iiml ||,,|, 
wnrt hy fi'iitnre of t!ie Ljlaeiat ion on tiie Carhnnifeidus plain imnli fa>t 
of th(^ divide hetweeii the (lrainaL;e hasin nf the St. John li'i\rr, mul ,if 
tlios(; fivers lluwiiig into Northuniherland Strait. 


: II ( 'iiiiiiici- 

laliil (_'(!., N.S. 

2'20. North-east- of ^\mherst Head, mi a honidei', a|ppareiitl\ i 
N. U W., or the res'frso Stossside, S. lielLjht, l.'lij iVet. 
--\. .Inst, west of l''enwi( k, (in an exjiosure, apjiai-eiillv a Imulii 

road side, 
ItO feet. 

0-1 •) 

S, 7« W. and S. 


Stoss side, 



2-2-2. N.'ar 

a (|U;irry a 


a iiiih^ east of Ainhei>t, N. Il' W, 

N. 2-2' \V. Jlei-ht aiiolll l.'iO feel. 

Ti striie have apparen 


leeii iirodiioed l») 

ice wjijili lliiwi'd i|.i vn 

upon the low i,'roiinds of the; fNtiimiis of Ciiin'iiei'to, or iiiln ilic i'lii«t.i- 
cone sea oeeuiiyiiig it as a str.ait, (liii'ing the retiring stam; uf tlii'i;liui:i! 



ili."!. One mile south of Pugwasli, on the mai 

n liii'li\\a\- 


N. -J.'rH. Slope to S. Iteiuht, SOfeet. 

'221. On the west sid(» of PuLiwash liarlu 

)ur, on odiiiders .■imi icu 


J ■>.) 

E. andN. 15 K 



At e 


Is at Victoria, N. 2 Iv, N. 10 1'. .ui.l X. b 

Stoss side distinctly to the S. J'^xposuro on X. sln|ie. lluiililriHviy 
abumiant. Jleiiiht, 27o feet. 

220. On iiorth-and-south road to snuth-east of N'ieli 

il'la ;iliil lirturiii i 

two branches of Wallace lliver, N. N Iv side aUn disUiKily 
227. In Jiansford settlement, two miles along ni.ul t'idiii lii^'fj 

Philip, N. 20 !■:. and N. 2:5 E. Height, 2r)0 feet. 

22S. Near cross-roads, half-way between Coun's Mills ami IMn-nyj 

Creek, N. 48' E. and N. 53 E. Height, 25 feet. 


<il,A(IAl. STKI.r,, 

I •) M 

W. Miiiuimli', 
', Cuiil I'.i'iiiu'li. 
liir rivci's ^lll]\^ 

•llirlil. llii)ll.;ll a 

(111-; til i(s iiiiix 
diciili' till' l;iliT 

(1 ^lli'l-ts Mini 1|.' 

as it tliiiiiiiislii'il. 
iiio, anil tn till' 
t•|•i^ti■• ami Hull'- 
, jilain iinrlli I'li-' 
iliii IIIm'I', mill 'it 

|i|iarriitly la xil'' 

lU iVct. 

■litly a liiiulilrf, II 

:. ll.'i'Jit. i:'"i' 

^ta^o ut thi';il:K'i:i' 

•J:"!. » )n I'list-iind-wcst roiid at llnwanl's .Mill ami a (|iiiiitci' nf a 
iiii|ii iVciiii till' west, cud or tli > jmictiuii witli liic iiui'tli-aiid Mmtli 
i,„„l, N. in K. and \. 10 Iv llfiu'lit, l"iU t'l'd. 

I'.'.o. Halt' a mile sniitli nf Wallacf, N. i! I''., and N. 'J \V, llciylil, 
ir,."i iVit. East-and-wost (.'(Hifscs nii .same cxiMisiiri! pfnvr that ilicS.- 
t.iX. -ri is till' latest. 

•j.U. I 111 the and S, \V. niad alun;,' tlit; niiiicr pai't of !>f\vai'L' 
|;i\,.i', N. .^ K. Ilci^dil, •.MMJ f.vt. 

Ij.'i'J. nil tlie second road cast of Wallace Fiako and north ot' hewaro 
N. 7 W. aiidN. IJ \V. Jleiuht, ir.O feet. 

•.':;:;. .\i Wallace ([uarry, X. i' W., N. lo W,, aUo N. ;i K., N. 
:;2 W ami N. ol W. or th(> re\erso. 

•J.'il. A i|nartci' of a mile south of Wallace station. ( )\ford and 
I'jcloU I'.i'alK 
',".1 t'ri't. 


h railway, N. ."> I'-, and N'. is E. Slo|)c X. Ilci-hi, 

:;:l.'i. (in the road aloiii,' l)(d'.crt lii\cr, near thi^ liordcr of the map, 
1,1 at I he hci.ulit of dliU feet, S. -J. V]. and S. li' ]•:. These stiia' arc 
I till- S. ~|ii|ie of tilt! t'ol)ci|uid \\ateisln'd. 
'Jl'iii. North of tli(^ cross-roads to the north of the railwav track 


Wallace station, O.vfoi'd and I'ictoii JSranch railway, due X. 
hi, L'L'II fret. 

7. -lust cast of Wallace, on shore, striated ledi,'es occur, X. S |^. 
^. till road i.'oin,n' from J'laster Com- east of Wallace, to north 
lit' Sn Ill's J^akc, at third cross-road, >.'. .')0 1'^ Slojie \]. Height, 

i;ii tVct. 

'I'.'AK 'Ml the easternmost cross-road from Scott's Lake to tht? Strait 
't Nuitliiniilicrland, near shore, (jierlia]is on liouldei'), X. '.U\ Iv 

:;iU. Near liy on same I'oad, another set, X. Ill l'^ lieii,'ht, 17U 

211. Oil cross-roads at Ifornsey, due X". Slope S. lleiyht l"i feet. 

L'l'J. Sdulh of Head of Tatamaiiouche, jierhaiis on houlder, X'. 2 W. 

.'I'l. I hi Lake mad, just alxait suiitli ot' Head of Tatainagiaichc, on 

iiiiU.di'i', (// SI 

'", X. lli !■;. llei-hl, li7tl feet. 

-II 'Ml load running uji south side of .Mill Ihook, X. 'A V,. 

-l"i. I Ml loail cast of Went \\(alli aloiiy I liggins's hrook, X. IS Iv 
!iii N. 7 W. 

-||'i. .\liuiit two miles west f)l Wallace station. Oxford and I'ictou 
■Miieli railway, X. '2 E. 

-17. <iiiia-t hank of Wallace liiver, just above railway hridg •, 
>. -■> K, ami N. ;'„S K. Ilein-ht, iT) feet. 

-!''. -Xi'ar liurdei' of sheet (Xo. I X.W.), and south of Sutherland's 
• if, S. :;•_' !■;. Stoss side X. Jleii^ht, i.UO feet. 

7G M xi;\v lauNswH'K, nova scotia axd i'. k. island. 

19. 8lill furtluT s.nith S. 14' E. and S. 12" E., and a li-1 

IK'I" set 

S. 3 W 

250. A mile and a half to the northwest of Sutiierland's Liiki, ,il 
the, (lu!> W. Slopo N. H<.,j;ht, G50 feet. 

251. On I'oad noing from Westchester station. T.C.Uy. to Ai 
Alines and near hoi'dtn' of map (sh(;et No. 1 N.W.), S. 14 1'. 



2.-)2. On Kcoi 

ioni\' roa( 

1 near foui'th brook (M^issed west ot T 


.station, l.C.Uv., on ^^"iilianlsda]e road, N. lO A\'. lleiyiil, ;i(ji> f 

( )n road ^oinu' ^\<'st from W'estehester station. It'. I 


>V.. nil 

1 est side of lii'ook. X. ti Iv Sto' .i side clearly S. Ilei:,'iit, .'ijii i, ,( 
251. Xoi'tii of CJareniont 'lill and helween it and ilie i.C.i; 

lino stri;e were o 

bs(i'\(>(l on the roadside, N. (>>< !•]. Sti 

The ice ].r(/dncinLr thes(! moved ilown the N.IO. slope of (' 
iiill into tlie l!iver Philii) vallev. 



'r>\(> miles east of < 'xford Junctimi on X. side of j.C. 

track, N. 12 AV. Hei-ht, 125 feet. 

25(;. North of IJodney, 
X. 12 \V. and X. :'. K ' 

on nortli\var< 


slo[ie, fnie l.ait distin^'t nIit' 

St OSS s;i|e clearly S. 
( >fi W'illianisdale road, h df a nnh; fi'om West I 

i-an.'li, X. -jn 

K., slope to X. Ilei-iit, 

■ ) feel. 

25S. X'(Mr I'pper Maccan liiver on I'^ivo I'-lands road, S. S \\'. m,] 

S. 12 I'',., or the re\erse. Height, 175 to 20U feet. 

< )ii riiad uninu' scnitli tVoni Siirinuhill and l'arr--l)oro' I 

w ;iiiiii:,' 


irri-<on s hrooK 


S. •_'(! A\'. .V mile from tiie r;nl 
lleiuht, I'M) 


\va\-, .-inoiiii'i- cxiiii- 

200. 'hi rojid which '"a\(s (']iper Macciin l!i\er road a mil" ami a 
i|u:irter \\c>t of liridv'e liadim^' southward to a liaik -I'ltli- 
nieni (Souili I'.rook settleimjit) aiiont iwn miles up from rivei. N. In 
W, and X. ."i2 AV. tma\' h' on iMiuldei). Stoss side di>i inciiy !" > 
llci'dit. 400 fv.'t. 

< >n iinoilirr honlder near 1>\- X. 12 W. 

2'il. I Ml ^ame road and ivtst -;iinihof hrancli of Scjiitl 

sandstone n: xi 

/-', X. () AW an.l X. S |v St 

OSS side c 

1 lirooK, '111 '.'I'.'i'. 
learlv S. 



2<i2. Fn AVest Ilritok settlcmenl on /ceo 

iili of Sprinuhill aii:l T.-irrshoro" 1 !y., S. 1 •_' ]■; 

nd cross-road iiii'-^' mv 

>r the rev 

(•rse. Sloss side X, lleiulit. .'.50 feet. 

2*i.'V On cross-road Ica'liiii,' m.rl li-\vrsi u.-ird finm main read lici^i'i' 
Halfway Lake an<l Sou'h.inij^ton, S. 12 10. (may he on ln.ulili'i 
Ib'i-hl. 120 feet. 

2iil. On west side of l{i\-er Ili'hert, alioiit two miles .diosc IiiiiIl" 
doubtful, S, 7 Iv or X. 7 A\'. Sloss side apjiarently S, 


il's Ijiiki', ;il(iii^ 

lly. ti) Ariii'liii 
14 K. 

'St l)t' 'i'lldllliiU 

11). l.Clty., I'll 
lul ilif l.C.lIy.. 

■>t.l)SS >'lli' \\ . 
)(■ (it < 'l;Ui'!l|iillt 

si;l(> nf l.C.lvV. 

iiU ilisiiii'-t siri". 
, I'-ruwli. X. -^'i 
oml, S. '^ ^V. ill'; 
I'slioni' l!v. ;i!iiiiu 

IV, .UMllln'r I'Nl"'- 

iiiul u mil'' ;iii'l '1 
,, :i Kark -nil. 
iMui liMM'. N. !•' 
(!i,iiiu'Uy ti- "• 

uhl.rook, ■o.-my 
,'ar!v S. 


1 l!l|V!' Ill 


Iiam r":ii 

1 liclWi'HI 

IfS ,1 

|„,vc laiilL'P. 

c.ALN'Efis.j (iLACIAL STKI.K. 77 M 


•.'ii."i. A iiiilr ;iiul ;i linlt' soiitli of \urtli Capo, on llic wcsteiii coast. In I'riii' ■■ IM- 
\.:r: V... N. -27 !•:. Il.-i-ht, 20 feet. "^"■'' '^''""'■ 

I'liiii roiU i'uitlicr soutli N. 57' E. and X. 17 VI. side dis- 
,ii„.|ly S.W. Jlciulit, 20 f.'ct. 

•y)i''. A i|Uai-tcr (it a mile cast of I.ii;litlious(.', Nurtli (,'ajic. X. ."i.'! 
i;.. N. 1':.' i:. and X. 27 ll. Ilci.uiit, lo feet. Tlic X. .",:; E. sot is 

•Jii7. At Ca|ii' Ivildarc, (in s(^\ei'al exposures aldiig t!ic shore, S. li 
i;„ -. |:; i:.. S. 21) E.. S. 2.-'. H. and S. IS ]■]. Jlci:;||t, Kj f,.,.t. 

■ji>. On >li(iic at I'Mfteen Pdint. S. 10 W. Ilci-lit, o feet. 

On ncnl ai l''ificen l\)int, S. l.l E. llei-lii, 2n feet. 

ji'i'.i. A i|iiaiterof a mile east of ferry o\er l''Jlis Ki\cr, N. fil) !',. 
;i,i N. ."ill ]•:. Ilci'^lit, I feet. 

.'71. At Unklcltei-'s Point, ii. two jilaecs, iindei' i)oiiMcr-ciay, S. .").") 
\'.. Si.i--~idc apparently X.W. 

:'72. At Clifton, east i>\ ci isss-ioads, X. 12 1]. J[cii,dit, lO teet. 
Ill aiioilicr cxposui'(>, X'. ."i2 10.. lieiulit, 110 feet: and a (piarter of 
I iiiilc west of Clifton, on ledge, X. '>[ 10. an. I X. oS E. Ifeiglit, 

i'lll frrl. 

■.■;:!, Kiivt iif r.iad on west side of Mill Creek, X. 22 iv, N. 17' 
i;., N. I'l !■:., X. ri7 !•:, X. ril E. and X. ii:i K. 

::7 1 -la-l west of the end of tlu! same road, X. (il 10. , X'. 17 lO., 
.N "'J iv anil X. 57 10. On a fre-<h surface near liy X, (io 10. and 
\,.il Iv 

:::.'. Ai cud (If read at Mills I'ciiit. X. 7)2 10. 

JT'i. A i|,iarter of a mile north of inad end. at Mills I'nini. .X. 52 
K. iii'l N. :'>7 10. ; and a sliort distance (art her nmili, X. "i-") 10., X. 
•"'1 iO., X, 12 10. and X. 2i..( 10. ; and again on anolliei' exposure a 
ti'W ji;i( t's ('.iiilier tiorih, X. ■)■'> 10., .X. ID 10. and X. 51 10. 

'.'77. I iiMi!(! J'rince Town road, no; th of Margate, X. ',\7 10. Height, 
CU tcl. 

'-7^'. .\t \ew London l>ay, oik^ mile X. of Stanley liii(igi\ X. 37 E. 

'I''-'. Ai eiid of road X. of lieaeii i'oint, X. •7 !0. 

■>'K .\i lire.ikuater. Prince Town, X. 1 1 10. and X. 22 10. 

-^1. 'hi old Prince To\\ti road, one mile north •<{ Piuich jlowl, X'. 
i- 10, oloid.tful). Jleight, 1(;5 f. et. 

-^'.'. ''lie mile west of railw.-iy wliaif, Cape Tra\('rse, .S, 5S JO, 
lid S. ',■.;■ 10. 

'-'^■i. N'Hth of Cordon ( o\c S. 58 10. 


281. JIalf a mile of Cumheriiind Point, on a sinill ,.\j„i,m.(. 
X. .j7 i'i. and X. 02 I''. Just \v(>st of tlieso, sti'in', N. '>' \-]. 

l'S.j. Inunciliati'ly west of Cunibi'i'laiul J'oint, N. ").'] !]. uiid N. 

03 K 

280. East of Carleton Point, S. :V2 W., S. I'T W., S. 2:' W. a,,, 
S. 1 :> W. lleiulit, lOfoft. .Vnd on otliiT oxjiosurcs nriLf Ijv. 8, :':; 
W., S. 17 W. and S. ] .". W. 

It is prubidilc these stri;e liax'e lieen |iro(luoed l)y small loi-alnl 


sliding down oil' the island into the dejiression now iiceu|>ii(| li\ Xmtli 
umljerlaiid Strait. 

l'87. ^\'est of C;i])e Traverse, ',<. o3 Iv lleiglit, from •'! id.'i fi^^^i 

A few I'cxls further west, S. X) Iv, S. :i8 K. and S. l.s ]■] 
'2f^8. ivist of Westmoreland harlimir, on south side (if 


S. o8 H. and S. 3.T E. 

I'^iirther east, at iioint, N. 57 Iv or tiip re 


28'.'. ( )n east side of Sal)le liiver on road to llunshaw (lialf 
Prom riv.-r), N. 19 Iv, N. 57 Iv Jleight, 170 feet. Sloi.r \V 

I mill 

HO. At eross-roi 

ds, Sahle 1 liver, X. 57 E 

'2[)]. On Xew l>i'de(|ue, throe miles west of ]larLs\illc. X. i; 
E. ilei-ht, .'.OOfeet. 

■21I2. ]Mii;hty rods east of jmu'ti'Hi of s,>uth-west road with Xtw 
r>ede(iue I'oad, X. ;]7 Iv Slo])e W. Height, 100 feet. 

2'.t."i. West of intersection of County i^ine and Xew liediM[U(' i'ikkI. 
.X. 5:; I-;. Slo|ie \V. ileiu-ht, 200 feet. 

2!).'}.',. At iiiterseet ion f)f alio\'e roads, an e.\eell(Mit ex]>o--uri', X, 17 
E., N."52 i;. Slope N.W. Height, 250 feet. 

2'.'1. Jlidf a mile west of the south eixd of l.ot .')U road, X. :'/< 11 
S!..|ie S.K. Heiiiht, IDO fei't. 

Il5. ( )n old Trvon road three niilo south west of Xonh \\'i!r~ 

railway s 

tat ion, X. 27 11 

or tile reverse 

Slope \V. Ilfi-iit, 

290. I'"iftv rods wi'st of ( 'uuni V Line, on, one mile ninth 

I von, 


!•:. Slope ^\'. Height. I (I f 


2'.I7. .\t end of road het ween I'lalt lli\ er and lleiiliek ( 'ivi', X'. 
\]. and X'. 57 Iv 

298. Xi'ar end of road north of llentiek ('o\c, X. 17 Iv 

Twenty rods further west, on several exposures, X. 27 1"., N 
E., X. 52 K, X. 57 E. 

291). .\ (piarter <if a nnle east- of ferry over l'"Jlis l\i\rr X. "iM 
N. 09 Jv 

:iOO. On road at l'"ifii, i, Point. S. j " Y] |[eig]it, 20 frct. 

And on shore ;,t !''ifieen Point, S lu \V. 


a siinll I'Npdnire, 
S\ 57 I'l 

N. 'i;] ]■:. iimi X, 

.v., S. ■2-2 W. ;u„i 
|-('s iK/iir ijy, S. ■_':' 

iiiiall liii'iil jiliii'li'i'^ 

L'CUJiird li\- N'ni'th- 

'I'Diii ■') til ."i t'eot. 

S. IS E. 

side (if iK'iiin-ula. 

iisliaw (liali' a iiii!.> 

I. Sl.l|irW, 

Hiirtsvill,". X. -i: 

it road with Xiw 


'cw l!('dfi]Ui' inmi, 

\t ('X]"isui'i', N. 17, 

:]0 road, N. .'I'i E. 

f Xortli WiltdiiiT 
W. ilciu'llt, I'" 

il, (lur niilr mn'tli 1 : 

Mitiok Cuvi.', X', \' 

, N. 21 i:. N i: 

is l{i\.T X. "i'-' H 

it. •.'!> fret. 

/^ h^ » 

•' i 



yh7 a\¥ "lI;* ■ :> 1 
■ •*-.' ^ • -Pitt- ■ U-^'*.-' ' ' 1 


,,■1.5 <r- 4r^/N-ij'/-m^-^^^^ :i'- 

(il.ACIAL SIlil.K, 

ro M 

At ( 'api' Kild.u'c, on st'vcifil cxjiosin'c^s along tlio kIioi'i-, S, 11' 

S. IS E., S. 1^:1 !•;. and S. 


On south-west side of St. lVt(M'"s iJay about thrcc-ouuftcM's of 

:,iii(' ii"i-i 

h west of the I'uiiwiiv .station, X. .")!) |<] 

.lust west of tirst lirook ah'tut two miles to west of St. l'etoi''s 


N. (1 E. St 

OSS sule, ^. 

iiuldcr I 

lav al)undant on south side of St. Peter's 1 


,ast o 

f Soui'is on bank of tlrst brook on slioie, S. 1 t }•] 

I,;. 'hi imd lorai. 

<li'iii !<ii jipiisi'il Id Itdrr ln'iii jiriiiliirnl h\j liturij l/o<(fiiii/ ii: 

Stli:r liVM- 

Till' lliiatinu' ice which scored tlie I'oeks in many ]ii;ices alonj;' tiie 
,>t<(it the eastern jH'ovinces, ;is sli<iwn cm page 101 M consisted mainly 

li.'avv liai 

or lloes, and t h 

i(? sti'i.e .ire dui! to tlien' ini|iin;;inL; t'oi'ee 

tlii'\ \M re dri\eii agiunst tlie land-border by winds, currents, tidi 

I'lic ice conifiosinL; tliese ji.aeks does not seem to h;i 

ciliv ^llrh 

IS mav Have oei 

ii dei-ived from the land iee of tl 

\i' heen 

le region. 

;iru'0 jinrtimi.'- 

ha\'e doul)t!ess, eome from the l.ind ice of Xewt'oiind- 

I'ul. balirador and (Ireenland, bui'iie hither by the arctic currents 
Ml the e.i->terl\' wi' (Is wliich |ire\ail in these latitudes. In tlio 
f the glacial j)eriod, the southern part of the (iulf of 

i-r .'^ta'.^es o 

.awicnce iiui 

it li.'ive lieen largely choki'd up with these heavy 


ffcai portion ot tiu' yeai 

Coiiu.-ident with this condition of 

■ivia^l wall 

IS, the ice on the adjacent w; 

I-' iiieltiiu' ani 


iiu'. winle a slow sul)snlence w,as going on 


le roc 

I'oring i)V 

l.acicfs anil 

that by lloating ice may, theref 

ore, li,i\ e been to a 

.,i:'r I'.xlciit cniitemporaneoiis. 

I'ninniriuing at (laspi' J>asin, in the province of (^)iiel 
i.'itc tlip slri;c produced by floating ico around the south-western embay- 

ice. we s 

Iwdl Alt 

I (ta>|.c, 

• lit lit the ( illlf o 

f St. L 

I wren CO, 

At l.inje IJaspt 


Siiiiili uf ( irand ( i 

N. i:; E., N. 



X. L'.^ 


TliijM' stria' ha\e been jtrodiiced by an irrei,nil;irlyuio\ ing, iuni|iing 
i' ily. inipiiigiMg heavily against the sloping coast burdei'. The mark.s 

ii'i ill len- 

til from three or four inches to two or three feet, and 

''!. line ,;iiil coarse, often a (piarter of an inch deep, .and apparently 
.i.tdiiiil, Tliev occur only on the east side of the widest part of 
'■asjH' Biisin, .ind have eviilently been jirndincd by jiacks of ice dri\('n 
it'itVom the (liilf of St. I-,awrence by he.i\y winds, tiles, I'tc, forcing 

Iw-iilias liere. 



> !•. K. ISLAM) 

At l!;ii.Ml> 

At (■ 

3. (in tlic south-west side of the liaie dos Chiilem's Kiu* st 
a])ji('iii'iiiic(' jinHliU'cd l)y flo.itiini ice, t)e(;ur. Tlie hcst cxi 

I'l.", t. 

II iill 

()l)S('i'\i'(l near I'cllediiiic statiipii, I.C.I-!. Halt' a mil 

I' n(/rt)i i,t' tli. 

station at a lu'iylit of iiliout lOU feet, tli(^ foliowiiii;- couiv 

s. :{'.) w., s. L»i \v., .s. ID \v., s. '.I w., s. .-. \V., .s 

OS WrlV M., 


w.. s. 1 i:., s. ,s !■: 

S. S !•;., S. \-2 ]■].,>, \:\ |.; 

8. K; !•:., S. 18 !•:., S. id !•:., S. i>0 K., S. :.'1 !•;. und 

1. Al)(iut halt' a mill' south of tl 

u' sami- station. S. 1 \\' 

s. D i;., s. It) i;.. s. II \]., s, I.-. !•:., s. i: 

s. ;',| !•:., S. 211 I'l 

s. ;is !■; 

(ioiiii;- soiiiliwa''d aloni;- l.tMtv.. one mil'' south of I-" 


hrook, S. .") W'., S. 11 \\'., and on anotluM' Icili^c urar, S. |^ \-\ 
-t.'i !•:. and s. -1.-) i;. 

t). Ilalfwav l)i'l wcrii P'oiifnicr s hiDok and lllinti-ci' I 

>1\ IT. nil llDllh 

side of a dioi-ite hoss, S. !) W., S. •"> W., S. ."I Iv, S. U i;., S. Il 
and S. l:i i;. 

7. Siill nearer i'ilnitree Uixer anothci' l)o8s shows S. 27 W. S 

W.. and S. ;57 W.. will 

a liTeat niimi)('r of Hiu^ criss 

riiis-, s|n;i 

S. .lus* noitli of lOlmtice 11 

i\ 'I', on l)o 

^es of diorite 

or uialia^i'. >. 

15 \V.. S. .17 \V.. S. 211 W., >. 2.") W., S. 21 \V., S. 17 W., ,- 
W. and S. 1 \\-. 

The elexalion of ihr roek' ^iii'faces wluM'e No. .'i, [, .") (i, 7 and s 


oceiir, ranges fi-om I Un feei <lo\s-n to 7~> feet. 'I'he sto- 

s s|,|r IS I'Vi-rV- 

where (lis 

tin.'tlv to the N. The sides of thi'deei) I'",, and W 

formed hv the earlier l.-inddce are always stossed on ih • \. 

Tho surfaeo of tin- country on the south-west side of I lie Hair ilrs 
C'hahnifs, rises from tiie eoast border with a gentle ascent, ivarliiii:: an 
elevati 111 of o()() or' liOl) feet at the sources of the risers n hicli (jiaiii 

the district, Au'ainst this slojiiny surface, tloatini.;' ice, or i'-c-jains, scriu 
to hase impin'^ed hea\ily in a. directitui at alj(jut right anu'lcv to tiir 
•^ a zone of vari ihio widtli, from 7"i to 17a I'cit 
■1. '1 

curved coastline, alon 

al)o\'e tiie j)!'esent sea-level. I nis jiarl ot the coast. lieiiiL;' ilnvctiv 
O])positi' 'he nioath of the hay, has recM-ived the fidl foi-'c and ilii|i:irl 
of the II,;. 'in ice dri\'en in from the (iulf of St. I.,a\vrencc hv ca^ti'i'ly 
storms. I ience the formation of these stria' ahjui;' the zone nn'iiiiducii. 

1), .Vt Ijaiie (piarry. near Cape Torment inc. stria' o\identl\- |iriiM il 

lonni'iitini'. j,^. (liiniinn- ..-c or ice jaiirs, also oeeur. Onv, set seems \n lia\i' ln'i'ii 
caused !.\- ic(\ shoNcd against, or o\'er tlu; Cap(» Tnrmcntinc ]iciiiiisula. 
from Hue V'erte, and shows the followint;' courses: — N. -'it'i W , N. tl 

w.. N. 12 \v., X. :is w.. N. ;i(i w., X. :V2 w., X. .•;! W.. X. all 

\V.. X. 21 \V., X. IS \V.. X. in W.. X. 12 W., and N. 2 W. '1 

other set has a|)pareiitly hein formed Ic lloatin^;' ice winch ^'iiir' ti'i 


is LAN 1 1. 

■s KlU! stii.', t.i) all 
'St cxaiiiiilfs w.'iv 
mil'' iKirtli i,t' tli. 


k'., S. 7 \V., s. :• 

'■"' I'-. >• \'> ['... 
nil S^ 1';; !•:. 

■^- 1 \v , s. :, i:,, 

-i Iv. S. L';i !■:„ 

nth of |-"utiniii.|'\ 
ii'Mi-, S. h I-;., s. 

■'■ l>i\ IT. nil imnli 

«• '■' i;..S. 11 i:,, 

f^. -7 W.. S. :",i 
;-riiis-, s||-i:i'. 
■itc nr ilialjasc, S. 
., S. 17 W.. >, 7 

•"i, <), 7 ami s -ft^ 

itoss side is cVrl'V- 

'".. aiul W. uriiii\i'< 
li- \. 

ii' lit' llir Hair ijts 

^riMil. I'i'arliiii:,' ail 
[vvvs ^^ili(■ll (jraiii 
, (ir iri..jain>| serin 
;'lll hiiltIi'^ tti ihr 
in 7-'i In 1 7"i t'rrt. 

st, liriiiL;' iliivrily 
t'lir ■(• a 111! iiii|iari 

.'I'l'llri^ liy raslrl'ly 
' Ziill(> nirlltiiiurii. 
\iilrii! I\- lini'iii'ril 
MIS lij lia\r iirrli 

iciiliiic ]ii'iiiiisula, 
X. ."if, W . X. -tl 

;. :!i w.. X. ;;u 

,1 X. 1' W. Till! 

U lilrll r i|l|i> t'l'illU 

f' ^ 






'■' J 3 

tHAlMEHi. 1 


81 M 

the ninth and north-west, and exhibits tlie following stria': — S. 18 W. 
S. i;i W.. S. 11' W., S. 10' W., S. 6' W., S. r W. and S. :V W. 

Till' X. 34' W. anfl 8. 1 1' W. strin'or irronvcs ;u'(> the lieavii'St. The 
Morinu'-i L'over an exposed ruck surface of In \>y l.'JO j)ac(!s. Tlie direc- 
tion of tiio ice-inoveinent in rei,'ard to both sets was detei'inincd by 
(vitiiiii small cram'-and-tail prominences on the nearly tlat sandstone 
l,.(l;;i's. Hiiigilt, lOU feet. 

10, (»ii the New Ijrunswick and Prince Edward Island railway, six 
miles and a (juarter west of Capo Tornientine the two sets recorded 
umlor No. 9 again occur, viz. : — 8. .■/' W. and N. 37' W., and \. '.\'2 AV. 
Sl,i|ic, Height, 1:^5 feet. 

Those occur on a surface eight by four feet in extent. Th(i western 
liiilt' is striated with the S. 5' W. ci, some of the grooves being an 
iiuli deep; the eastern .slope is covered with tlie N. .'57' W. and N. 
;1J \\'., courses, which are light l)ut well defined. 

Thirty feet further east on an exposure ten by six feet, N. 37° W. 
luul X. '^'2 \V. ; and on two other exposures near Ijy the N. 15' \V. 
coiu'se was seen. 

11. On tlie Emigrant road about a mile and a half from Cape Tormen- 
tiiie, X. .'i-J W. and N. 42' W. ILeight, 50 feet. 

Ill aiiothei' place further west, N. 32 W. 

VI. At IJaytield, N. 2' \V. and N. 12' W., or the Height, 
l."i tcft. 

Neiirer Cai)o Jourimain Lighthouse, X. 12' W., or the reverse. 
Tide ]fv( 1. 

13. On Emigrant road three miles east of Tort Elgin, N. 27' W., X. 
■1-1 W., A. 10' AV., N. 12' W. (deep), N. 7 W. ami X. 2 W. ; also 
S. l:'. W. and 8. 8" W. (both heavy). 8triie distinct. Height, 45 feet. 

U. On Immigrant road, at third brook east of Poit Elgin, 8. 13' W. 
Hi-i-ht, 125 feet. 

1"). .\t Coburg quarry about one mile west of l>aie Verte village, At Halo 
>. Ss W., 8. :\2 W., S. 28^ W., 8. 2r W., 8. 18 W., 8. 13 W., 8. 10 '^''■•■t''' 

.. lU'siilfs these are two courses, 8. 8 E. and 8. 4' E. or the, 
;iiul ;l third X"". G8' E., or the reverse, ^lany broken, irregular, curved 
^tli;l• iiccur and several curious markings. From the abundant crag- 
iiiultiiil prominences, it appears the ice came from the north. Height, 
■)■) feet. 

10, About two miles from Baie Verte village, in an old (juarry on 
tliosiiuth-east side of the New IJrunswick and P. E. Island railway, 
im.liihmit fifty rods distant from it, 8. 43' W., 8. 40 W., 8. 38' W., 
s. 2S W., S. 23^ W., S. 20' W., S. 18= W., 8. 15 \\., 8. 13' W., 8. 11' 
W., 8. ;'. W., and S. 12° E., S. 10° E., 8. 4' K, 8. 2' E. and 8. In 


82 M 


Ill Slicijiid 

addition t(i tii('S(> N. 78 E., X. 66 E. and duo K. setn occur, holdiii^inrj 
di»ul}tl(vss to tlic oldci' sti'iatioii of tlie inaxiimnn extension of tin' jc,, 
TIk! otlit'i' cours(!.s iia\t' aiiiuircntly hecn caused hy ice wliieli c iinc fnun 
the N.K., ))rul)al)ly lloatinj,' ice (ice-jams). Tlio principal sets in t\n-si> 
are the S. 4."5 W. and S. IS W. stfia-. The cfajL,'-and-tail iirojcciions 
are here also conspicuous. lleij,']it, 5,") feet. 

17. At east end of Clii^Miecto marine railway, S. 2' K., S. ;; \\\ 
S. ];". W., S. IS W., S. l'.". W. and S. i.',S W. These slmw slossin^' 
on the north side, but not clearly. The rock .surface is cuvcrcil 
with from 10 to 15 feet of houlder-clay, and the striie have iij.|i;iiviit|y 
been jiroduccd b\' ice im[iin,i,'inj,' iii,'fnnst it from the nurtii, jMdliaMv 
floating; ice. ] [eight, 40 fei^t or more. 

is. On /mother led,!,'e in the heavy cuttin,<,'aloni,' the east endnf the 
r/ul\vay mentioned, and from half to three-(|uai'ters of a nn'lc tVom the 
Tidnish dock, S. '•)' AN'., and S. 18 \V., witli numerous iiiiiinr and 
inej,'ular courses. 

Still further west in the .same cutting,' S. 48' AV., and S. '>() W. 

These all appear to be the work of lloatinjj; ice-j.ims. 

At the lattf'r exjiosuro a set of strije was obser^c'd with a rDinsc ut 
S. CO \']., or thorevei'sc, doubtless produced by In nd ice. 

19. At Cook's cutiiny.onthe Chignecto marine railway, whitli is mIidui 
the axis of tlio isthmus, and nearly ecpiidistant from both ends of tin' 
line, S. 8 W., S. 18' W., S. 22' W., S. 2:* ^V., S. ;i2' \V., S. :!s W, 
and S. 40 "\V. The predominent sets are thi! S. 22 W., S. ^-^ W, 
and S. ."52 W. ones. The striating agent evidently came iVmn N'dith- 
umberland Strait. 

20. Half a mile further east on the south side of the railw.iv tiaik, 

S. 10 W., S. IS AV., S. 24 W., S. .SO AV., 8. :M\ W. ;ii„| S. Id 

AV. These appear to have been produced in a similar maiiiiiT lu the 


The height of these ledges above; mean tide level is 4.'! feet. 

The manner in which the floating ice scoi-ed the rock surfaces on tlu' 

Isthmus of Chignecto and the Ca])e Tormentine pem'nsuia is rcfciicd 

to on pages 104-10") m. 

21. In the vicinity of Germantown Lake, Albert county, in a \allfy 
trending parallel to the coast of Shepody 13ay, a number uf .suii' 
occur which seem to have been produced by floating ic((. 

On the west side of (lermantown Lake, south of Bea\er brnek, S. 
38^' AV. and S. 43' AV. Height, 20 feet. 

About inO yards farther back on the same road, 'A. H I']., S. 18' W.. 
S. 31" AV., S. 38^ \V., S. 4r AV. and S. 43' SV, Height, 100 feet. 

In another place near by on the same road, S. 28 AV. and S. ;]S W. 
Height, 125 feet. 




8:5 M 

Still t'lirtlior up tlu) sIojk* of tlic hill to tlio noi'th-wostwiinl a largo 
,.s|ioMinM'.\liil)its. S. ;'. \V., S. ;5,S \V., S. 10 AV., S. 4:1 W. and S. 40' 
\V. Till' S. JiS W. stria- iii'o tlio lii-'t (Icliiicd and iiio>t immciims. 
Si'M'i'il ni'ooNcs can hi) ti'ao'd fi'om (isc to tciii t'oi-t acidss tlus roiiU .sur- 
turc in >lfaii,'hti iiarallfl linos. 

In iinntlii'f placi' near I'cavcr I'rools, S. l,'! AV. Ari- all thcso lloatinjj; 
ice slriii' .' 

J'j. t In the south side of Cocaine harlioiir, on a hank, half a niil<' Ik 'low 
Cuc;ii.'n'' villa,-,'!', S. 1 K . S. H E., S. 1 1 Iv. ^<. lli i:. and S. !• \V. 

ilii'M' Mifiy he due to lloatiiiij ice, as they correspond with conrsrson 
1'. !•; Ul.ind and on the Isthmus of Chi.ifnccto. If |irodiici'd olher- 
ui-,1' ii must have hccn \iy small lo(;al glaciers moving; noithuard. 

:',"). < tn J'riiice I'Mward Island striie, evidently produced hy Moating; -^^ ''■ ^''' 
ire j;iiiini(Ml aLjainsl the I'oast horder, were found north of Cape Wolf, 
m!i the hink, at the shore, S. 1) \<]. Height, •") feet. 

•jl. At ("avcndish. on the hank along the sliore. S. (iC) !•', ireight, 
l.'i lift. ' >verlying tho glaciated surface is a mass of l)oiil(ler-clay u])- 
vuds of ten feet thick without iiiiy intermixture of transported hould- 
•Ts tliinigh they occur on the surface of the land near hj". 

li'i. A (|iiarter of a mile south of Orhy Head, S. 59' E. and S. 02 E. 

•Jt'i. I )ne mile west of Cape Turner, S. 02' E. 

■.'7. ''11 the south-west side of 8t. Peter's I'ay, west of the railway 
•! itjiiu, S. 74 1']. 

Xiiiii' oi' I lies(! stria' occur on ledges more than from ten to twenty 
li'i't ill hi'ight. 

hi the St. Lawrence valley, between ]Metis and I'ointe Li'vis, striic, fn St. Lnw- 
iqipiuriitly ja'oduced hy lloating ice-masses nio\ing uj) ri\er, and in a "''"■''' '-^ '""'J' 
t'W cases in the revei'se direction, were noteih 

At hie, S. r,\ W. Height, 125 feet. 

AtTrois I'istoles, north of Intercolonial railway station, S. 7I AV. ; 
vu'4 oi st.ition, S. 04" W. Height, lUO feet. 

•hi<l west of St. Francois station, T. C. Hy., bosses 'glaciated on hoth 
•lit' rast and west ends were observed. 

liotwceii St. Charles, I. C. Hy., and Pointe E<'\is, strite were found 

iimniiii,' S. 04' W. vStossside to the east. Height, 145 feet. 


Xo ir.iiiaines or drumlins are known to occur in the region specially <)>,ir and 
refen'ed tn in this report, and it is doubtful whether there are even 

iuiyof the struct'iral boulder-clay deposits to which the namo osar or No iiioraiiics 

, I. 11 1' i' /•! 1-1 i_ '^1 1 or drmulins. 

Mvo.s may properly he applie I. Gravel ridges are met \Mth along 

llivor Ihhert, and Pugwash River, to the .south of Thomson station, in 



























WEBSTER, N.Y. 14580 

(716) 873-4503 



84 M 


Nova Scotia, and a rid^e or series of ridgos occurs east of Pictou. In 
fii-avcl ridgfs. New Bi'iinswicik short gravel ridges iiave heen ol)served at tin; ijinutli 
of Henous River, or along the Southwest Miramichi above it, on tlie 
south of the Little Southwest Miramichi, opposite John I'lMuiiss, 
twelve f)r tiiirieen miles fi-om its mouth, also another ahout live miles 
west of Doaktown, stretching from the eontluencc! of Uig I lolc mid 
M(;adow l)rooks to Bartholomew Uiver, and a fourth at the souk oof 
Muzroll's Brook. Smaller sand antl gravel ridges were ()l)serv( d (-No- 
where, and a number of tlie siiallow lakelets of the Carboniferous area 
are boi-dered with kanie-like ridges which ha\e probably been foriMid 
1)}' the expansion of the ice that covers them every winter. 

The lioar 

Nut .a siiii| 

The Boarn Jinrk. 

s The most remarkable gravel ridge of the region is the ont; stretching; 

along Itiscr Hebert, above referred to, called the ' Boars Back.' It 
was long ago describ(>d by Sir J. W. I>awson,* and as measured Ipy us 
is si.\ miles and a half long, IW to l.'i.") feet in height above sea-level 
at the point of greatest altitudi>, and from ten feet in some places to 
twenty-live or thirty feet in others above the general level of the val 
ley in which it lies. Although hitherto classitied as a singli' iiil;re. it 
really consists of a series of i'i<Iges of greater or less length, airiiii;.'iil 
for the most part parallel, or ai)pro.\iniately so, to the course ui llivei- 
Hebei't, but fv number are divergent and curving, and ol)\ imisly with- 
out n^giilar alignment. Some of the shorter ridges seem joined te, 
or rather have their ends abi iiing against, each other, ur mere 
frKjuently against a main dominant ridge, or series, along the siunmit 
of which the road runs, for th(>r(^ is really no main ridgi'. Souk times 
it is one ridge that is the and wiilest, and again it is amiihor 
abutting against the last and continuing for a greater or less iiisi,ini'i>. 

,1,. Not infretpiently, howevei', there is a gap <u- hiatus between eaeh I'iilu''' 
and tlie end of the next succeeding one, and lateral valleys on eiie in' 
both sides intervening between it and the j)arallel ridge on one side er 
the othei'. In this way is the Boar's l>ack bunched up, so to sjuvik, 
into a series of ridges in two or three [ilaces, withiti its whole extent, 
while between these bunched ridges, ntirrower and moi'e line.ii li l;"'s 
extend. At the lower or northern end of the Boar's Back, a eeiiaiii 
stretch of it forms oidy one simple ridge. This part is low, n.uiow, ami 
the material composing it is compact and resembles boulder-clay, or that 
of a moraine. For the next mile or two south of this, however, tiie 
ridge is irregular and in places entirely wanting. Occasionally slioit 

*Acadiiin (ieologry, 2iKi ed., page 82. 




85 M 

st of Pictou. In 
'ved at the iiiniuli 
i iilx>vi' it, nil the 
c .Iiiliii 1 >('iiiiis's, 
>r iiboul li\i' miles 

of r>ij,' Ilnlf llliil 

ill at lilt' s(nir( c lit' 
t'ei'«! <)l)sci"> ■ (I ('No- 
JarlioiiifcrDiis aica 
l)iil)ly l)i'<'ii I'liriiicd 

, tlio ow stri'tiliiii!,' 
' Boar's 15iR'k.' It 
as measurt'il l>y us 
;lit above scii-li'vcl 
, ill somi' (iliiris to 
ill lovi'l lit the vid- 

ii(l:.'i's run oil" from the main ridge nearly at right angles thereto, and 
sDiiM'iiiiics they curve iuul inclose peat bogs. 

Taking a general view of the ridges composing the Boar's Back, 
it i^ (iliscrved that those farthest away from Uiver Hubert on tlie west 
side, arc tiie highest, as if the summits of all those in a cross-section oi 
the \,illey corresiionded, roughly of course, to the former surface of 
ii h<\\ \alley before it became cut into rUges. But there are wide 
gaji^ .111(1 valleys between the ridges, and at intervals along the sides. 
Inclnd, l)('tween the ciuls of seveial, we come across what is 
iiliii.uciitl}' a pt»rtion of tlie original lantl surface, Mat and undisturbed) 
till' material being sand and gravel belonging to the underlying sand- 
stniii'. Nearly all the ridges arc; r(juiule(' or stossed at tlu.' south end, 
fidiii which it is exident that the denuding agent moved against that 
('Mil. '. '■., in tin; direction in which llivi^r llcbert thjws at prcstMit. 

Tiir 111 itcrials coinjiosing the scries of ridge-i of which the Jioar's 
|!,ii.i; iniisists ar(! altogrtln'r local, bek)nging to the underlying Car- 
licpiiit "'IS rocks, only on(! or two small Ixaildcrs ajiparently derived 
t'lniii .(• (' '•"";'.'.''1 series having been met with throughout the whole 
t.iiiii iiioii. ' ' "y s"('m to be liner, perhaps, at the north end, but 
Lilly ill plaics, tor thci-(! aio also coarse deposits. In the southern 
part lit' the JIoai''s ISack co;irse beds seem to predominate. jS'(j rock 
e'ltiKijis were observed in the River Hebert valley. 

\'ir\viiig the facts l)r(jadly, the I>(jar's Back appears to be a 
-(^i(■^ (if ridges left from the denudation of a teri'ace or mass of 
stiatiticd material which tilled the valley to the level of the existing 
^uniiiiits of the ridges or higher jiarts of the valley. But the material 
iiiii-t have been worked over previously in some way by water action 
\n lie llius rounded and stralilicd. Two modes of formation woukl 
-niii Id lia\(' prevailed, viz., the building up of some ridges, or what 
iiiiiy lie termed the constructive prtjcess, and the denudation of 
tciraics and gravel banks, or the destructive prtjcess, the latter leaxing 
iiiiiiiaiits standing as ridges. ^Vs already stated, ccilain facts lead to 
till' iiifi renee that the nuide of formation, whether constructive or 
ili'^Miirlive, or both, proceeded not simultaneously, Itut conscculively, 
timii the upper slope of the valley on either side towai'ds the present 
ii\i r lirij. |'\)i' example, on the west side of l!i\ir llebert valley, as 

ii:i^ 1 n shown, there are curved and divergent ridges abutting 

aL'.iiioi >tiaiglit ridges. Tt W(mld apjiear that the former must have 
lii'i'ii t'oniied before the lattei', for we cannot postulate aiu" glacial, 
lliniatile or marine action which would shaj)e them as they now stand 
"II till' su])position that the\' were produced simultanecmsly. The 
curviii:; and cross ridges maj', therefore, have been the eailiest, and 

llnW t'le 

I'liicl; was 

86 M 


may be due to eddying or cross currents, or perhaps to ici.' aiiion in 
the manner that banks are thrown up along the sides of livcis or on 
the borders of lakes. The straighter ridges wore probably tunntj In- 
more direct currents at a later date. 

'The J' ami I'ictoii liidyi's, etc. 

rictou x'idt'i'. 

in Ni'w 


The ridgo along the Pugwash River, is about a niilo loiij;- .ukI (,ih.. 
liundred and fifty feet above sea-level. It follows tlic jncscut 
stream closely, and consists of sand and gravel probably of lluviutile 
oi'igiii. This ridge seems to have been formed from the denudation of 
the valley drift. 

The Pictou ridge resembles the Boar's J')aek in sf)m(' resjiocts. A^ 
it lies beyond the region mapped it has not lieen examiiird exrcj^c 
by way of comparison with the latter. It extends in a geni'ial luiitli- 
and-south course for about two miles, and at the highest ]iait is iibout 
one luiiKlred and twenty-live feet above sea-level. Siinilaily to tlio 
IJoar's Back it is not oiie continuous ridge, but two or inorc, ;irnl 
the materials composing it, while ditl'erent from those of tlu" latter, 
nevertheless, bear the same relation to the deposits of the (li>tiic't. us 
do those of the I'oiir's liack to the Uiver Hebert valley iuils. The 
Pictou kame contains boulders of granite, diorite, felsite, slate, ocuijihjin- 
erate, etc. The peninsula to the east of the gravel lidge vctins to 
have been a sort of "dumping ground" foi' debris, t'oi- it has 
numerous scattered mounds and short ridges of gravel, saiul, etc., 
which are intermingled with greater or less immbers of tian-|ioiti'(I 

Turning to New Brunswick, we iind gravel and sand ridges in vcviial 
places in the valley of the Southwest Mii'amichi lliver. Thr ino>i 
nt)teworthy of these is one occurring west of J)oaktown, on the road 
running north-westward from that place, and ata ilistance of Ihc iiiik'- 
from the Southwest ]\liramichi Jliver. It extends in ,i ncaily 
northerly course from the conlluenco of I'ig Hole and Meadow liroulo 
to Uartholemew l{iver,wliether continuously or not w(Mli<l not asccit.iiii, 
the country being wooded ; and it rises to a height of tiiirty "i- foiiy 
feet above the level of the surrounding country. This ridge is iviioiitil 
to extend down Barthelomew lliver for some distance, but was not 
traced by us. 

A pronnnent ridge along the Southwest ^[iramichi above the mouth 
of the lienous River, and others found in the valley of the Littlr Soiitli- 
•west Miramichi, are evidently due to post-glacial denudation of the 
valley drift. 


to ici'-iU'tiiin in 

of rivers or on 

jably formed by 



87 M 

lilo loiiu' .•111(1 line 
iws tlu' iiri'<i'iit 
ial)iy of llii\i;itili' 
ho (lemulatioii ot 

me ic-iicrt-;. A> 
exaiiiiin'il I'xrcjA 
, a ^(Uii'ial noith- 
iiust pMi't is alioiit 
Siuiilaily lu tlic 
,vo or 1111 ii't', iiiiJ 
lose of tlio liitttT, 
of the district, us 
valley lii'ils. Tho 
ite, slate, oiiiyl'iiii- 
t'l ridye serins to 
■hris, for it luis 
jivel, s.unl, etc., 
s of tr;iii--iiiiiii'<l 

Till! (luestion now arises: — Is there any general law governing the I lim tlicse 
formation of these ridges and acfuiuulations of gravel, sand and other i,','.,!jj pro- * 
drift materials besides those of ordinaiy denudation and shifting about 'luLcd. 
of till' deposits by tluviatile, lacustrine, marine anil subaerial ageneics '.' 
Ill the case of those ridges under discussion, a negative answer must 
I iliiiik, be given to this question. Each ridge, or series of ridges, 
seems to have been formed under the peculiar local conditions to 
wliiuli the materials composing it were subjected during the jirocess of 
its development. Those met with in river-valleys, as shown, are 
tliiiililless due to tlio action of the rivers, those in lake basins to wave- 
action, the shove of the ice, etc., while those which may be classed as osar 
arc the result of a complex series of causes which are yi't only [lartially 
understood. As an illustration of how a ridge may be produced we 
niuv take the Hoar's Hack at River lltd)ert, which setniis to have 
been formed of material lirst thrown down by Pleistoi'eiie glacieis and 
worked over by waters llowing out from the melting mass which 
OL'cii|iied Halfway River valley. During the ensuing sui)sidence of the Tlie's 
land, tlie sea invaded this valley and a strait existed by the pass through ..I'"/... ,..','i' "I''' 
tlie Coijeijuids and along llalfsv.iy anil Mebert River valleys, s>lien <'s-ive >tMij<s. 
areiiioilelliiig of these materials again t(jid< place. 8ubsei|Ueiitly as tho 
laud rose, a fresh-water lake seems to have occu[)ied the basin in which 
Halfwav Lake now lies, and its outflow by River Hebert vallev a^ain 
eroded anil transported these gravels and sands. It is probably to the 
latter stage that we may ref<^r the prineipal erosion which gave the 
rill;:!'-' their presi'iit forms and contoui-s. Since then the action of River 
1 lei lilt in cutting down into the deposits occupying its valley, has 
(Idulilless produced other changes along its course and given to those 
rid,i,'es nearest the river their jjresent pronounced features. 

Tlie kaiiie at Piclou has not been studied as closely in its relation to 
the topographic and other features of the district in which it lies as 
the llnars I Jack, but there seems to havi; been a greater amount of 
^'liirial and marine action experienced in its construction, and probal)ly 
les- la^u^tlille and tluviatile action. 

The (iu<'stioii of the origin of these ridges is one of great interest 
iiwiiii; to their sti'iking physiographic featui'cs, iind its elucidation 
iiiile|ieiident. of pre-conceived theories, would aid in explaining a num- 
ber of jiroblems connected with the surface geology of the region. 

Plkistockxk (jLACIKUS. 
The theory of local glaciers upon the higher grounds and floating ice Theory of the 

on the lower coastal districts iiroiiosed i)y me in 1S8.") and 1 SSG* as 7,''"'''"'."" "f 

I • •' till' re^'iim. 

M'l. luhinarv He|M)rt of the Surface (Jeologv of New Hninswiek, tiinl. Siir\. of Can., 
vul. 1. l.\.S.),'lSS5. Trims. Koyal .Soc. of (Am., sec. IV., ISKd, (.p. i;«l If.. 


88 M 


a workiiif,' hypothesis for the exphiiifition of the Pleistocene gliicial plie- 
nonieim of New IJruiiswick (ind south-eastern t^^uebee, may now lie ion- 
sidered, with certain exceptions and niodilications, as estalilished. 
It seems capable of explaining and co-oi'dinatinj; a larger miinljcr of 
facts in the eastern maritime provinces of Canada than the liy|Mii!i('sis 
of great ice-.slieets. There are, iiowever, some anomalous i|ucstiiins 
regardingtlie dispersion of l)ou]ders on mountains and ridges tliiil it does 
notaceoinit for satisfactcily, but all tlie divcM'gent cotn'ses of stiiii' inn 
be arranged and systemiiti/ed under this method of interjirMtininn 
better than by any other. 

In the detailed work carried on by me during the past four y( ;irs, 
cldelly in the coast districts of New i'runswick, and in parts i<( Xdva 
Scotia and Prince Iv I ward Islaiul, a large Ixidy of data rclatiii';- tu tlio 
glaciation of the region has been collected. This will now Ijc ni- 
ordinated, and an attempt made to show the relation bciwccii tlip 
se\ci';d local glaciers which occupied the coast region of the Armli.ui 
pro\inces of Canada during Pleistocene times, and also In twieii 
these and the ice-mass or /cfc'of the north-eastern Appalachian^. 

The character of the tloating or sea-borne ice which ])revaili'il tii\vai(l> 
the close of the glacial period, anil the courses of movement, or mihcr 
the direction in which the heavy packs, or ice-jams, injpinged auainst the 
rock stirfacrs, will be shown. It may be remarked, that no s!ii;inriie- 
markings piodiiced by the latter ha\c been found above the liiijiiest 
shore-lines of tlie ])ost-glacial upheaval ; they are strictly conl'mwi to 
the lower slopes and marginal areas. 
Looiil srl:iciors ] ,i tho iireseiit rei)ort it is i>roiiosed, first, to delimit the ghiciers 
winch occupied the country at the stage of the Pleistocene when tliev 
seem to havi? hud their great(,>st extension. This will be an aiiciiiiit 
not so much to show their superficial magnitude and thicknos n^ td 
define their eastern and south-eastern margins, especially along the 
coast between Cape Gaspe and the rnternational boundary at llieSt. 
Croix Iviver in the Bay of Fundy. 

General The ice which covered the Gaspi' peninsula, and, indeed, all ihat 

iTiovcincnts of . /• , i • i- ,^ i i • . i . i? ^i / n i- 

the ico. part or the provnice oi (.Juel)ec lying to the east or the I liaiidicie 

Piver and south of the St. Lawrence estuary, in the Plcistcceiie 

period, seems to have been h)cal, although doubtless conneeted 

with the larger centre or centres of ice to the west. On the nm th side 

of the axis of the Notre Dame Pange, it ilowed into the St. l.awienee 

estuary, and here various courses occur showing that the uKivcinents 

were alTected by the topographic features of the slope in a marked decree. 

The estuary must have been open during a part, if not the whdle of 

the year, perhaps, similarl}' to Baffin's Bay and Davis Strait now, 





89 M 

iiiy U'lW lie con- 
iis estalilislied. 
irgof miniliiT of 

I till' liyi'ot'.K'sis 
iiilous (lui'stinns 

i(l(»('S ihllt. it lllH'S 

ii'scs 1)1 striii' ciin 
if iiitorjin'taliiiu 

piist fiiur yiurs 
n |)!irts lit' Niiva 

II ri'latiti'^ til till' 
will now 1h' 111- 

tinll l)cl W( Til till' 

(it' the Acadiiin 
11(1 also 1)1 twien 
pri'Viiilfil tiiwaitU 
vciiicnt, <ir lalliiT 
ipin,!:;'i'il a;:aiiist llic 
,liiit IK) slria'iirkf- 
iibovo thi' lii^liPSt 
triotly ciiiilim-ii tu 

I'limit llif glaciers 
itoeonc wlii'ii tliey 
lill he an aunnvt 
1(1 tliickiH-< a> tu 



.•iiiUv aldiiL; tlw 
ilarv at the St. 

il, indocil, all that 
(,t' the Cliauili-'io 
In the* I'U'isioctnie 
liihth-ss ctiiiiurted 
On thfiitathsiili' 
tho "^t. l.iiwirnrf 
[at the nKivi'iiifiits 
not the Nvholeot 
iDavis Strait nuw, 

inii) wliich the (Jreenland <,'la -iers discliai-ife. At wliat iieij,'lit tho 

;;iiiil stiMiil Ih'I'o at the niaxiniinn extension f)£ the ice is iincer- 

(,,in, Ml) tacts liavinj^ yet heen discovered in tlie valley of the 

linvei' St. liawi'eiice ht.'ariii;^ dir-ectly on this ([uestion ; hut it 

u;i< |.inlial)ly as liigh, if not hi;,'her, than at tlie pre.sent day. 

111,. siri;r nn this slojie tfend from N. G4 E. at Montniagny to due N. 

• i.N.W .it 'i'riiis l*istolc.«, llio, etc., and in other places to X. .")0 ^V., 

, iiiiiiiiu' a wide i'anj,'e in the nioviMnents, du ■ chiefly to the ine(]ual- 

n.Mit'tlir siul'ace and to tiie fact that the ,i,'lf ciers followed the local 


Till' liiii. ji' of the ice alonji the lowei- St. Lawi'ence duiiiiy this stage 

I the l'li'i>tiM cne cannot have been far beyond the ])resent coast-line. 

lutlKMastcrn pai t of the (jasp('' peninsula, the ice llowed eastwai'dly, " .'t'','T(';''s »■ 

:.!.iwiii',' the courses ui the river-valleys there also. Strife, evidently i'<iiiii>iila. 

;,,iiii(.(| l.y land-ice, were found in (Jas]!!- IJjisin with courses as fol- 

uv-'>ii tilt' west side, just south of (iasjie village, N. 70' E., N. 75' 

i;., .-,.•, ll.iif a mile north of Cape llaldiuiand, N. 89 E., N. 8.3' E. 

i: IN, 7'i li "II the east siiie, lhre(! miles south of the " I'eninsula," 

-.,;i!liil. nil till' load to Cape ( iaspt', .'>. 87 \-]. ; and lielwecn that and 

lirainKircM-. S. i\:\ \]. and S. (i") Iv Other striie or markings 

(i..Tiir lirliiw (Irand (Jrevt', Imt they have evidently been inoduced by 

iwlinL' il e and are described on page 79 M. 

Till' t'iujts rcsjii-cting the stria' in (!as]H' liasin, when combined, 

^;l"» a local ijlacier occupied its wi'stern end, drawing its sup- 

]:>- trmii till' \alleys of the York and Dartmouth rivers. It seems to 

llini' tiiiiiiiril out towards Cape llaldimand, the stria' shosving a con- 

Iveii'cnt'i' finiii both sides towards th(^ centre of the basin, and its 

lasv.'in iimsi li.ivc lain srmcwhei c in a lin" between Cape Haldimand 

ai/i Little (l.isj.i'. On the nai'row peninsula tei'minatingin CajH! (iasite, 

Liiirt'-iution isap]iirent, except the cross stiia' produced by floating ice 

IdeMii 1(1 nil ,1 previous page, the surface being co\ered with angular 

ip«.l;ili'li!is line to suba'i'ial disintegration. In (iaspi' J'asin and on 

llti" i'liiii^ula nil the east side we ha\e, therefore, tlie limit of the 

|la!,i,,i' whii'li mused eastwardly off the (Jasjii' peninsula. 

l".."\viiiu- llie coast of the (iasiu' iieninsulii southward and westward, '^'"' '.,"• 

Iti'ilwi' rciH'ii (,'aj.e Maijuereau, numerous stria' are found there, the dis Ciiak'uis. 
pri^'oiurM' of which is S. [l E. and S. -15 !■'., showing that the 
lfH\v;is still local, and moved ofl" the sl()|ies into tlu^ open (Uilf of St. 
|Lwii.nrt., (,!• iiiouth of the Male de^ Chaleurs, in a direction at right 
;'■*■> tn till' 11 last -line. The margin of the ice was probably nearly 
^tiriiiiiious with the then existing coast, which appears to have been 
fi^litiy liii;li(.i' iliei'e also than at present. 




The Jiaie dcs Chalnvrfi Glaricr, 

ilts Tlie western end of the IJaie ties Clialeurs dcjirossidii w.A tl,, 
valleys of the CusciHiedifi, Nouvelle, Metiii)edia, l!e-.tii,'(iiiilic, n,. 
triliutaiy to it, were occupied by a glacier in tlie early part ui il.,. 
Pleistocene. Tlus terminus of this ylacier was alxiut tlir lnoi',„,t 
contour line below the i)res(!nt level of the bay, that is nuiuly i,, ,., 
line across from the mouth of the JJonavcnture lii\( r. (^iiitljir, \,, 
Belledune Point, New Brunswick. East of this line on Imtli sides of 
the Dale des Clialeurs, the striie indicate ice-niovenients iiiuic iliniih- 
into the depression of the bay. 

To this ice-mass I shall give the name of the llaie ilcs Clmlcm- 
glacier.* Its source was in the Notre Dame ^louutains and ]iiiiRi- 
pally in the drainage basin of the Kestigouche liiver ; I ut it a!-" 
drew supplies from the Scaumenac, Nouvelle an<l Cascajicdia viiHiy.s. 
The extreme length of the IJaio des Clialeurs glacier was nut li>s 
tiian 120 miles, but it was doubtless connected with otlicr ^'iacicrsor i 
sheets of ice, to the north, west and south, and witli tl.i' ccntnili 
north-east Appalachian tifin'. Its width in tl'.e I'aie des Cliali'iiia I 
valley, wlu;re it was gr(;atest, was ;50 t(j 40 miles, and its exiieii]e| 
thickness was probably 900 to 1,000 feet. 

TliP XortJintnlnrlaiid (j'facicr. 

The Nor 

tliuni Bordering the Bale des Clialeurs glacier on the soul lie ist, alnn,' the! 
divide between the diainage basin oi the Bale des Chiilciiis and tliiitl 
of the Miramichi rivers, and probably coalesoent with it. lliciv ix- 
isted a large glacier in the early I'leistocenc to wiiich tlie aluAc niiiiiej 
is applied. Its north-westei'ii connection or ii' rr lias nnt yci Iral 
traced ; but the glacier is known to have descended in a i,'(iitMal ea-l 
ward to north-eastwai'd direction from the I'egion aluait the lnaJ-] 
waters of the ^Miramichi rivcu-s into the (Uilf ut St. bawin. 
Till! southern limit was near the watershed between the ^liiamica 
and other rivers flowing into the .Strait of Northundiiilaiid and tli^ 
St. John waters, and extended along by Indian or Lutz .Mminiiiin 
the watershed of the Isthmus of Chigneeto, the northern liaM'ut .Mt'ii 
Pleasant, Cumberland county. Nova Scotia, Head of Tatania;;iiiiilie| 
Hardwood Hill, west of Pictou, etc. From the mainland i if New llruii^ 
wick it extended eastward what is now the Strait of No 
tliumberland and overrode a portion, if not the wliolf of Piiiiij 

* Can. Xatnnilist, Mcintrcal, vol. X., ISSl ; Tlic (ilaciiil 1'I.hi"1ii''iki "i 
Bait' dis Cliak'Uis Kegiim. 

■;. ISI.AM'. 

:...»!;»!. 1 

PLEIHTOC KN K • i LA ( ' 1 KH.S. 

91 M 

(It'V)rcssiiiii iiiiil till 
I, liestii^duchi', eU'._ 
the ciirly I'lut (if tl'' 
S lllx.Ut 111.' l<it)t',-,i 
^•, thiit is iii-'iivly in II 
re llivt'r, <i»nelifc, lo 
i line on Imlli -^idcs ni 
^•einents www dincily 

the r.aio (Ics Clmlcui- 
;M(.untiUii^ iind iniiici- 
le llivcr -. I'Ut it !>!•" 
iml Ciisfiii'iMlKi viill.'\>. 
urs gliifii'v \Mi- ii"t li >i 
I with <ithcr ,;,'liK'i(ns (ir 
, iiiul witli tin- central, 
tV.e r.aic d'^ CliaVurs 
miles, iuul it-; t'^U'euie | 

i,, aesClialcufsiindtliiitj 

■scent Nvith iu t!i''i" «•[ 
„ which the :il.n'..MKU..8| 

„,,■-' has lint yet li''- 
ended in a -cnerid M>l 

,,.^M.,n ah.iut theli.nJ^ 

(U.lf of St. l-;i"iv 

l,ctween llie Mi™""^i> 

U;ui or I'Ut/. .Mo""'^""^ 

lo northern liase of -MmJ 

iHead of Tatamau'ouclK 

.mainland of New IH 

f.H.xv the Strait "t >o 

U the whole ef Pmj 

\\,\\\nn\ Island. Bouhh'rs and drift from tho maiidaiid of Now 
lliiiiiswick occur interihixod in the lioultlcr-elay in the western [)ait 
„t this isjaml, and sparinf,dy as far east as the higlier ju'rounds in the 
teiitial jiart. Tlie tahhi of stria' and the maps accompanyini:; this 
Miiiit sill Av dillercnt sets of stri.e, Ijut only those trending eastward 

lict'ii jiroduced l)y the Xortiiuniberhmd glacier. 


Xlii. Ma'il.ilen Islands are non-glaciated, and it would seem that the Mas^'lali n Is- 
iiiiiinland ne li i« gone no lurthcr than the eastern and north-eastern ghiciiitcd. 
Imidenif I'lince I'jdward Island, tho scjuth-eastern part having. a])par- 
fiitlv. lirrii glaciated hy ice which accunjulated on the island itself, audi 
tiimfini', containing no debris from the mainland intermi.xed witii tho 
Irtiilder-clay. This fact accounts also for the .scanty oecui'i'enee, or 
ab^pni'c of transported or foniign boulders on the higher grounds, 
a'.tliiiiiuli the stria' show eastward movement there. The other courses 
III -tiia' will be discussed later on. 

TIr' viiiitli-castern terminus of the Nortlnunberland glacier, therefore, 
MMiild sceiii to have Imhmi along a line n(!ar the coast border from Mis- 
fiiu 111' Sliijiiicgan Island to the mouth of the Miramichi liiver, crossing 
liii'laltri' |inibably outside of Portage Island; thence it curved round 
!.Ava:d^ North Cape, Prince i-Mward Island, and followed the north- 
Kist side of th(! island probably to Kast Cape, in the depi'cssion 
iicciipit'd by Xortlunnberland Strait, it does not seem to have gone 
i,ii't'ici' past\vai'<l than Pictou harbour. 

I'n many portions of the area covered by the Noithuniberland 

:i;i'it'r. the i(!e has been thin and light and had little eroding power* 

lai\'Hslii't'ts iif rott(!d I'oclv occurring undisturbed on the mainland as 

Will as on I'rince Edward Island. 

Till' d(|in'ssion occupied by the waters of the Strait of Northumber- 

hiid, apju'irs to have inllucnced the ice-How wherever the present 

Jepdi iif till' sea does not exceed 100 to 110 feet. I'.eyond that, tho 

.'.ii:i indicaii' that the ice-movements were independent of the general 

ftwwiinl trcmi of the Nivthumberbind glacier ; hence it is assumed that 

■klaiti'i'triiiiiiiated ator near the 100-foot contour line below sea-level. 

it is innlialiU' that the source of the Northumberland glacier was in 

'.irliinliei' giiiuuds of central New Brunswick. The St, .John and St. 

Li*itnLf water's interlace in the north-western part of the province, 

a:?! till' ;M''' ground of this glacier must have been to the north of 

lake Nictor. Further investigation is, however, required to settle this 


The Saint John Vdlh'ij Glarirr. 

'a-'^in!? from tlip watershed of the Gulf of St. Lawrence 
liiu (if I'uiidy, a marked diflerence is apparent in the c. 

Till' St. John 



1)2 M 


the {^liu'iiition mul of tlu' drift deposits. The gononil tntid uf i| 
inoveiiieiit on this sl(i|m is south to iNiat-soutii-cust, Viuviii,' u, 
to ihi- (lirccMioii of the avvnt valley of the Ht. John liivir 
geneiiil slopes of the surface. Near the uiouth of that ii\ir, 

II' lie 



stiM.i' lieaiinj' west of south oceiir 


in^'ini,' apparently \'< a sta 

.'!• WlnTi 

the ice had passed its greatest development and was im 

!!■ Willie. 



J'lie St. .loliii N'alley glacier was the lar;^est of the 



till' St. .Inliii C'lnadiiui trriitnry south of the St. I.iawreiice \'alley. Its Nuuire, 



.f its 

^renter Ihii' 

;roimd. was in the liii;hlan(ls of the northern jmrt of the si, 


JNIaine, in the Ivistern 'i'owiishi]>s of the pro\in(;e of 'I'lii'licc ,ini| ii, 
northwestern New liruiiswick. Large trihutai'y {^ladirs juiiKd 

the vallevs o 

f ll 

le several alllueiits. On tlu^ north ca-.t side t| 

was prohaldy in contact with tlie Noitliumherlaiiil Ljla 

ureal part of the watershed separating; them ; tin the \m-i it miMv 

II' liuir::;i 

I'lIT alllll;.' ,1 

into the nc w 


1 covered 


si lt( 

.f M 

aine, and iii;i\'. mkI 

been partially, if imt wlmlly cunlhieiit with it, timnuli 

for llie most part, a more eastward course. W'hetlii'r cnnihii'iit nr ii'it. 


the St. ,1 

ohii \'allev "'lacier seems to jiave l)eeii ihielviT and 



lis IS. nil dniiut. till' iv,|ii 

mas.'^nc as we proceed tiuni e.isl to west 

of the more fa\(iural)le conditions for its deveiopineiil. I 

roMlllilV !•! 


le e\ apiiiatiiii. 

surface of the Atiantii 

(if CdUlM', 

amounl nf prei-ipitation and a hiyher and lietter condendiiL.' -■iiriifi- 
were, doll lit less, the predispoNini; causes for the greater airuiiiiiUtiH:. 

of i'leistoceiie iee in the St. .loiin \ aliev and on llie ll.u 

it |-ll!:uv 

coast, as well as westward 
is dillicult to trace. It is 

The front of tlie St. J( 


■illrv ::i;if 

doubtful whether this yiaeirr siiiiiiiiiiiit>d 
and o\-er>-ode the whole of that, p;irt of the crystidiiiie |il,ilraii lyiii: 
east of the mouth of the Saint .lolm IJiscr. It certainly iliil ii't .I"-" 
with the relati\e levels of this crystalline plateau and ili.- ('iirlmiii 
fei'ous area to the north of it the same as at the present day. Tlifie ] 
are some facts at hand which tend to show that the latter iiuisi ln^e] 
been hi,i,dier, re!ativ(dy, when the St. dolin N'alley glacier disdiaf^i'i 
into the ]5ay of Kundy. J5ut this glacier, or .system of ;,dai'i(Ms, ln'rame 
much l)r(d<eii up in its passage through the hills bnrdcriiii: t'l'" '""'m 
of water, as it proved by the divergent courses of sti i;i' aloii;.' tnej 

.lust where the margin of the ice wliich properly heleimid toiln' 
John Valley glacier lay to the west, or wliether it was malrsii'iit wi 
the ice occui)ying tlie territory of the State of Maine, ii i-; ii"' I'""''' 


to determine witii the limited amount of data at hand, liutli'rj 
investigations about to be undertaken in western New r.iiin-<\vickiiav| 
elucidate this ijuestiou. 

K. ISLAM p. 



9.1 M 

♦Till tn'iui <if tlif i(|.. 

Ht, Vill'Vill',' arcdi'diii;; 
, Jollli I liver iiil'l the 
t tliiit r'lMT, cuiir-.'sDt 
rtMitly toiistinicwhcii 
was till tilt' wiinc. 
f tlic slii'i'l"^ iiri'ii|iyiii.' 
'alley. Its -iiiii'i'i'. ii! 
II imrt tit' the Mlatf "f 

ilUM' tit' \>Ueliei.' ilMil ill 

yliiejcrs juincil it Irnin 
li fii.-t siile til" iiiiiv.'iii 

M-laiul ^lariiT almi.' n 
(111 lilt' ^^I'-l it iiii'i\' il 

ami iiiav. imlefd, liiiv*- 
it, tliiiu-li |iur^ui:i:'. 

lietlifrfiiiiiliifiit uriini, 

K'fn thicker :in'l i'i"i* 

* is, lUi t|i>u'"t. the l''Mlit 

Itiiuiieiii. I'loxiiiinytM 

;|, (it' ;i L,';v;i!iT 

tcr (•iiiuli'nMiiL;' Miiiiii'. 
ic Ltreatfi- ari-uiiiiiliiti"ii 
(HI ill'' l''i> "' '■'"'"'}' 
St. Jtiliii \' alley L;Ui'ii-r 
(his ui.'icier suniiniiiitfil 
slalline iilatoiuilyiM] 
•fi'laiiily iliil II •' '■•'- 
call aiei tli.' rarli"!:i- 
,(. iirescni (lay. TlifW 1 
t the latter iiilMl"^^] 
lev ulaeiel' iii->'li:"'- 
(,.,11 (if -l.'H'iers Imtiuii'-j 
s iKii'.lefiiiu' that hnavj 
ses tjf >lii;'' nloiiL'tiii'l 

H'l'lv lieloii-.dfotheSt.l 
it was .•.lales.'i'Ut witlil is net i"«ssiWel 
ata at haii.l. l"iii'l"J 
ci'iiNevv 1 '.run -wick ii.;iy 


Ill icuai'il to tlio ^{lacifitioii i>f tlio platcuu aloii^ tho I5ay of Kundy 
.„ the east (if St. .loliii liarbtmr, if not diit) to !<;« overriding it from 
,i|,. ,St, .Inliii Valh'y ami from (Jraiid and Wa.siiadamoak liako liasin.s, 
^,,. then It iniiHt 1)0 tliat local ice masses acfiimulati-d upon it which 
.l„\v.'(l (iiil liiwarls till! open waters of tho l>ay of Fundy. At St. 
.I.,hii liiifl"""' '^'"' ^^''''^*' "^ it, iiowfvcr, tlic ic») margin seems to have 
,xiiiii1(mI lievond tho present coast-line, apparently stretching out 
1,1 ill I ami t artheras we proceed westwards toward.s the International 
l).iiiiiilarv. This fact is in accdrdanee with tho view that the nK-tcoro- 
jij iciii iiiiil physiciiil conditions necessary for the productitm of glaciers 
wpi'i' inin'e faviiuiahle on tho May of Fundy coast and westward than 
in the tliilt' lit' St. fitiwrence. 

Thi: CliKjni'Jitt) (i/acinr, 

iiii til ■ Ktliiiuis of Chignecio and in the two arms of Chigni>cto TheChitrneeto 

Civ. 1111(1 jiidlialily extending as far to the south-west as Cape Knragt' *'' ''*-'"^'''' 

„n the line hand and the mouth of A|)plo Kiver on tho other, tlmre 

fsiM'l a ideal glacier in the early Pleistocene, the general inovenient 

(itwlii'li A IS south-westward into the op >n waters of tho IJayof Fundy. 

S'lii' pi'idiieed hy this glaiMtu- are found near Hhepody ^[ountain 

.\llii'i't cduiitv. New ISrunswick, from HOO to (iOO feet or more aliove 

t!ii' present sea-hnel, and on the opposite shore, in the vicinity of Sand 

ami Apjile livers, fi-om 3.jO to 100 feet high. In the central parts of 

tliel-^thiiius of Chignticto, viz., at Westcock, Dorchester Cape and 

imithef Kolly Toint, striie, to all appearances produced hy this body of 

ice, ;ilo (leeiir at elevations of '^ '0 to 400 feet. The stri.'ition is dis- 

tiii't and well detined, and leaves no dcmbt that it has been caused by 

ilfttv large l)ody of ice flowing in the direction indicated. 

In -celling ilm .source of the Chignecto glacier, or rather tho height- 

'tl;ind whieli gave it momentum, great ditliculties were encountered. 

At lir-t an attempt was made to explain the glaciation by the action 

otil'iatini; ice ; but this agencv, while competent to account for certain 

>m;i'i mdueed at a later stagt? of the glai'ial period in this region, did not 

5**iiu'i|ialile of explaining certain phenomena pertaining to the Cliig. 

ni-cm dai'ier. For example, in Albert county the stria- attributable 

totlieactii 111 of this glacier occur on both northward and .southward 

>!"]>iii:.'d.elivities, and cross narrow valleys, such as that of Demoi.selle 

Cn' k. iililii|ii( Iv. They are met with at altitudes varying from sea-level 

H|itMiUO am hiOO feet, ami are parallel on the higher as well as on 

^lWl■r -,1 jies (in 0|iposite sides of Chignecto Bay. These and other 

1* which might be cited evince the action of land ice only. At the 

04 M 

I' ' 


111 tlio 

Ctl I 

Ni:\v lutUNswirK, nova hcotia a\i» I'. k. 

minio tiino it is not (letiitul tliat a coiiHidt'rahlo juirt of tin' stiiitim, ,, 
of tlu! lowor j^rciundH on liotii sides of Ulii;,'ii»Mto I'my as well !i> uti 
tli»' islliiiiiis is du(^ to lloatin;; ice — in tiic latter diHtiic-t, indir'd, ii u,i, 
cliitslly produffd l)y fills aj,'ciuv, at a sul)stM|iu'nt Hta]L;tt of the ;f|i„jj] 
poriod. JWit on tiu' lii,i;lu!r levels, tliu glaeiation seems to Ih- cntiivlv 
duo tu land ion. 

It lias l)een slated on jiaffo L'(» M, that the lieiylit of tlie [^tllllMls it 
Chi^necto, near Noi-tliiinilx-rland Stiait. dot^s not exeecd sivciiivlivi^ 
to ont^ liundi'tul feet. Some liills and undulations rise to one Iiiimi|i,i1 
anil twenty live to one hundred and lifty feet, l)ut on liie ciliir liiml i 
laru'e )iart of the isthmus is low and Hat, and not more lifiv!, 
sixty feet hi.i;h. The elevation of the axis exceeds this Iml mtv litii,>. 
except upon the ridges lyinj; lietwecn .Memramcook ami >ackvii;.., 
portions of wliich i'is(! aiiovo the ".'UO-font contour. Ilnu ilim (li,i 
ice How south-westwaidly off the istiunus into Chiifneiiip |!,iv, uhi 
override the ridijes around t\u-. h<»ad of it, while portions ut' ilii> iiiMi, 
parontly rose two hundred to three liundr-ed feet above tiic Icvildt'it. 
.source ? This was one of the prohlems presented to us in stndvin.' 
the glaciation of this region. To sati.sfy ourselves rejjiirdini.' ihcHnnv. 
or »''»v'-i;round of the ('hii,'necto jflacier, a thorough «'Xiiiniii,iliiiiiiii tin' 
isthmus was made, and our investi^^ations extended to I'linci' \'A\nu\ 
Island, to the eastern extremity of the (iaspe peninsula .iinl titLi 
^raydalen Islands. If the },'atherin,i,'-<,'round of this i,'lacicr I ml luin 
beyond the Isthmus of Chi;;necto, we concluded it wouM siiiittil 
the hij,'her ifrounds of the eastern extremity of (Jaspi' miuI ut' Piime 
Edward Island in its j)assa;;e .southward. No norlli mid soinh, nr 
north-east and south-west striation was found on tliehiLtlitr |initi(iiisif 
Prince Edward Island or at (Jaspt', however, and the ^l.ii;'laliii ]>lam!> 
were discovered to be un;;hu'iated. On the south-west slope uf I'liinr 
Eilwurd Island, facing the Isthmus of Chignecto, there .iiv a few Mat- 
tered sti'ia-, but they seem due to local ice sliding off the isliimlata 
later stage. Finding no solution of the problem in this w.iy, wo tlieii 
had to re-investigate the northea.stcrn sidt; of the Isthmus of C'iiipiiit" 
anew. Numerous stria> are found here, as detailed on tlic map, luit 
they all indicate the action of floating rather than land icv. Tt is \vi- 
sible some of the older .sets may have been produced Ky the latter 
agency, but the rocks are soft sandstone, easily eroded, and tlie-spstiif 
may have been mostly obliterated. With all the data a\ ailable, there 
fore, we have been forced to the conclusion that the Chigiitctoglacieik 
after all, one which developed on the Isthmus of Chignccto. and in the 
depression between that and Prince Iklward Island, and as iiit'crmliii 
page 27 m the relative levels of the axi.s and of the norlli castein i«rt 


(.i.»i«» j 


9."* M 

,r-t of till' siriiitimi (,i 
i> l>ay as well ;i> (,|, 
listrict, iiitlrcd, it »ns 
t stii,u'" "f 'III' ,i;lii''iiil 

I si't'iiis to lie ciilir.'iv 

ijilit of tlu' l^tliimis (if 
jnt cxri'i'il sr\ciily liv^ 
lis rise to ciiic limnhvil 

Ut t)Il till" ollu'l' li;|liil;i 

not inon- tlnui lit'iy tu 
;ils this Inil M'i'v litiii>, 
aim'ook ami >ai'kvilli', 
ntodi". i liiw tlii'ii (lid 
() Clii,i,'iii'ftci H;iy, aii'i 

portions oi' ihi- inM].- 

ct illiovi' the level I't its 
itt'd to lis ill siuilyiii.' 
V(>s fe;,'anlin'_' ilie>nmv,. 
lU'^h cxainiiiutioiKif the 
iiiUul to I'riiiec Kilwiiid 
;'• peninsula mikI tutlir 

lot' tllis f^laeier I'llil Ih'i'II 
1 it wouli' iiave striiitcil 
• (!jis]H' aiitl lit' riiii'.e 
No north iUMlsiimh.iir 
)n thohi;;lier purliimsiit 
idthe^liiii'laleii Isliiml- 
iith-wost slu|ie of riimo 
to, tluTO a IV a fewM-it- oil' the isliimliiiii 
m in this way. we tlim 
lelstliimis nf C'lii;'iicdo 
■tiiiltHl on the iniip, ''"t 
iinlaiiilice. Itisjinv 
produced hy the latter 
eroded, and these stiv 
ho data avaihihle, tlu've- 1 
of Ciugni'etc. ami ill the 
the north eastern l«irt ] 

•eiiliai' (If- 
liililnelit ef 

,[ the islliiiiiiH as well as the Itottoin of Xortliumherland Strait njiist 
|,nvlK"ii hiiiiu'r than at present, and the south-weslerii pait and llio 
,,(ist holders lit" CI>i;,'neeto J5ay lower. 

llie Cliiuiieeto ;{laeier was doubtless a product, partially at least, of 
.:,,, ,.v;i|inr ilioii from the open waters of the May of Fundy, and its 
, ,.,,|t.iis,iiiciii in this ])artieidar loeality. This prohahly eaused the 
iHniiiitioii "' ^'"''' '^ thiek mass of iee under siieli exceptional circuin- 
•Miies ; t'lir. to the south-west of Cape Mai'injiouin it can not have l»een 
„.,.ili;iii liw- hundred or six hundred feet thick. IJut its superficial 
,iJ;ii,iiMiiiis were limited, its length heint; prohably not more than foi'ty- 
I tietutitiy miles, .-md its extrciiie width eiLthteer. to twenty miles. 

I'll,. ,iii-iii and development of the Clii<,'necto f,'laeier under such I'' 
r»(idiiii' I'"''' conditions, are no douht also pai'tly owing to the fact ci 
ii the Niiitliuml)erlanii Strait to the north-east was, at that time, ^''' 
cliipkiil up hy the Northiimhei'land i;Iacier, and thus the former was 
Itniivil I" ~'eek outlet to the open waters of the l>ay of Fundy. Indeed, 
jii»ii'it iiniiiolialile that a portion of the Xorthumherland j^lacier may 
I Itivi' swuiu round and passed out over the Isthmus of Chi;L?iiecto 
ltn»;iiih the liay of l-'undy, as suv'gcsted to me hy Dr. (J. M. Dawson, 
tli!istoiiiiiiii.' the source or head of the C-hignecto j,'lacier, though few, if 
I iiiiv stria' have licen found indicating such a swerving movement, which 
1 wniiM really a change from a due easterly course to one nearly 
iiiilnvesi. (hi any view of the <]uestion therefore, ditViculties are m»!t 
hvith.iuid no t'ully satisfactoiT solution of the prohlem of tin.' glaciation 
iihe Isthiiius uf Chignecto has yet been found. 

(ilac.ialloii <>/' Xova Scotia. 

Tliet'iicts adduced in regartl to New IJrunswick glaciers in the early 'I'lie Klaiiailon 

Pifi-tiiwMie, .appear to demonstrati! that no ice reached the peninsula of .Sctitia,. 

N"' iSiiiti.i fiDiii the mainland, except those portions of the Northum- 
lirikwl and Chignecto glacier.s which imjiinged on the coasts of Cuin- 

wliiml I'uuiity, the former in the Strait of Northumberland, the latter 
linluinherlaiid l>asin. The dejire.ssion of the lUy of Fundy was not 
Iro-siiiliy land ice from southern New Urunswick, nor did ice move ' 

la;ro-s the Isthmus of Chignecto in any dirt^ction, but as indicated. 

NeillicT li-is Nova Scotia been glaciated by extra-peninsular ice from the 
jiiorthor north oast, except, perhaps, by some floating ice on the coa.stal 
jar;K Whatever glaciation it received from land ice, and .some dis- 
Itnits have liccii very heavily striated, has been wholly from that 
hhiihiKcuMiulatod upon the surface of the country itself. 


96 M 


Lncnl iind 




In the portion of tlmt province includod in the map, t\w stiiati,,n 
is extremely local and diver<,'ent. Ice };;athered on the suu.inits of tlie 
Cobeipiids and also on some other elevations such as ^foiint I'lpuMut, 
Kpringhill, etc., and moved thence in both directions, i.< ., nuitliwanl 
and southward. Some of the striie on the slope between the ('()l)ei]iii(|< 
and Northumberland Strait may belimg to a later date tlinti tli;i! nf 
the Nortiiund)efl<ind ylacier. On the south side of the t'iilici|tiiils,ii 
pretty larj^e local glacier movinl westward from ^linas ijasin int., tli,. 
l>ay of Fundy. Stria- showing tiie movement of the latter (uxiii;it 
Spencer's Island, S. G7 W. and S. 70 W., etc. To tiic (>ast, however, u 
local glacier seems to have flowed otf the southern slope of tli('(.'iil]fi|uiil 
Mountains, crossing tlu? eastern part of Cobecpud I'ay, and t!ifii(.'e|iii5>. 
ing over the low country traversed by the Intercolonial raihvav, di-. 
charged into the Atlantic in the vicinity of Halifax. Siri;r wiili iiniiii 
west stossing wen; obsvMved near Siuibenacadie, and tliem-f tn tlip 
Atlantic coast, showing this ice-movement very denly. 

To the south-west and south of the Basin of Minas. tin- in' wjiiili 
accumulated on the peninsula moved outwards towards it> peiiplipiv 
north-westward, westward, southward and south-east wanh IVnin 
the South Mountain it crossed the Annapolis Valley, ovciiiliii;' tin- 
North ^lountain, and i)assing thence into tlie I>ay of Finidv. Strin' 
proving this were found at Ibidgetnwn, Annapolis, hi^Wv, Ihail of 
St. .Mary"s iiay, etc. On the South Mountain, at the liist iin'iiti' mil 
place the following cfiurses occur: — N. 'M W., N. 47 W. X. '>\ W,. 
N. C^-r W. and N. 70' W.; on the Xortli Mountain h.'iv, X. i':' W., 
,,f N. 40 W., N. 47 W. and N. 52 W., and near the cunt of the liny 
of Fundy, N. .")7' W. and N. 72 W. The North :\Iouniaiii is lieiv 
upwards of one bundled tVet Inirher than the South Mdiuitaiii iVniii 
which the ice came, yet granite boulders from the latter, of all sizes up 
to ten feet in diameter, are strewn o\-er the sloju's nt' tlie Nnitii 
Mf)untain down to the shore of the Hay of i'undy. 

At Annapolis, stci;e occur on the North Mountain tivmlin:,' .\'. '■'I'l 
AV., N. ;?4 AV., N. 42 W., etc. The stoss side is t.. the s.,iitli-:;i<t 
and the surface is everywhere strewn with granite Iiniilih i- fniiii ili>' 
South Alountain. 

On the North ^Mountain at Digby, the stria- run \. L' ^V.. X. VJ 
W., N. 5G' W. and N. 08 \V., the two latter cours<-s lirin- mar the 
coast. Granite boulders from the South Mountain aiv lyl-n alnimhini 

At the head of St. Mary's Bay the North Mountain |nvso'its n 
great stoss side to the south-east, tiie courses of stria' tlu'ii' liciiii; >■ 
70' W., N. 74° \V., etc. These siiow a swerving of the ir.' iiinvciiii'iit in 




97 M 

the diivction of the deeper parts of St. Mary's Bay. The glaciation 
iiloiii,'ilie North Mountain has apparently l)een heavy, extensive ledges 
and liosses being deeply grooved and ice-worn. 

Near Vannouth, stria- occur with a course of 8. X E., showing ice- 
iiiovi'iiii'iit mostly in the direction of the estuaries. 

It will be seen that tli«! above courses taken together with those liiKal ice tho 
iiiitiil l>v other observers on the south-east coast, cleai'ly point to local [J,r,,,it ^'° 
i,r as liiiving been the glaciating agent in the peninsula of Nova 
Srntia. Tlio ice on the south-east slope has probably been heavier than 
mi til.' noitli-west side during the stage of its inaxinuun extension. 
I'luiiiu' the Atlantic oci^an, this slo[)e, similarly to the New lU'unswick 
«!ri|«' (if the i'ay t)f Kuiidy and the Xew ICngland coast region to the 
wi-t, WIS very well situated for the nourishment of glaciers. The free 
tfciliatnv afforded the ice into the sea along its margin, enabled it to 
eiiidi' till' rocks over which it passed to a much gr(;ater extent than in 
till' ititi'iior. This erosion is exlubite<l in the deep gn)Oves and rounded 
biwH's 1)11 the south-east and nortli-west coasts of Nova Scotia. 

l'.A>TEi;\ A 

Ni) Soltii-i:asti:i{\ Limits ok the New Dul'xswick t! lacikks. 

•th Mniiiitaiii is mv 
ISoutli Mniiiitaiii tViim 
latter, ot'all si/es up 

kitaiii tri'iiiliii:.' 

IhiuIiI'I- t'riiiii ill'' 

Moiiiitaiu I'li^'^P' 

Lf the ii'.-iiiiivi'iiii'n' in 

The limits of the several local glaciers just described, are known ap- Limits of tlic 

iroxiiiiatclv at least, and ari! delineated on the accompanvin:^; sketch- y'"'"!''* ■i'"^"'*-' 

iiK]!. What was j>robably the margin of the ice, was located on the 

ftist.sidc of (iaspi' llasin, the point of land terminating in Ca[ie Gaspi' 

iiiuir iiiiiilaciated. lu the Baie des Chaleurs basin, there is evidence 

tliii' tlio local glacier wiiich occupied it diil not extend farther to the 

t;i-t than lioiiaventure iiiver and IJelledune Point, smallcjr local sheets 

il'lioucliiiii; into the depression from both sides of the bay to the east 

'I that. The ice extended along the peninsula betwci'ii the llaie dtis 

l'ii:ilf'uis and Northumberland Strait as far as Caraipiette, and per- 

''M\-^ partly oNcri'ode Shi|)pegan Island ; but the northern part of 

Slii| j>i'i;aii and all Miseou Island have not furnished any (^vidciucs of 

.iiiiiitiiiii. .lust where the ice-border lay in ^liramichi liay, is prob- 

•iiiiuiral ; it may have been along or near the hundred-foot contour 

''viw Ma Irvid, swerving outsich; of North Cape, I'rince i'Mwaid 

I-toI. ami, perhaps, following the north-east coast of that islaiul to 

lii't Ca|»'. Thence the limit of the ice doubled and ran ti iwards Pietou 

"IiIbiui', N<i\a Scotia. The southern margin of the New Ih'iinswick 

1"' loimidrd with that of the Northumberland glacier, already 

'^•'CTilicd, as far as the Fsthmus of Chignecto. If we include the 

Uii^'necto glacier amongthe New Brunswick ice-sheets, the border would 

Kieiid iiiuiid by Amherst and the mouth of the Maccan River, thence 

98 M 


following the summit of the low ridge to the south-east of Cuinl)erland 
Basin <as far as Apple Ri\er, and, perhaps, to the northern basn of tlie 
Cobequid Mountains. The probable position of the front of the 
Chignecto glacier was outlined on page 93 m. On the New Bninswiik 
side of the Bay of Fundy, the ice-border seems to have lain pretty 
close to the coast west of Cape Enrage, as far as St. Jolin lifirbour. 
Here and to the westward it evidently extended out beyond llic present 
land, overriding the islands adjacent thereto. Its extension sciwiud 
probabl}' increased the farther westward we proceed until icjicliin;' 
Grand Manan, which the mainland ice appear.s to have surmounted 
and glaciated. 

Around the peninsula of Nova Scotia, the margin of the laiul ice 
was not definitely traced, but it probably extended very little bevond 
the line of the present coast. 

Absence of Terminal Moraines. 

Alwcnce of 



No terminal moraines have been observed along th»> east ami south- 
east margin of the glaciated area described in these; ])ages. MfJi- 
aines may have existed and have since been denuded and entirely 
washed away by the action of the sea, during tiie post-glaciiil suh- 
mergence of the coast border, but tliis is extremely doubtful. The 
mode of occurrence of the boulder-clay and the distriljutioii of the 
transported boulders do not atlbrd evidence of any linear arnmirement 
of deposits either as terminal or lateral moraines in the region, except, 
perhaps, in southern New Brunswick, on the watershed between the 
St. John Valley and the Hay of Fundy, where small local glaciers left 
a few irregular ridges at the final retirement of the ice, wliieli may be 
classed as such. There is a greater or less sporadic distribiitinn of 
glacial material, but it is very seldom heaped up in ridifcs or minwuls. 

Without entering into the vexed (|uestion of the mode of (■amai;e 
of the drift by glaciers, a few observations may be otl'ered le^anliiiu' 
glacial transportation in the particular area under review. 

The mode of distribution of the drift is largely dependent upon tin' 

trihutidudf toiJOffranhic features. In hill or mountain districts wliiili iididei 
tlie.lnft in ,, , . , . . . , , r 

eastcni New valleys or plains, glaciers receive an impetus from the steeper irrailients, 

Brunswick. enabling them to erode and often sweep off the debris down to the 

rock surface, exhibiting the striation and polishing. In tiie val'ey 

bottoms this debris is thrown down and lies until again eluded by 

the ice, or by rivers or streams. In this case, whatever mali rial the ice 

carries off one place it deposits in another near by, similarly to a vht'f- 

Often at the base of declivities, on the lee side, masses of drift have thus 

AIoilc of (lis- 



99 M 

L'in of the land ice 
very littli- l)cyoml 

been deposited ; but occasionally in districts of hilly or irregular surface, 
thelMiulilcr-clay occurs as mounds or lenticular masses on the more level 
tracts, or again it may be massed against hills on the stos:, side ; being 
ill all these instances generally well mixed with transported and 
njaiiated boulders and pebbles. In localities glaciated in this manner, 
which are (juite common in New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, there 
will 1)1" found rock surfaces of greater or less area laid bare and liiglily 
striated and polished, the material which originally covered them 
liaviiiL,' been wholly or partially removed by the ice. These may be 
called iee-swept surfaces, in contradistinction to flat surface, over which 
the ice lias distributed the boulder-clay more evenly and through which 
rock surfaces seldom npjtear. The latter condition is characteristic of 
the Carl loniferous area of New Brunswick. Here glacier motion has 
been couipaiatively sluggish, and the gi-eater portion of the boulder- 
clav is more local in character. In many parts of this area, the rotted 
lock lies still undistui'bed, and the boulder-clay is often thick and in 
wide, regularly-distributed sheets. Successive additions of the latter 
have lieen deposited here and there also, and the transported boulders 
are more numerous, as a rule, in the upper part of the deposits, and 
especially on the surface, the latter feature, however, being doubtless 
jiartly a result of .subsequent denudation. 

Fnini the evidence at hand, it appears that the slopes of the higher 
u'lounds of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia have been as a rule 
more lieavily glaciated than the lower coastal districts around the 
snuth-westerii embayment of the Gulf of St. Lawrence — a heavily 
ulacialed district usually presenting many bare ice-swept rock surfaces, 
while one aeros.s which ice has moved sluggishly is deeply masked by 
suiierticial deposits. This has been the case especially on the lower 
iliouiuls of New Brunswick, Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island, 
incupicd l)y the Northumberland glacier. 

This sluggish motion and thinning out of the ice near the margins of Why tlnnan 
the liaie des Chaleurs, Northumberland and St. John Valley glaciers, i,'„'„.!ji„','.'s\''n 
tiigcthcr with the fact that they terminated in the sea in many places, ''"^' 'egioii. 
has liccu unfavourable to the formation of terminal moraines ; hence 
the absence of these deposits in this region. 

ivki.ations of the local glaciers to the appalachian 


The 'glaciers of eastern Canada, 
S'lUi'ces ,111(1 /(''(v'-grounds beyond th 

, iust described, evidently had their IJ'latioiis of 

' •' ^ •' . thf ^'laoKTs 

the boundaries of New Brunswick, in rlcsciilu-il to 
^- *_ .• . ii x' r'.,.,i 1 1 the Apiiala- 

tlie Notre J)ame or Green Mountains in northern New England and chian systt" 


100 M 


the province of Quebec. Those grounds liave not yet been sy^iiuMti- 
cully exphired. I'ut tliey hiid also local gathering grounds on tlic 
watersheds or divides between each glacier, esperially on tiiat luiuicii 
the drainage bnsin of the St. Jolin Hiver and of those rivers lluwin' 
into the Strait of Northumberland and Gulf of St. Lawiciicc, wlijch 
seems to have been an ice-shed during the whole glacial peril u I. 'rh,. 
Xorthumberland glacier may have had its H'Iv entirely wit liin Xiw 

The ice which occupied the region lying to thi' s(»utli ot' ihrSt, 
Lawrence Valley, in the early stage of the glacial pei'iod, linwiil tKun 
the higher ports of tlu; Notre Dame or northeast Ap]>alaclii,iii Ummuc 
in widely divergent courses and to diHerent jjoints of the cuin]i;iss, iIk. 
movements ludng laigely dependent on the topogi'ajihy and riliiion 
to th(^ cential mass or ni:rr. In the province of <.^u(4jec, the iii fuj- 
lowed, for the most part, the existing drainage channels, noithwani, 
eastward anil south-eastwaril a considerable body of iee passjnir f,.,,!,! 
the district known as the "Eastern Townshijis " into the \alliv nt' 
the ujjper St. John River. Tn northern New Brunswick, tlir u' inial 
trend of movcMnent was from west to east or to noitli-east, tin' HaiiMJis 
Chaleui-s glacier ilowing nearly tlue east and the Nortlimnliciianil 
glaciei- eastward to north-eastward. in the southern put oi' tlir 
province, the ice partotjk of a more southerly course, the St. .Iulm 
Valley glacier moving nearly south-eastward. Further west tlie ccnii-is 
swerve more and more to the south, the ice ha\ ing thus a innic or rtulial movement from the higher portions of norlheiii N. w Kn;;- 
land and Quebec. Whether the ice-tiiass consisted of unc roiiilinMit 
sheet, similar to the Cireeidand sheet of the present tlav, uy ui lucil 
glaciers, is a (|uestion which can only bo soKcd by furtln i- ilri -ilcil 
observations and mapping of the striic. That it was tiiick a'd mas- 
sive on the uKjre elevated grounds is highly proi)able. fiMJ.i il. tniai 
a comi)arison of the physiographical and meteornlogical ciiiilitinii-; 
which prevail in those parts of the world where glaciers imu nciur, 
with such as must have existed in tlu; north-east Api)alailiian iv-inn 
in Pleistocene times, we may infer that it was a \-ery i'a\'iiiialili' 
Oliicial cnmli- giithering-ground for ice. Three things essential to tlu^ prudiiitidii nt 
heavy glaciers seems to have been present here, viz.; — proNimiiy t i a 
large evaporating surface, heavy precipitatioti, and an area uf imisiil 
erable altitude, serving as a condensing surface. The heiulii <it iliis 
region was probably gi-eater in the early Pleistocene than a! pn-i'iit, 

Hence a large ice-sheet, or several ice-sheets, must have I n iK'^'l 

oped here, which in thickness, though not in superKcia! extiiil, was 
perhaps second to no other in North America. 

tioiis I if till 
ri'^riiin in tlit 



101 M 

As liiivins; some beannj; on tlie question of the evaporation from T«in|HTatuie 

... , . 11.1 .1 1 I . . "f tl"' New 

till' A I l.intic ocean (luring the glacial period, or, perhaps, during its Kii^rlanfl 
litii --tagc.s, reference may bo made to the occurrence of marine shells ^"''pj" "'/,'! '[' 
ill ili>' liuulder-clay and diumlins near lioston collected by Uphani, timtM. 
l)ii(li;v and i)thers. Tiiese shells were found to be closely similar 
to si", ii's now living in the waters adjacent to the New Kngland 
i.ia^t. May tliis fact not be taken as showing, that at the time tliey 
livrd ill tiiese waters, the tempeiiiture of the ocean along tlie Xow 
Km;! 111(1 shores cannot have been very far dillerent from that now 
|iri\;iiliiig? If so, then the evaporation from its surface must also 
haM' Im'cii as great as at the present day. 

Dkpartuhe of TiiK Pleistoceve Ice. 

Wliiii'vor changes in tli(> meteorological conditions occurred between 
till' raiiicr stage of the I'leistocene period, or period of maximum ice 
iKoiiiiuilation, and that about to be discussed, have left no traces in 
till' |ili( iioiuena of the region ; nevertheless, it is certain tiiat important 
iliaiiurs (lid take place lioth as regards climate and elevation of the 

A- ^liowii on iiage 33 M it would seem that soon after the maximum I'ciiaitinvof 
ut ICC acciiiiiulation was reached in the eastern provinces ot Canada, a cciic ice. 
"uiisiilciiic of the region commencod, which so far as the evidence 
'.'ocs, fdiitinuous not only till tiic close of the ice age, but for some 
time at'tcrwards, that is, until tlie Lcda clay was dejiosited. The 
.'^iiliMdiiKc, as stated, was more or less differential, evidence of 
which is all'orded in the divergent ice movements at the breaking up 
and dissolution of the Northumberland and Chignecto glaciers. The 
Hioiic climate of the region iluriiig this stage, is also shown by the 
iiininc shells fcjund in the )»oulder-clay at St. John, New Brunswick. 
Tlic Incal glaciers which occupied the slopes of the C(jast region, and 
the ihiatiug ice-packs or ice-jams impinging against these slopes during 
the ciddiig stages of the ice epoch, when the land stood lower than at 
ircsciii, have scored the rock surfaces, leaving records of their exist- 
■li'c and of the attitude of the land at that stage. 

Iliict' descriptions of the; strin' produced by local land ice and by 
;!"atiii;: ice, and of other phenomena pertaining to this the clo.'.iiig or 
iii'ltiii;: stage of the glacial period will now be given, and thedillerent 
lialitics where such phenomena were observed noted. 

"< \i. <;i,.\ciEiis DcHiNd Till-: CLosiNfi .St.\<;k oi- the Ice Age. 

Dm iI 


' south side of the Baie des Clialcur.s, stria', evidently in'o- T'"'',•^l glaciers 

' ' . -^ ' (if thisstaccof 

i\ local glaciers during the retirement of the mail Baie des tin.' ice age. 

102 M 


Ill tlicHuic 
(Ics ( 'liali'llM 

Ill till' ri'tjiipii 

Clmleurs glacier, were found nt Dundee settlement, south of J)alliou.sic 
Junction, iti Ijorne and Sunnyside settlement in the rear of .liK'i|Uit 
River, in .Ste. Louise and Middle River settlement noai' liiitlmist 
etc. In places the ice i-eferred to has slid down iiioic iliicttlv 
into the Bale des Chaleurs depression, uninfluenced by tlio iimin l5;iio 
des Chaleurs glacier described on page 90 M. 

The stria' produced l)y these glaciers are found upon the .slii|i(s at 
heights varying from loO to 500 and (500 feet above sea-level, .unl tlic ice 
producing them was probably contemporaneous with the lluiUini,' ice- 
packs or jams which impinged against the coast as shown on page 79 m, 
at the closing stage of the ice age. These glaciers and ice jams existed 
and performed their work jirevious to the deposition of the Lcda clav 
aTul Saxicava sands, otherwise these l)eds would have been distiiiljed 
and ei'oded, if not entirely destro\'e(l by them. In sevci'.i! pLioes 
around the southern embaj'ment of the Gulf of St. hau ivnrc. the 
marine deposits referred to are found lesting upon rock suit'aces which 
must have been glaciated by local glaciei-s or floating h'c. nf the 
charact(!i' described, showing that they have been deposited at. a sulise- 
(juent stage. 

The area which was occupied by the Xorthumberland gliiciiT, slmws 
Niiithiiii'iUi'-' *'*J"i'' remarkable traces of local ice-movements at the rcliiciii'iii <>r 
iiiiiij Strait. breaking up of the larger sheet. As has been shown on ii fniiiier 
page, the general trend of the ice-movement in the early part nf tlie 
glacial period here was nearly due (!ast. I>ut we find thai in thi 
later or melting period, tlu* glaciers of the higiier grounds had .swerved 
round and took nearly a northward course. Intermedials cduises 
were ol)sei'ved at lienous ]{iver, Uogersville station, and allln^ thi' 
Intercolonial railway to the south, especially at Ifanduii, C'oid 
Rranch, etc., which t(>nd to .show that tiiis swerving of the ici'-inove- 
nients may have Ijeen gradual and jirobably was coincident wiiji .i 
difl'ereiitial ciiange of level of tlie district. Correlating all t lie facts, 
it would appear that as the ice began to in thickness, tiic axis 
or watershed between the St. .John waters and tlios(> falling into the 
Strait of Northumb(!rland did not subside, and perhap.s was not de- 
nuded, to th(^ same extent, as the coast border, and coincident with tiie 
decreasing thickness of the ice and this change of level, the nioMinciits 
of the small local glaciers had become entirtdy governed by ihr slopes 
of the country before their final disajipearance. 

Further, these facts indicate that there was no ct the ice 
from this region during a suppo.sed intei'glacial epoch ; on tin' riintiary, 
that it continued here throughout the whole period of the deposition 
of boulder-clay without recession. 



103 M 


uth of I)!{> 
rear of .);i('i|U(!t 
t near Itatliurst, 
■n moil' iliifi'tly 
y tli(^ main liiiio 

iQii the sliijics at 
.-l('\('l, ami the iic 

l\w llnatin;; 'we- 
iwii on jiauf 79 m, 
1 iui' jams cxisteil 

fif till' t.i'da cliiy 
3 Ikm'U (li>tuil)eil 
[n sfivcral jilacps 
t. Lawri'iu'C, till' 
)ck surfai'i's wliiili 
mating it't! ni llu' 
posited at a ^iilisc- 

md lilariiT, vhuvs 
the n'liiviiunt nr 
jw'ii on a fi inner 
irly [lart nf tlie 
11(1 that ill tlif 
nds li.ul swtTvi'il 
niediati' couisi'S 
and aloii.i,' the 
llari'iurt. Coal 
of till' iiT-iiinve- 
foiiK'idriU with a 
iiH- all tilt' f:i*'^ 
lickm-^s, the axis 

.' fallir.- ill'" llie 
i.-qis, was iiiit lie- 
)incidt'iit with the 
i\, the iiiiiveiiieiits 
wd liy thi' slopes 

lidrawal ..f the ice 
uiitlii' rniitrary, 
of tlw deposition 

III the northern and eastern parts of Albert county, and also locally OntliolMmUrs 
,111 siiiiu' of the higher slopes of the ridij;es traversing the Isthmus of j^. ' '""^ 
('hiiiiieeto, evidences of local glaciers occur whose action took place 
litter the Chignecto glacier liad dwindled down and subsidence of the 
ili>triet had set in. Stria* showing local ice-movement towards the 
lower parts of the isthmus were also observed at Amherst and Fonwick 
ill C'uiiiberland county, Nova Scotia. Farther east, on the slope Ix^tween 
the C'lilii'iiuid Mountains and Northumberland Strait, stria' are met with 
in iiuiiieious places indicating local ice action by northward-moving 
sheets down nearly to the present sea-level. Local glaciers appear 
alsd t'l have occujiied the summits and slopes of the Cobennids and * 
the ihainage basin of the ^laecan and Hebert rivers, flowing in 
iliU'eniit directions as influenced by the topographic features. 

Allium' the May of Fundycoast, from Shepody l>ay toPassamaijuoddy FromShi'poily 
]!av, many courses of stria- were observed which can only be e.\- |',',,'(jav j>!|y 
]il,iiiied on the supposition that they were produced l)y local glaciers 
at the closing stage of the ice period. These were noted at Quaco, 
W' lieacli, ^lispec, St. John, Musijuash, Letito and on the West 
Mes. Mild exhibit in some of these localities, at least, very divergent 
stiiatioii depenih^it largely upon the local contfiurs of the surface. 
The most remarkable ot these local glaciers seem to have existed at 
the miiuth of the St. .John River. On the west side of the harbour, 
stiiie oeciir trending to ditFerent points of the compass between S. 2' 
W. and S. (io E. ; on the east side they trend from S. 15 W. to 
S. ."i.") W. Convergent movements are, therefore, shown in these sets, 
vaiyiim from S. 05 K. on the west side of the harbour to S. 55' AV. 
uii the east side. While it must be atlmitted that some of tiiese con- 
veriient .stria' may be due to undertows during the maximum extension 
of the St. John Valley glacier, the greater number have })robably Ijeen 
funned hy ice discharging in. the harbour as local glaciers. It nuist be 
lukieil, however, that in this locality, we have, so far, been unable to 
ditieiciitiate the stria- produced at the period of maximum glaciation 
from tlios(> produced at the later or melting stage of the ice. That 
local ulaeiers existed here, however, and extended into the open waters 
of the l>ay of Fundy at the retirement of the Pleistocene ice, is 
.siitlieieiitly proved.* 

Reviewing all the facts, it is evident that the theory of local glaciers 
advancing and retiring, during the later stage of the glacial period, 
witlt the coast 100 feet or moi-e lower than at present, will serve to 
exjilaiii all the phenomena. The climatic conditions seem to have been 

'Bulli tin (Ifol. Soc. of America, vol. IV., pp. 3()l-370. 

104 M 


On til.- P. v.. 
liilaml const. 

at least subnrc'tio ; but an ainclioration Imd set i»i apparently coincidpnt 
with the progressive subsidence of the coast in the ditlennl juirts 
of this maritime region. 

On Prince Kdwaiil Island, local glaciers and floating ic(^ wciv dnulii. 
less predominant during the period of subsidejice antl melting; of tlie 
ice. Tlie former have left evidences of tlieir existi^nceat ^«i'\v IjiukIoh 
and to the west and south-west of ]{ichmond l>ay ; also on tlie soutli- 
west co.'ist of the island at Fifteeiv Point, Carleton Point, De SaMi', etc. 
From the position of the striii' }>roduced by floating ice witli rP!s])t'ct 
to sea-level, the land cannot have been more tiian from 50 to 100 tWt 
lower than at present at that time. 

No deformation of the surfaces between the later and earlier stiii;es 
of the glacial period was ti-aceable at St. John, New lirunswirk, oi' (in 
Prince Ivlward Island, such as that described as occurring in (lie ti ntial 
Carboniferous area of New Ih'unswick ; but the facts are from liiiiitwl 
areas only, and, even if there had been deformation, tiiis could scaictly 
be discerned. 

FLOATiNfi ou Hka-hokne Ice. 

Floating ice. The theory of striation of rock surfaces by floating ice-masses trans- 
ported in different directions by oi'eanic curi'ents, tides and winds as 
they grounded on the bottom, has long been held, but it is \n this day, 
nevertheless, a subject of disputes among glacialists. It is prujiuscd, 
briefly, to places on i-ecoi'd by d(ssciii)tions and illustiMtions ci it dn 
ice-markings believed to have been produced by floating ire, ami tn 
demonsti'ate, from the local circumstances and jicculiar sitMaiimi-- in 
which they occur, that they cantiot have been produced by land ice. 
Char.'ictcr of I'loating or sea-borne ices is of s(s\-eral kinds. h'irst, tliiTc aiv tiio 

which striati-d solitary bergs elrifteel about by curivnts anel tiele's, which gradually 

the rdfksiif melt and crumble to pieces as they are' carrie-d southwai'd fmni antic 
this ri'gion. _ 1 •' 

regions inte) warmei- seas ; sece>nd, ice-floes, pan-ice', or elrift-iic made 

up of low-lying, lejose, flat she'ets e)f greater or le>ss are-a, diiNcn hy 
winels, tide's, oi' currents. These ofte'n cover several si[iiaic inilfs eif 
the ocean surface. Anel, third, what for want eif :\, beUtcr naiin' I lia\i> 
calleel ice-jams, which are large masse'sof floating ice' t'orcesd inln straits 
or iide'ts by lanel ice, or by cui'rents or wiiiels, .so comiiactly, that a jam 
of this kind moves as one bexly similarly to lanel-ice. Tlie-e arc, I 
believe, often called ice-packs. Ice-jams occur in Smith's Soiiml. 
and north of that betwe'en the coasts of (Jreenlanel and (iriiinesll Land, 
anel elsewhere in arctic regie»ns. The low, flat sheets of the; sccimd 
class, by being driven into straits anel narrow passages may bi'conie ice- 
jams. Ice-packs, or jams appear to be the only kind e)f floating ic 



105 M 

-.xt'iUiX ii'i'. ■II"' t" 
I- sitlla^illll^ ill 

:inl iViiiii ;in.'lu' 

111 siiiiaic null's 01 
I'ltiT nanir I 1kivi> 
It'iiircil iiilci straits 
lactiv, iliat a, jam 

Sniitli s NmiKl. 

;ets ot till' -I'cuna 

lid of llciatin;^ ic 

,,i„.l)lc lit' producing' re<,'ular atriii'. The striatioii of the low-lying 
Ifil.'csiu I lie St. Lawrence estuiiry, extending north-eastwiird and suuth- 
m-twai'il. ii|ipears to Ije due to ice of this character. In the ]» lie des 
Ciialriiis lifisin, and on the north-east side of the Istlunus of Chignecto, 
i- well as on the Cape Tornientine peninsula, striation caused by 
iri'iiiiiis |irc\ails. Ice of this kind has also impinged heavily 
i^iiin-t thi' nofth-east and south-west coasts of Prince lOdward 
l-l;iiiil. Scpai'ate icehei'gs, or loose lloating ice-masses, do not, as a 
i;i;,., jiidiiiuf scoring of rock suct'aces in tin,' same way as ice jams. 
Ti,i' wiitiT lias, winter after winttM', for many years investigated the 
[v iilieiitmiciia of the south-western embaynient of the Gulf of 8t. 
Liwiviiii'. liut has failed to discover from tlie action of the coast-ice, 
.nit'tlu! ioDsc lloating masses driven about ])y the tides, winds and 
iiiTeiits, any evidence of regular striation from these. They i'emo\ e the 
;.|ii'iiti('s and polish rock surfaces, but having little or no sand or gravel 
Alluring t(p till' under sides, their erosivt? power is insignificant, and they 
ii-avu no stria'. Ice-jams, on the conti'ary, are foi'ced over lf)w shoals, 
orup iiuiiiiisi low banks, and even across points of land, carrying more 
1,1 lis> (it ilic loose gravel, sanfl, etc., with them, and their pressure and 
Willing power are in certain jilaces as great as that of land ice. In 
niiinv |iaits of the region stria' are met with on the lower slopes, run- 
iiiii,' piuailrl lo the coast, which have doubtless been produced by ice- 
iaiiis, till' margins of which ground along the bank in their onward move- 
nieiit as if iiiipcllcd by an almost irresistible foi'ce. lC.\am})les of stria' 
iwluct'd ill this way are fountl at i'.elledune, Cocagne, along the coast 
"t'l'i'iiici' I'^dward Island, and in a number of other places. 

I'ltaik'd accounts of the evidences of floating ice as occuri'ing in the )V 

•^stuiiiv iif till' St. Lawrence, on the south-west side of the Jlaie des ^^i 

Ciiilciii's, ctr.. wci'e given on page 8;{ M. In eastern New I>runswick, 

f-i"ially oil the Isthn'us of Chignecto, a nunibei' of intei'esting facts 

lav.' inn oli-rrved respecting the action of lloating ice. Ice-jams, or 

fffis.liaM' crossed from Northumberland Strait to the head of the J'ay 

"iliiiiily. ami probably also in the rt'verse direction. The stiiie cHected 

ktli.'si' Will' observed at Jiaie Verte, also on the axis of the isthmus, 

aiil'iutho ( iijie Tornientine peninsula. In the last-mentioned locality, 

t!i" suiu' liilges e.vhibit evidences of both northward and .southward 

i*iiiiivfiiifius very distinctly. (See list of tloating-icc; stria' Nos. 

'' ml 111.) That they cannot have been produced by other 

i»it's than lloating ice, is shown l)y the fact that no stria' 

wiv|ii,n(liim in direction with these have been found crossing 

iriiice Kilward Lsland. The southward-moving floating ice which 

K'-iuinl these striiu must, therefore, have come either by the 

hiTf tliilU- 
r id' stria' 


106 M 


nortli-west entniiifc of the strait, or across the low-lyini; iHntidu of 

Prince Kdwiinl Isliiui, tiion suhincrgt'd, iiuiiicdiiitcly to ilic wot ni 

Kit'liiiiond iiud Iii'(lct|Ut! buys, or by th<( castt'rn entraiKc ot Ncpith. 

unibcrlfuid Strait. In fact it would swni to have tonif in liv luith tln' 

eastern and norl ii- western pas.saf,'t's simultaneously, tlais tniiniiij,' tlu' 

ic»f-jain already referred to, wliicli souf,'lit outlet acmss the Isiliuuis „[ 

Clii;,'i'.coto into the open waters of the Hay of Fundy. Hui n iHirtinu 

of tlie (loatin;; ice coming in from the t.'ast, must have surncd ai'ios.s th,. 

then existiui,' shoal now forminj^ the low peninsula of Cape Toi incntinf 

and produced the northward-trending atria- there, 'i'lial lluailn;' jo. 

in any considerable (piantity came across the suhmerv'id |stliimiM,t' 

Chignecto from the J Jay of Fundy to NoilhumberlaMd Strait s(fiii> 

somewhat doubtful, as no stria' with stossin^ on the soul ii-wesi side ni 

the ledges have been met with around the head n\ iliat l«v. 

The chief currents and the principal ice and diift transport wciviiii- 

parently from north-east t<i south-west, into that bodv nt' wiitcr.-'^ 

Floiitiiii' ice Around the shores of Prince lulward Island, stri.r, cvidi'iitlv inu 

Htiiii- 'I'- the (luced by lloating ice, at a time when the land stood lower m.u, 

const ot I . J'.. X 

lsl;iii(l. are numerous. None of these cross the island in any direction ; Init 

have apjiai'ently been foi'med by floating ice imiiini;ini,' olilitnulv 

against both the north-east and south-west shores at the period rctt'irnl 


To the west of the Isthmus of Cliigneeto, or the head ot' ilic jlayi'i 

Fundy, the action of lloating icis could not be traced miihi'Xiw 

IJrupswick coast border. 


Gcnci'iil con- Summarizing the pi'incipal facts relatitig to the Pleistcn'ciio iiimifitinii i 
Kiinl'iiiy- tlic of the region under review, it is found that at the period of tiu' iimxi- 
uliui.itioii of luujn extension of the ice, thei'e was a ifeneral radial iiiovi'iiiiiit| 
fi'om the main /t'^v'-ground of the north-east Aj>palailii:iiis, riHith- 
ward and eastward into the St. Lawrence Valley, eastward into tliej 
south-western embayment of the Culf of St. Lawrence, south eiistwarJI 
into the Bay of Fundy and Atlantic Ocean, and southward and smitli- 
westward in Ignited ytates tei-i-itory. 

The St. Lawrence Valley, as far westward as the Thousand Islamlsj 
was probably an open channel in the latter part of the glacial pi'iw 
at least, into which ice flowerl from the north and from the suutli. 

*Iu the siiring of IHIM, icc-jain« were driviMi into Xortlumilu ilaii'l Stnit, aiiiltM 
Iiiussat'c betwt.'cn Cajx; Tonin'iitiue and Cape Traverse wiis liloilcnl ii|i Ky tluni t" I 
doptli of thirty foct, according to newspaper reports and travclli is. 



107 M 

.\ltliiiui,'li t\w Apptilnchiaii glaciers liero referred to wore not of 
jv;it siipiMlieiiil extent, tlie ice wliieli occupied New En;,'liin(l and 
..lUili-t'iisii'iii (2"''''"<-' >*eeinH to liave been the thickest and heaviest 
„itlii' I'lcistdcene f{hicie;'s of eastern Noitii Anu'rica, developed in tiieso 
jtiimli's ; and the j^'eoj^raphical and meteorological conditions favour 
;,,\i('\v that it was only surpassed in this respect by the great Cor- 
liiiiei'iiii jjlacier of tiie w«,'st, 

lii ciislern Canada, south of the estuary and Gulf of St. Lawrenei', Direction nf 

iji,. liiiid ice sefins to have consisted of local glaciers, and the dill'erent '^'''"""'' 

riri>wiiicli streamed outwards from the central //'-'(v'-groumls have 

ircii (litlcrcntiatedand received sepai'ate names. That which ()cciii>ied 

liiella^i"' peninsula and the Notre Dame Kaiige, followed thedraiiiago 

liiaiiiK'N, ,1,'i'iicrally speaking, in its tlescent northwird and southward. 

A!"iii; till' lower St. Lawrence, the flow was appanmtly into the open 

latii^ iif the estuary, while at Uaspi' J.asin it \Nas eastward directly 

;:,-.i tiic w.iters of tlui Ciulf of St. Lawrence. 

Till' western part of the Bale des Chalcurs valley was occupied by Si'iparato 

:>iii'(t til wliich the name of the l>aie des Chaleurs glacier has been t'li'^-'i^''"'- 

jviii. Siiutli of this and mantling the greater part of the Carboinfer- 

•lUj are;i of New Brunswick and Prince lOthvard Island, the Northum- 

iiiliiml glacier was developed. The great valley ^)f tlie St. John I liver 

mil till' sliipes on either side, were occupied i)y asiieetof ice which has 

lein ilfsigiiated the St. John Valley glacier. The east and south-east 

OTiniiii of tiiese glaciers were attenuated and were not accompanied 

k mni'uinps. During the epoch of maximum ice accumulation, the 

nast liiiider was somewhat higher than at present. Subsidence and 

liiiiiivntiiil movements set in towards the closing stage of the glacisd 

[riiml, which, in the Carboniferous plain of central and easterii New 

Bruihwii'k, are evidenced by a nundjer of swerving courses of striii'. 

Tiifv indicate that the watershed between the drainage basins of the 

^! liilm liiver and the rivers falling into Northumberland Strait, did 

ii'it|iiiit,ike of the downward movement of the coast border to such 

an extent as the latter. The stria- which .show gradually swerving 

fciiim-iits on the tlat Carboniferous plain, may be taken as evidcmce 

tUt liu'ic was no withdrawal of the ice from the region during the 

*We glacial epoch. Towards the closing stage, the glaciers became 

saiallfr and more detached, and floating ice occupied the l)ays and 

Jiriiits. The markings left by the latter on rock surfaces, show that 

ttieciastal parts of New Brunswick were then from 75 to 1-30 feet lower 

taiat pre.siMit. The country around the Baie des Chaleurs and that on 

'linioitiiern coast border of the Bay of f'undy, seem to have under- 

?'S I'leatcr diUerential chansjes of level than the central Carbonifer- 


1 ) 




108 M 

w.w imiiNswicK. noVa hcotia and r. k. isi.wi..'daliii Is 
ImikIk III III- 

ur pill Till 
tiuiscs ? 

OUH area of Now Urunswick uiid TiiiitM- KilwanI IhIiukI, tlir Udcim,.^ 
upiimciilly t>i"in|iyiii),' ii iiiort' stable iittitudt' in irganl \i, niMi] ,,., jl 
latioiiH. The Miilisiilt>iK'u inaugurated tluMi waH that wliirh riiiiiii,ii,.|| 
into tlio fA'da-clay jicniid. 

Tli»^ |)(Miinsula of Nuva Scotia was f,'lai:iatfd liy Luul i.'.' wlii,.], 
gatlitTi'd uixtri its surface, an*l jiroliably by llnaliiig ici- in ilni ,.,,,1,^ 
districts at a sul)s(Miut'nt stagf. 

A local glacier sueiiis to have aecunndated ai'ouiiij tin Ikm,] ,,| 
Chignecto liay and upon thiMsthnius of the same name, in tin' i.,,iiv 
stage of the Pleistocene, which has liren called the Cliignecin u'lacjir, 
Floating ice has also glaciated the isthmus at a later (huc. 

On the Magdalen Islands no e\i(lences of I'leistoccne in' aiiinn. m 

of the occui'i'enci^ of boulder clay, wei'e oliserved ; on the cHiiiiaiv. tln' 

rock surfaces are everywhere masked with a covering ut ihiii nwi, 


Tiic tflacial"^ 1 The cause or causes of the glacial period, or rather nf li xi^i.niv 

',"'".'''; "'r'^ of sheets of land ice in these latitudes in Pleistocene time- caniiui l„. 
dill' til liiciil 

discussed here. i>ut it may be remarked that the teiidenrv in I'liinin. 
at(i cosmic iidluences and attriliute the lofrigeratiun ut ihr mmiiIiiiii 
part of this continent to geographical or terrestiial caiiM'-. cliarai tiii> 
tic of later studies respecting glacial phenomena, dues iml mihi. -iptai, 
to throw a great deal of liglit on the <niestion, and may il'trr all !»■ 
only a partial view. If the glacial |icriod be solely due (u icru'viriii 
causes, th<^ fact that such causes must be largely of n Ural rhaiafiir 
appears to have been o\crliiokeil ; for, it is not jirubalili' iliat tln'-t' 
causes would act synchronously in the whole arctic ami mii'ih 
temperate zones as far south as the limits of tlic ulariaii'ij licli. 
That changes in the elevation of the land, change- in llir iliMii 
bution of land and water, changes in the atmospliciic ami nrfiiii.- 
currents, a greater or less amount of moisture iind |>i'i'ri|iitaiiiiii ilwn 
what now obtains, etc., are, taken together, suHlcient tn iniii'.; almm 
a glacial epoch, such as the pluMKimena indicate mii-t jiasc r\isii'il in 
Pleistocene? tinuis, may be seriously doulited. If ii wcic itii'iii|iii'il 
to show that such ternjstrial conditinns were ^ullici nt in iiiiihiceii 
glacial era locally, on one side or the other of tlie Nnrlli Aiiiiiii';iii 
continent, for example, or on both sidi'.s of the North Ailaiiiic tin' 
hypothesis would seem to be adeipiatc! ; but these causes while . niii|ii't('iit 
to j)roduce various local oscillations of climate and of glaeial ciiii(liti"ir. 
have jirobably been governed or modified by some general law. It i- 
inferentially certain, therefore, that any hypothesis ba-ei I mi icnvsiriiu 
conditions which may be propounded will have to imhnlo siuii 
general or cosmic influences as to affect simultanciui-Iy the wln't' 



111(1, till' hiUiT avi'rt 
imI tu cru^i;!! iiMi'i 
J wliii'li I'oiitiiiiii'il 

ly l;ii\il i''i' which 
|(f ice ill till' nill«t 

•OlUlil ill'' hiMii nt 
iiiiliic. ill 'hi' r.iily 
(' Clii;iii''i'" uiiiiiiT. 

IT (liltr. 
.IdCt'llC ii'i' liclinii, nv 

(III till' i'"iiirury. till' 
,,.1'iiiu III iluii 11" 11 

LlliT ut' till' i'\i~lil 

ICCIIC lillll'^ C'llllll'it 111' 

|. tt'llilrlU'V In I'lilllill- 
lltinll ot' llli' inHlhrrii 
ill ('.'UlM'^. i'liiii'aili'ii>- 
(lues iiiit -I'i'iii' ~" ''"■' 
1,(1 llKiy al'ti'l' ill! hi' 

y dm. til icri'i'^ti'iiil 
,,t' a liii-al rhiinii'tir 
pi'dlialili' that llu'M' 

, ai'i'li'' ■'"'' ""''''' 
,t' tlic ulariiiii'il lii'l'- 

lianu'i'- '" ''"' '''^"' 
i<is|)luMii' ami urfaiii.' 
1,1 jii'rciiiiiatiiiii ihi'ii 

riciit I" ''■">- '''"'"' 
niiiM haM'Txi^"''!'" 
It' il wrir .itti'iiil'''''' 
Mltlici lit liil'i'"li"''-'> 
f tlif N '"■''" AiiH'vit-ii' 
,, N,.rtli Aiiantii'. tl"' 


„„o lif'M.'ial hiw. Iti' 


to iiii'Uitlo siioli 

I. whii'it 

lOi) M 

ji,iiiii|ii.lui' and iiortii tfinpfnit" n'j,'i(in.s of tlio «'(uth duriiii,' Plcjsto- 
,11, tiinr. ntlit'i'wiso Mfliiciiil foiulitioiiH fiiniiot liiivc (K'currt'd syiicliroii- 
,,|,|v ill liiiili liciiiispimres, or even on botli contint^nts. 

Dki'ohits of the Later Pi.kistocexe. 

.V ? iM. SfriiflJ'ti'd Infttinl fr'i'fivi'f, Sfiiid mid Cfn;/ ( /■'n's/i-irnfir). 

I'll,. ^.Tiiiral I'liariiftor of tlio stnitilicd inland dcpo.sits and tlinir |)i'iiii»its i.t 
..iiimi In ilif linuldtirclay and otlit-r supcrlicial materials of thf |,|y,j"j''^Ij,nj. 
rf:';iiii,' lifcn disciissctl in prcviniis t'cpoi't.s, and little can Itcaddcd 
iVmhi mil' iiivi'stii,'ations rc^^ardin;,' tlicni dufinif tin- past foiH' years. 
.\liii(i>t i'\i'i \ wli'.M'e above the lii,i;liest IMeislnecne slioroline, and sonu-- 
•;:i,,.. r\ti'iiiliii;i down lieltiw it, tliey mantle \\u' j,'lacial deposits pinper 
aiiiltlioi'i'sidiiary inatei-ials to ayi'eatertir less depth. Sections of tlieso 
il..iiii.iis are j;i\en in my repurts (in ninth-easltM'n and southern New 
r.i'iiii-wick,'^ which are applicahle to the area here discussed, it Iteing 
iiii lit' ihi -aiiie Carhoniferous field. 

I'iii^ iiii'iiilier of the surface deposits has not hitherto received Str;ititiiil 

I I 1 I- • I • . 1 . • 1 I l'l'l''ll-\Mltl'l 

adfiliiatc ■•'t inly and coi'relatKjn ni glaciated count I'les, owni<^ 'ar^^eiy, ,i,.|„,„l,.^ 
[I'l'liiijis, In the theoi'ies at present in vogue. i>y sonu? Lfeoloi^ists thes(^ 
;l■;l^it^a^(■ atti'ihiitcid mainly to ;;lacier action, or rather to the action of 
Willis I't'suhinij from meltinji glaciers ; and the terms ijlm-inl f/ntrefs, 
y'.i'M'/ «o('/v, etc., are iidt infre([U(Mitly met with in the literature of 
l!ii'<iiliii'i't. < )n the (ttlier liand, the aiKocates of i^reat sul>iiier,ii(Mices 
^'JIl'iiM' th.'ii they h",ve found, in these deposits, and especially in the 
rmr ,iiiil lake terraces which form a part of the s(,'ri(\s, evidences in 
•'jl'|iiit 111 tiieir liypoth(!ses. Our invest iujations havt^ not elicited any 
lai;'f urniy nt' facts in favour of (utiier vic^w. As stated in pi'evious re- 
l"!'-. ihiiv is some evidence in the lower |ioi tionsof the series, in certain 
j.i "\ that tiie deposits are the product of glaciers, that is, have 
liiiiiiibly lii'i'ii fornietl hy waters tlowini; out from the foot of melting 
ainli'i'ii'isitiiig ice-sheets; but by fai" the greater jiortion of the series 

il lint srnii to have been produceil in this way, but rather by 

ii.'iik'ii's wliii'h are in o})eration at the present day. Again, as regards 
tlR'!iv|i.tlii.sis of submergence, all the terraces and other water-laid 
il-'jiiMts iiliii\c the highest post-glacial shore-lines ri'corded on pages 
t-l'< \i, sii'in to be exjilicable on the theory of their having been pro- 
iltoil hy tliiviatile and lacustrine agencies. Terraci's along river- 
valks, us a i'iili>, slojie longitudinally in the direction in which the river 



'Aiiinwl l;.pni't (.;..,.. Surv. of Can., vnl. III. (\.,S.), I.ss7-,ss, p. 17 n:^ and vol. 
IV. N.S.i,, |i. 5U .\. 

110 M 


11(1 w fomit'd. 



flows ; those in inclosed basins can be accounted for by tlio actioiinf 
the waters around the margin of existing or extinct lakes. This 
explanation applies to the formation of terraces at all elevations iilmw 
the marine limits of the Pleistocene above mentioned, ami (iljviati- 
the necessity for postulating a great submergence of the ici^ion. Tlie 
presence of the bouldei's met with on these higlu'r levies has some. 
times been explained as due to the action of iloating ice dunni: tlii« 
supposed period of submergence, but no boulder-clay or other ul.iiial 
material occurs, so far as my observations have extended, (i\filvin;r 
or interstratitied witii these terraced and associated stratiticil (leiio<itv. 
Transported boulders, often worn and glaciated, occur on the siiifiici-. 
it is true, but their presence there I regard as due to the denudatimi 
of the original boulder-clay, of which they formed a part, and te sulh 
seijuent ei ;dion and transjiort by Huviatile, or lacustrine action, or it 
may be to the simple wear and waste of the surface deposits almie 
by subiierial agencies, gravitation causing them to move from lii^liei' tn 
lower levels simultaneously with the general lowering of the land ton- 
.sequent thereon. 

These inland, stratified gravels, sands and clays ar(>, thoiefoiv, the 
result mainly of a long series of complex causes which iia\(! heeii in ; 
operation since the close of the glacial period. EliminatiiiL; those sii|i- i 
posed to have been formed by waters due to melting glaeieis, we liiul 
that the products of tluviatile and lacustrine action lie chieily in th? 
valleys and depressions, where the deposits are often tliirk, and I'vimc 
the changes and iluctuations of the floods which have produced tlniii. 
On the higher ground between the valleys, these beds arc of vniiiM 
thickness, from a few inches on some hills and slopes, to many feet in th- 
hollows, and seem, as stated above, to have l)een formed, to a lar;''' 
extent, by ordinary su1)aerial agencies, such as frost, rains, the nieltini.oii 
each winter's snow, etc., all of which have a denuding eli'cet wlieu con- 
tinued year after year. In some hollows they are produced by tin? 
wash from the hills, and usually contain lenticular seams of clay. The 
materials are all derived from the boulder-clay and residuaiy eaitlisof 
the region. 

Upon the Carboniferous area of the eastern juaiitime pinvinces, thej 
upper strata of this division of the superficial deposits com ains iiic<.ular, j 
lenticular, bleached seams of gray or whitish sands, especially nntioe- 
.able in newly-ploughed fields. This c(jlour is due to the deoxidaticn 
of the iron in the materials through the action of tlie \ci:ctation l'I'"^*- 
ing on the surface.* The (juestions pertaining to the oiiL;in and nioilel 
of occurrence of these inland stratified beds is a very inqiortant eiiej 

Annual Report (Icol. Hurv. Can., vol. III. (X. S.), IW-SS, \<. IT n. 

•;. ISLAM). 

for by tlio action of 
;xtinct lakes. Tlii- 
all elevations aljdvi- 
iioned, ami dhviatc- 
o{ the region. Tln' 
li(;r levels has some- 
itinj? ice thiriiii.' tlii'^ 
•clay <ir other ^lacinl 
extended, iivcrlying 
h1 stratilied deiio^ilv 
occur (111 the suifiicv, 
ue to the demiilatinii 
d a part, and tn suli- 
,custriiie actidii, or it 
arface deiiosits almie 
3 move fi'oin liigher to 
jring of the land mv 

ays are, tlwret'oiv, the 
which have hceii in 
Bliiniiiatiiii: those sup- 
dtin.i; -huiers, we linJ 
iou lie ehietly iu the 
pften thick, and evinoe 
have piodurcd tln'iii. 
ae heds are of vari.d 
to many feet iu the 
n formed, to a large 
rains, the meltiiij,'ul 
udiii,!,' ell'eet when con- 
lu-e pnidiurdhythi? 
u- seams of chiy. The 
,d residuary eardisnf 

aritime pnivinces, the 

its contains irreL'ular, 

nds, especially nntiee-j 

Lie to the dciNidiuinnj 

f the veiretaiioii;;''"^^- 

very important oiiej 
<7-88, i«. IT N. 



Ill M 





and we propose to investigate it in still greater detail when we come 
;,i study the valley of the upper St. John and the region adjacent 

Hirer and Lake Terraces. 

Terraces occur along the Southwest Miraniichi River and its tribut- Kiver and 
aiies, iiotaldy at Doaktown and Boiestown, also along the Renous and 
DuiiL'iirvon rivers, and, in certain places, attain a considerable 
(ievelopmeut. But along the rivers whose drainage basins are entirely 
within the Carboniferous area, whether in New Brunswick, Nova 
Sentia or Prince Edward Island, no high or remarkable terraces have 
been met with. 

Reference has been made to the mode of origin of river and lake Mode of origin 
terraces. These terraces are found to be maiidy attributable to the ^' ' 
action of the rivers antl lakes themselves upon the materials in the 
vallevs iu wiiich they lie. Boulder-clay is occasionally met with 
Idieath the river terraces, especially under the higher ones ; and it seems 
al<ii probable that the stratified basal portions of these, at least, may 
have been built up by deposits of material transported by the watei's 
of melting glaciers during the period of their retirement. Around 
lake nlar^dns, both stratified and unstratified deposits occur in mounds 
ami ridges, associated with or forming part of the terraces or benches. 
These have been pro(luced by the mechanical expansion or shove of 
the ice that covers their surfaces every winter. 

Til'' discussion regarding the formation of river and lake terraces 
iii|irevions reports, has been so ample as to include all tiiat is necessary 
tij say oil the subject till further observation and study of those so 
tvpioally developed along the St. John l?iver and in western New 
Kruiiswick are completed, when it is hoped additional facts will be 
ohtiiiiied enaliling us to eluciilate some of the problems presented by 
this very interesting class of formations. 

(J/. ,2 Ik) L'da Clay and Sa.rlcarn Sand. 

h the region bordering Northumberland Strait, the Leda-clay and Lcda day and 
>axieava-saud deposits exhibit a marked difterence fnim the beds of ' ' 
ilie Slime formation in Bale des Chaleurs basin, or on the coast of the 
liyiif I'undy. Around these bays the Leda clay is often well develop- 
ed, ranging iu thickness from five or ten to fifty feet or ntore. The lower 
]<iit is usually coarse, and contains boulders derived from the boulder- 
ciayornsiduary material, and sometimes graduates into the former, or 
rather is without any sharp line of dem:ii'l.-;ttion separating the two, and 
M iiifreipteutly is unfossiliferous. Tiie upper portion consists of finer 




llClt\' (it 

T>im1;i t-lay 
till' i'i'^ri'>ii 


Scot lulls I if 
tlioc iiiaiiiii' 

At MiiiiiiK 


j;. I. 

materials, as a rule, aiul wliei'ever tliese aro at all calcai 

fiissils aro jirL'sent in greater or less ahiiiulaiice. The stiat; 
lilic in marine shells are those immediately in eonta<t witii tl 
Saxieavasanrls. ^\tteiiipts have been made to classify tin,' I, 

enlis. liiiifiii,. 

I must jii'ij- 




into ujiper and lower. Palieuntoloyioally, perhaps, smli a divisioiiis 
possible, though it may after all be une mainly depeiuleiit on tiichjuliv- 
uietric conditions under which the maiine moUusca exisicd ; imt m, 

stratigraphical lireak such as that occurring between it ami tl vi-r 

lying Saxiiava sands has anywhere been met within the bi'iLichiv 
itself. This and the .Sa.xicava sand almost everywhere consist diii'ilv 
of local material deri\('d from the subjacent beds, with iiKHf oi' ]..< 
transjiorted watt'r-worn sand and gravel, etc., intermingled. In ili-itiirts 
occupied l)y limestones, shales or slaters, which in their drc.iv t' uni ikv 
binls, the Ijcda clay is found especially well developed, ;ind usiiallv cmi- 

tains fossils 

where, on the contrarv, the u 


vmg rue 



sttmes and grits, the Saxicava sands occur in their ifieatest 

extent iiKI 


iicRness. a 

lid the Ledaclavis thin and irreL;idar,or else entinl 


In tl 

le re'Moii Oorderii 



rland Strait, tiic I 

I'lla ridV IS 

et with pure, aii<l then oidy a few in 

I hick 

seldom m 

A\'here\<'r tliese meagre clayey strata orcur in the saiuUtnuc aici, thnv 

dy I 

ia\'e iiiariiie shells been foum 

'axicava sand i-, Imwevrf, 

always present and generally of great thickness, and appari'iillv lia> Ihmh 
formed in a manner similai' to the sand llats of the recent perimi, '.■'. 
along t!i(> littoral. The uppei' strata usually contain cuarse matriiil 
with local and transported boulders. None of these arei 

have; hitherto vielded fossils. Indt 

inly HI a 

few 1 


ocalitifs III! the 

west coast of Prince Kdward Island haxc fossils been fmipd ia [Im 
whole t'arl)oiiifer(ms basin, and they are fi-w in numliri'. Siriion-; nt 
these beds will now b(' n'iveii in dela 

ll. 111 descelldinu' oi'dcr, iik 




1 Spi 

'ci(!s ot shells enumera 


1. Half a mil(> soiiih of the point of land at .Miiiiinei;a>li 1 
measui'ed sectinn shows : — 

I 111! I M 

( 1. 1 .Saxii'avu .sam 

( Stratilicil tri-avcl. 1 fci'l 

■ llicmaillri 

<l, .•! 

(•-'.) T,. 

I'liiV, soft and iinrtiKiii.s, I'Jtn 1.") in 

Till' t'lissils nii'lir 

ill tile upiicr p.i 

It I if li 



I ciav, tllL' SIKflC: 

rill:.' S"J'i''iii'" 



ten, r. K. I 

' ml fir-' ti.lh\ a I.' 'hi. lUnliaMy /" /■/(/(/'/. 

(.S. ) I'.diililcrclay. tu tlic lifacli at iii'.di tidr Ii'M-I. •_'(> fret. 
.Vt raiimlii'jl- 2. At Camiibelltoii another section exhibits the foUi 

iwiiil:' <!'1'1(" 


uxicava sainl 

f Stiatiticd gnivd, \ In .'> fcrt 

( Fiiiu .saiiil, 

(i f 

I'ct or iiKiri' 
II fct't. 


alcai'cnn>. ii\iiriiie 
) sti'iitii most jii'o- 
witli tlii'iiNcrlyiii;' 
it'y tlu! l.ccliiclay 
sueh a ili\isiiin i^ 
dent on tlu'ljiUhy- 
ii exislcil ; Imt iin 
'11 it ami till' iivi'i'- 
1 in tlir l-i''l:i i-'Uy 
icfi' t'<iii--ist chiclly 

\vitl\ nil lie 111' less 

in^li'il. In ilistvii'ts 
icir (IriNiy I 'nll(■lay 
l'^l, imd u--u;il!y coll- 
ie I'dcks .-iiv simd- 
"veatcst cxti'iit iivi 
Isecntiivly waiitiiiL.'. 
I, the Li'cUi'liiy i^ 
iclu's in tliickiu'ss. 
vasal 111 i-. li"\^<'Vfi', 
iiil'paivnllv lia>lii'fii 
ic roct'nt [HM'iiiil, '.•'. 
iiin coarse niatcvial 
CSC arci'.acciius Im'i.U 
,.\v lucaliiics (111 tiie 



113 M 

hccn t'.niiH 



s,.,-liiiii-; ot 

inlcr. anil tlu'i'di- 





;'1U'S . 

I'j. ) r.iila t'liiy, quite tliiii, not aiorc tlian a few Indies. In upper part, or 
liiiwiiii il anil tlie overlying Saxioava sanil, the following shells were fotiiul :— 
S'l/iVic" /•";/"■•"', -I/y/ff ni'dinrid ! Lunatia, sp.V 

(;i.) llnutiliT-clay, thin. 

Tlio liiiik here is alioiit "J,") feet high, hut more than half of it is rock. 

:i. South of Cape Wolf a tiiinl fossiliferous bed occurs in which Mr. 
Wilson t'ouiid shells of Maroina (I'ldidandica. A section of the beds 

is a-; follows : — 

II.) Saxicava saiiil (gravel ami .saiiil). II feet. 

i'.'.) l.iila elay, thin, the sliding down of the lieds prevented ineasureinoiit.s 

Ill-ill.' lllMclc. 

(Ii.) llmililei-elay, not known, hut this and the Leda clay taken 
t<wtlii'iaiv upwards of I,') feet thick above the heaeh. 

Till' liiL:liest Pleistocene shore-line on Prince Edward Island is 
aliiiit 7"i t'i'ct abo\e mean tide (page 25 m) ; on the mainland around 
Nditliinnlicrlaiid Strait it is fuund to be from 125 to 1 tO feet, the lowest 
liiiim nil the Cape Tormentine peninsula. Marine terraces an; every- 
wlu'ir coinnioii up to these hei,i;hts. Shore-lines occur at lower 
clival ions, as, t'or example, on Prince Edward Island where a well- 
ili'liiu'il one was observed besides that mentimu'd above, at about 50 feet 
aliiivi'iinan tide level, and at Wallace, N.8., on tin; mainland, distinct, 
wavcliiiili leiiaces occur at 130, 120, 1 10 and 55 to GO feet, etc. 

Anmiid the head of the l>ay of Fundy, the Pleistocene uplift, 
tliiiii;'li dillerential, was greater than in Noi-thumberland .Strait ; but 
the iiiarine terraces are not well ih^tined, excejjt in a few localities, and 
iwvi' proved so far to be without fossils. Two circumstances have 
lii'ii uiitavourable to the preservation of marini; .shells in them, (1) the 
liiiivy tides and lurrents, and (2) the presence of iron and other 
nhurals in the deposits tending to corrode and destroy them. 

In till' sections (if the maiine beds of the recent jieriod exposed at 
til'' i'mi Lawrence dock, at the west end of the Chignecto marine 
riKvay (|Kij,'e 127 m), the Pleistocene marine deposits, if represented at 
ii.i, arc |iiioilv defined and problematical. Certain strata Ijetween the 
I'Hilili'i'clav 1111(1 the peat, or forest bed, may be taken either as 
■ -iiliiaiy material or oxidized boulder-clay, or as partly bouldcr-clay 
uvi |iiutly Saxica\a sand. The absence of fossils rendei's tiiis un- 
'Ttaiii, There is no doubt that the Isthmus of Chignecto was sub- 
'ii'ij'il ill the later Pleistocene, but the erosion to which it was then 
-iiji'iti'il may have prevented the deposition of any ])ut thin K>eds of 
:iiinii('seiliiiii'iit. The materials of which the superficial depo.sitsof tiio 
f','iuii, en either side of the isthmus, ait' composed, are not favourable 
t'l III' [ii'.'>ei\,ition of marine testacea, however, there being littl(> or 
ii'iliiiiiMii thciii. It is not at all improbable, therefore, that shells 

Xcar Cai«' 
Wolf, P.E.I. 

hfiJKlit of the 
I'liistiicciic, or 
1 11 isl ^daciiil 
siiurc-liiic in 
I'. K. I., etc. 

Scarcity of 
iiiai'iiii' fossils. 

Marine licils 
at tin' ChiK- 
iii'ctii railway, 

Hcasons why 
fossils lire 
scarce in de- 

|Ml^itS OH 

south side of 
Culf of St. 

114 M \E\v nnuN'swicK, nova scotia and p. e. island. 

Tcrniccs ill 

KllpllO.sld to 

IjL- iiiiiiiiif. 

li.'ivo boon ontoiulied in the marine Pleistocene beds at tlie licad of 
the Bay of Fundy and around Nortliuniberland Strait, in many |il;iccs 
in whicli they ai'o not now to be found. Shells are abundant tlicic ikav 
along existing sand beaches, and in the littoral, and it is only rcasdnaMe 
to suppose that the niollusca of the Leda-clay and Saxicava-sand iiciiud 
lived in these waters. lUit the deoxidation of the iron which tlicsamls 
C(jntain and the purifying process(!s they undergo, rajiidly desi my . shells 
when they are once buried in them. The scarcity of Pleistocene siiclls 
in these marine terraces, thei'efore, is to be accounted for niainlv f'lum 
the destructive processes referred to, and not from their su))))oseil aJiscuce 
«)r jiaucity in the adjacent seas, during the formation of the terr;u(;s. 

Terraces or deltas 171 feet above mean tide level (page 21 m). sup- 
posed to be marine, occur at Halfway Hiver at the northern imsf nt 
the Cobecpiid ^lountains; and at Lakelands, in the pass iliinu^h 
which th(> Spriiighill and Parrsboro" railway runs, others \v(>re .Ijsi rvwj 
2l'.'5 feet high. In regai'il to the 171-foot terrace or delta, it iii:;v 1/e 
stated, the materials are stratified gravel and sand wliii-h, neat' \\'c'<t 
brook, ai'e irregularly bedded, and diiler from those ci>iii|i isjn;' i]w 
Poar's 15ack, inasmuch as they contain ciTstallinc! biaiKlirs ikjui 
the Cobe(piids scattered throughout the mass, 'j'he materials iiavc 
been brought into the valley by West Prook, and the terraces cxhiliit 
faults or dislocations in places, which may be regaideil as iiiilicitin:' 
differential movemt>nts since the period of their depositiipii.'' At lir-t 
it was supposed these deltas or terraces were of lacustrine oiiuiii, imta 
system of levellings showed them to be eighty-live and one liunilivdaiid 
tlnrty-fi\e feet, respectively, above the bottom of the pass ret'ei ivii Kiaiul 
from forty to ninety feet liigher than the sunmiit of the I'miui's Hack- 
along Kiver llebert valley. t)n the lacustrine theory of tiuMrmijiiii, we 
woulil have tojiostulate two dams, one tothe south, in the ( '(ilicijiiiil I'ass 
mentioned, another to the noi'th in ]{iver llebert valley, iniiidcrtu 
DitficiiUii's of hold up a lake even at the height of 171 feet. This ditlieuliy al oiae 

liKMistniie ivnders the lacustrine hvpothesis of the ori<'in o^' the terrace- uiiti'ii- 

tlieory of tliiir • ' -^ 

origin. able. ^Foreover, it was oliserved that the terraces extend iHntliwaid 

towards the Upper Maccan liiver, though at a diniinisliiiiu lieiuhi.aiiil 

southward through the pass referred to, appariintly iitcreasinL; ineliva- 

tion, though considerably broken u]) and denuded. On the niitli sidi' 

of the Cobe([uids, near Parrsboro", where they face the liasiii ef Miiias, 

*.S()utli cif Doirliester ra])!', WestiiiiircliiiKl ciniiity, \.l?., in ji Iviiik alnii(,' th'' 
sli(]ri', faults (jr (lisldi'atinns were alsn dlisiTxed in tlie sni«TticiiiI i|c|«Kits. 'Hi- 
materials area stirt" areiiaeeeiis, stratified clay, resting' on lii)iililer-el;iy. aiwl tiii' fiiults 
of wliieli there are six nr eight, are nearly \crtieal, the li(itl( liianj: siiirlitly tii tin 
siMith-east. with the downlhuiw te the nerth-west, that is, mi the sidi :iii.i\ imai tin- 
Bay of l''uiuly. 

,custriii(! nii^iii, 1)11 


p.t'ihi'iriiii.u'iii, we 

jn valley, in onlci't.i 


On llir -nlUhMao 


ihcv fall t(i a level of 130 or 135 feet above mean tide. It seems 

til ',iic. iiotwithMt.'indiiig tliese iiie(iualitie.s in height, that all tiiese 

ttiriui'-> and deltas mark the uj)i)er limit of the post-glacial up- 

li.Mval, •>]• the lieight of the sea during the Pleistocene subsidence 

III till' land, and are, therefore, marine. The difTerj'iitial elevation 

sliiiwii hctween and the shore-lines along Northumberland 

Strait ha^ been exjilained on page 30 M. Tiie dislocations in the ter- 

imes iiiav be taken as evincing unequal vertical movements. Kem- 

niuits of terraces, or shore-lines, at the same height as those descrilied, 

wci'e observed on the west side of the valley through which Halfway 

llJMf llipws. These as well as the front of the main terrace itself 

li;ivr hcen sorely denuded. They are evidently of the age of the 

S,ixiia\a sands of the (!ulf of St. Lawrence and have been formed 

iindiT similar conditions. 

At a subsecpK-'nt stage of post-glacial history, as tlu^ land rose and Later t.iiaccs 

the sea withdrew from Halfway IJiver valley it fornu'd a catchnient iV- ' f,",'r\. 

*' ^ jii\ w \ alley. 

liisiii and held in a fresh water lake of which Halfway Lake is a rein- 

lumt. This lake stood about thirty feet higher than the )iresent lake, 

iii('i;,'lity-nine and a half feet above mean tide level. Terraces and 

illuvial ll lis formed by it encircle the valley now inclosing Halfway 

llivcr and lake. 

Tlic facts i-especting the tei'races in this locality are of great interest) Tiniidrtaiicc tif 

tinl it llie high(>r terraces are marine, as they certainly .seem to be after !''''''"'''^. '"■'''' 
" ' J •! Ill rchifmii to 

I'.iiiiinatin-- all other theories as lo their mode of origin, they are most ditlci-.ntial 

iiiipiiitanl 111 tlieir bearuig on the (juestion or (linerentiai upluNival m 

'Jii^ ii'u'ii'H (hiring the I'ost-Tertiaiy period. 

Till' Lcda clay is found in some places resting on rock surfaces which 

liiivelii'cii striated by the local ice-sheets and floating ice of the clos- 

irc'>taut' 1 if t he glacial period. No disturbance of these lieds, which must 

kveliccii subsequently dei)osited, s(>ems to have taken place, nor have .Vciif tlic 

a:r. infrnalated or overlyin" glacial products been met with in con- ^'''''f '^''•'>' ■""} 
•'"■.' . . >.a\ica\a >aii(l 

ii'timi with the Leda clay and Saxica\a sands. Hence it is inferred 

that their deposition began about theclosi; (jf the boulder-clay jieriod and 

' 'ntimieil fin- some time after the retii'<'ment of tlie ice from this region. 

llii'se fussiiiferous clays and sands have been closely correlated with c,,n',i:itiiin of 
tW Leila clav and Saxicava sands of the St. Lawrence vabev, studied '''.';'■ 'li|"'sits 
m iiaiiieij by Sir J. \\ . Daw.son many years ago, and seem I'cally to eluy ami Sii\i- 
C'Mitute a jiart of the same series deposited in the .southern embaymtnt th,\'st' Li\v- 
'li tlip (iult' of St. Lawrence, the onlj* dillerence in the marine fauna i' 'nee Valley. 
'j"iii'.' tliat in the latter area a few s'.uthern species are intermingled 
»'itli those of the boreal tyjie. The exact r(>lati(ins of a number of these 
-I'cii's Imve not yet been definitely worked out, however, and until 


l)('llMsitS (if 

the Ki'ci'iit 
I'lriod (ii\( 
ttuts). Wli.. 
iilisci-vcd III 
Niw I5ruiis- 

In Xovii 

Scut ill, 

In I'rincc I 
ward Isl:ui(i 

further collections of bntli Pleistocene and existing shells aic im.uIc on 
the cast coast of Canada, espeeial'y in and around the (lull' nf St. 
Lawrence, their value as indicative of the climate of later I'iiistiKciK. 
times, and of thedei)th of the sea in which they lived is not to In ;.'ieatlv 
relied on. Some additional dredgings would be important in this con. 
nection, as enabling us to correlate the marine fauna now inlmliitini; 
the coast waters more closely with that of other regioii.s, as will as 
with that of the Pleistocene deposits under consideration. 

(M 3 (I.) FuEsii-WATKU Deposits of the Recent I'euikd. 
Itlvcr-jtdts (Inter rales). 

River-flats skirt the jirincipal livers of the n^gion to wiiltli this 
report relates, and usually form the best soils. Along the Smithwest 
If Miramichi and its trilnitaries they art! cleared of forest in iikimv jiliices 
and cultivated, and at Doaktown and Ludlow on the main iImt attain 
a considerable width. Bordering the Renous River, about thii teen miles 
from its mouth, line, wiile flats, partly under cultivation, but mainlv 
covered by forest still, were also observed. These nourish a s|.lcniliil 
growth of elm, balsam-poplar, yellow birch, etc., and if elrainl and 
properly tilled should be valuable for the production of liay ami tor 
I'aising stock. Flats also occur along the Dungarvon l!i\fr. one nt 
which, eight miles above its confluence with the Renous, has yielded 
hay for many years. Similar intervales border the Kmirhiliiniu'uao 
and Kouchibouguacis rivers, also the Richibucto, itiicinuilif and 
Cocngne rivers. Those along the three last-mentioned streams aiv 
largely under cultivation and afford good soil. Excellent t'aiiiis were 
seen in the Richibucto Valley, and especially along two of its ehiet 
afiluents, Nicholas anfl Coal Rranch. 

The rivers of Albert and Westmoreland counties do not pn-spssany 
river-tlats worthy of mention, being small and their draina-v basins of 
limited extent. 

Tn Curnl)erland county, Nova Scotia, intervales stivtrli alung tin' 
l^pper Maccan Riv(M' and occur again at Ifalfway Ld<e.\\ liiTcs(imei,'oiiil 
farms were observed. Narrow margins of intervale land iMiidei' llivet 
Philip and the Pugwash aiul Wallace rivers, while in the jiewaiv 
valley and farther east towards Tatamagouche, some fine alluvial bt- 
toms exist. Nearly all the alluvial .soils are under ctiltivatinn in 
Cumberland county. 

Crossing Northumberland Strait and reaching PiiiMf F.dwa 

' I'll 

. Island, we find no fresh-water alluviums of note there exctpi along tliej 

Dunk and Hillsborough rivers, the former only being within the area 



117 M 


ucto, I'au'lnurlio una 

Exwllt'iit t'iinns wfiv 


,l,.i' cuUivatiun m 

tlier« I'M'!'' 

ot'sliiMt No. 5 S.W. All the valleys of the siuiiUer streams, of eourxe, 
ciint.iiii more or less hottom-laiul, but usually it forms only a very 
n,ui"N\ strip. The character of the soil derived from the soft Poimo- 
C';ulHiiiit'<Mous and Triassic shales is such, however, that it readily 
cnuiililis flown into a fine loam, and this mantles the slojies and 
Imttniiis of the vali(!ys to a greater or less depth, and is almosi 0([iial 
to nil alhivial soil. Much of it, indeed, is of the nature of fresh- 
water iillu\ ium, though for the most part due to subaerial, or atmospheric 


Till' mode of formation of these deposits has been discussed in for- Mode of 
iiur ivjinrts. They are in every instance the result of seasonal changes, '""""^"'"• 
vueli as -pring and autumn Hoods due to melting snow, rains, etc, and 
the sfdiiiicntation consc(iuent upon silt transportation from such Hoods. 
Tlicso caii'V coarse and tine material, the former l)i'ing first tlroj)ii('d, 
the iimiv liiioly comminuted matter transported farthest and deposited in 
the lake like expanses of the rivers, or wherever their How becomes 
«lackciii(l sulllciently to permit deposition of the line sediment held 
in stisiicnsion by the waters. In these alluviums stratification is sel. 
(jiim afiitarcnt, cxcejjt where clay is present in greater or less quantity, 
iiinl ill tills respect they maybe said t<) resemble the loess of other 
CMimtiii s. Xo fossils have been found in tliem excejtt stems of shrubs, 
twin's and leaves, remains of herbaceous plants, etc., all of wliicli 
lekmg to existing species. 

Prat lions. 

Peat bogs are well developed in the coastal region of the soutli- 
ivisteni fiiibayment of the Gulf of St. Lawrence, especially in New 
llnuiswiik and I'rince I'^dward Island. Ijesides those described in former 
i<|"iits ,1^ occurring on !Miscou and Sliippegan Islands, at .Saint Simon 
im'.cI ami at Pokemouche, Tabucintac, Ciieval and Escuminac Points, 
otlii'K wtif noted ac the following localities and are delineated on tlu^ 
iria|is aiciiiii]ianying this report. Tlu; following is a list oi those olj- 
!'ivcil in N(>\v I'.i'unswick; — 

1. All extensive peat bog lies on the north side of Kouchibouguac 
Latin 111 r. 

i. Aunt her occurs on the coast about a mile south of the mouth of 
Iviuiliiliouguacis River and faces the sea. 

■'• A third occupies part of the peninsula between the estuary of 
ilif .Vlil'iiiaiie and the coast. This bog is large and raised in the 
cMw and merges into the salt marsh on the shoreward side. 

^. "u the south of Little Gully at Richiljucto Head, inside of the 
and Ixarlns, there is a peat bog of considerable extent. 

Peat liog>. 

oIisitmm] hi 
Niu liruiiK- 


In Prince Ed- 

Wiint Islanil. 

5. Two lfiri,'e b(),t,'s dccur aloni,' the Kent Ndftlioni ruilwav, fmui 
one to five miles iihitvo F'iingston, or about 20 or 21 miles tViJiii Kein 
Junction, Intercolonial railway. 

G. About six miles north of Rogersville station, Interenldiiial rail. 
way, and north of the first erossinj,' of liarnaby Kiver, a larLic \n-.a Ijn- 
oceurs. It is a shallow one and a j)ortion of the area niajjjMMl us iiynt 
bof^ forms a shallow lake, siiring and autumn. 

7. About two miles south of Canaan station. Intercolonial iviilwav, 
a peat bog crosses tli(> track twice. 

S. Peat bogs skiit tiie lakes at the head of Missatjuash l!i\Lruii lliu 
Isthmus of Chignccto. 

In the interior of the country, (lat peat bogs aie of tVc(|Uiiit ndui 
rence on the watersheds, or undrained jxirtioiis of the Cail.dnifiinii-; 
area, but they ai'e usually shallow and the peat thin, p(J0r and ijiitv, 
being mixed with the wash from the surrounding slo})cs. Tln-i' l)ii;,s 
support a scanty growth of black spruce, hacmatack, etc.. iNiicriiillv 
around the marginal portions. The best and I'leani st peat i.. tiiat 
found growing on the I'aised l)ogs. 

Pi'oceeding to Prince Edward Island, we iuid large peat liii;,'s du tlif 
northeast side, along the shores of Richmond and C'ascuni]i( (|uc liays, 
These have been described by Dawson and Harrington. '•• Tiic precise 
localities of th(! largest peat bogs on the island are here noted: — 

0. At ijcnnox island, iiichmond l>ay, on the noitli-cfisi side, a strip 
of peat faces the Gulf of St. Lawrence. This bog is apparently Icin: 
rapidly eroded by tlie sea. 

10. At Point Lot 12, there is an extensive peat bu^ /ralleil tin' 
.S(iuirrel Creek bog in Dawson and llai'rington's report alivaily rtt'irifil 
t'l), covei'ing an area of certainly not less than ."iOO or (>(•<) acres. It 
rises in the centi'e, and like those on Miscou and Sliippe^an Islands, 
at the entrance of the' IJjue des Chaleurs, is dotted o\t r with small, 
deep ponds or holes in the peat which I'emain constaiilly lilled witli 
water. It is also treeless. 

11. At lilack Piaidc, east of Stei)hen Cove, in Caseumpeiiiie Day. 
there is also a large peat bog. Along the shore it is seen to lie ten I'l' 
twelve feet deep in ))laces and rests directly on white .saml. The liot- 
torn layers ar(! full of roots, truid<s of trees, etc., in dei'ay. .Itist at 
Stephen Point, stumps were observed two feet below lnw watermark. 
This l)og is also higher in the centre than at the eiiriiinterenee, and 
treeless. Erosion by the sea is apparently making lapiil inmiuls iiitn 
it. Mr. Kobert Tuplin, who lives in the vicinity, and has Keen iiiiikiii,' 

*Hei)ort on tlic CJeoldKical 8tnictiu-e iiiul Mineral Hesonrces of i'rim'e Kdwari 
Island, 1S71. ]'.v Sir .1. W. Daw.son and Dr. 1'.. .1. Ilarrin^rton 



HI) M 

tercfiloiiiivl riiilwiiv, 

mrct'n III 1 1 '" 

iil)>ri\;iticiiis on tliesc poat 1)0<,'m, iiiforined us that a strip of five feet in 
width or so was annually worn away hy tlio sea. Tliis peat l)oi^ is 
(liMiilied in detail in Dawson ami ILarrington's report already cited 
imd its area can be best learned from an inspection of the map. 

1l'. West of .Stephen Cove, another large peat bog, the hirgest on 
IViiici' llilwanl Island, occurs (see map). It is about three-(|uarters of 
a iiiilr wide, and, lil<(! those of lUack Bank and Squirrel Criick, is 
raisi'il ill the centn; and without trees. 

1,'!. .V small peat bog was also seen near Portage station, P. E. I. 


Ail the i)eat boys bnrderiiii,' the sea are found to extend down under Itimts uml 
lii^h liilc le\('l aiul their lower parts contain roots antl stems of trees p,..i,")'„" '" 
wiiiili (111 not occuiiy their surfaces at the present day, but which, 
iifvi'iiiirloss, exist in the low, Hat, swampy coastal tracts in the vicinity- 
hi soiiie ciaintr'ies where peat and treeless moorlands exist, attem[)ts 
havi> been made to sliow that tiiese buried forests must have been 
(Ic-trnycd by the encroachment of the sea, or by a change of climate, 
111' ill Millie other unaccountable way, before the i>eat mosses began to 
t'liiw. r«ut as peat bogs in what may be termed their incijucMit stag(!s 
luf iiiil iiifi(H|uent in many j)aits of the maritime provinces of Canada, 
mi till' surfaces of which the same stunted growth of s{iruce, hacmatack^ 
cedar, rtc, }irevails as is found in the bottoms of thi^ liirger bogs, it is 
at mirr evident that the change from a forest-covered or partially 
I'liii'si-covereil condition in the early stages of their growth to a tree- 
less condition when they are mature, or rather when the peat has 
atiaiiiiil roiisiderable thickness, is one due to other causes than those 

PiMt lings are to be .seen in all stages of develojiment in this region, Mode of 
iiiiiii tliiis(! oidv a few inches or a foot or two diei), to those uiiwaiils of j-'i""tl"'f f'-it 
twriity t'cct deep. The fust have always a forest growth upon them 
whiu ill their natural state, the trees being larger around the margins 
than ill the centre. As the })eat mosses gi'ow and the bog iiu leases 
ill thick iies.s, the trees are observed to b(>come stunted, and linally die 
mit uhiTcver the peat is thickest, generally at the centre first, then 
MUtwiiids towards the circumference. The larger and thicker bogs at 
livsciit iiave, therefore, a ]tart which is treeless, and a border upon 
"hirh there is an ericaceous growth, occupied with .some stunted 
t'iriii- lit" spniue, haematack, cedar, etc., the latter increasing in si/.e and 
Wciiiuiiig iHoi'o ami more intermixed with other trees towards the 
iiiiir;;iii "f the bog. From this fact it W(aild appear that trees do not, wiiy trcfs do 
w i.'aiiin.i, grow in peat bogs, and that, therefore, their treeless con- "|',',^iii' '^^ "' 
(litimi is mainly due to the drowning out of the forest growth which 



ot'if,Mnally oicupiiMl tlio iin-ii on wliiuh t hoy lie. Tlie growtli nf i1m. 
TUOHscs fduscs iinpci't'cc't iliiiina;{o, the jKNit in its iiiitiii'al statr li(j]i|. 
ing from ninety to niiioty-livi' per cent hy \v(Mj,'Iit ot' water. Iti>at 
once (ihvious tluit trees will not gri)W in such ii soil, iiiul cmh it 
rooted in that lieneath the peat, the aci'Uinulation of sfncivil tVct ut 
wet, cold, j)eal musses ai'ound the hasct of their trunks and the lack ut' 
aeration to their roots must soon result in their death. In tliecMrly 
stages of the growth of the peat hog, there would iloul)tli--s h.. a 
struggle for tht; mastery between the forest growth and tlu? s/i/m,/,,,! ■ 
but as peat ixigs invariably aceumulati^ in hollows or hasjn-^ \vliiili 
originally held shallow lakes, and do still, when not \\ hnlly o(((i|iii'i| 
Avith l>eat, receive, at certain seasons, the drainage of the ^iirroiiiiiliin; 
area, it will be seen that ti'ee growth in peat, even then, is piacr.l inidir 
very unfavourable conditions for its development at anytliiiii; liki' a 
rapid rate. Tn conse(|uence of this it is only those hai'dy species fnund 
in wet, cold soils, in .swampy tracts, that grow at all in tliose hollows, 
before or dui'ing the incipient stage of the growth of the jicat l)iii,'>, 
and their existence is often a very precarious one, liable to he ilicckiij 
or terminated altogether by any untoward oi' unfavouraiile cli.'uiu'i'. 
Hence the growth of peat moss arouiul the roots and basal pari of the 
steins ultimately desti'oys the tiees. They then stand as dead iiiinks 
for some tinu?, until decay setting in, they bi-eak oil' at the smt'acedf 
the bog, the trunks falling prostrate upon it. T.ut the roots, and 
sometimes a portion of the stump are pre.sei'ved from decay liy the 
antiseptic properties of the peat moss, oi- the acids geiieratcil i y its 
decay, and are usually found in a sound condition at tiie inc-cnt day, 
sometimes even with the bark intact. 
Cliiiiati' of the Tli(i great thickness and extent of so many of the peat lio^<. m 
aliii't!) the'''' "^'^'*''''''^*'^> "''•'"' ^''i' coast of New IJrunswick and J'riiicc Ivluard 
Ki-outli (if the Island, shows that the existing climatic conditions a:'e \er\ la\oiiral)le 
K/ilimlii", cum- , 1 /. 1 • !• 7 11 1 1 • 

liosiii^'thc to tile growtli or tl:e species or splidtjua and otlu^' vegelalih' hwm- 

l>cat !)tds. composing them. And from the peat, or forest beds, found iiiidcr lln' 
marsh mud at Aulac .station. Intercolonial railway, and at ilir west 
dock of the Chignecto marine railway, it is evident that -omiwliat 
similar meteorological conditions prevailed throughout the irceiii 
period. "VVe may even go further back, and infer from the pi it Ijeds 
found by Sir J. W. Daw.son under the boulder-clay at Hivtf inhihi- 
tants. Cape ]>reton, that the climate of the coast in the lai( i i'lrtiary 
did not differ very much from that which now obtains. 

Antiquity. The peat bogs, or moorlands, are, therefore, of coiisider.ilile anti- 

quity, having commenced their growth in this region along ihc coast, 
as soon as the land emerged from beneath the sea in post-glacial tiiiies. 



121 M 

tVoin (liTMV 

,t tlio IMVM'iil ilay. 

t'olllHl UIhIi'I' I'"' 

111,,' iiiuT ■r''iii''iy 

Tlicv (li'l n<it all ori;,'inato tlien, liowover, hut at intorvaJH, (ir from 
iiiiii' to 1 iiiiu, as tlie haljilat of the sp/idijna tuu\ tlio (lrainai,'o and otluT 
riuiliiinns lu'camc favoural)!*? for their (levolojnnciit. 

Ax lias .ih'cady hcen inferred, the prat ho^^s indicate a slij,'ht Sulisicl.'iuc 
-ilisidiiHc of the coast holder within the recent period. The exact ''"''•''''''I '•>' 

» til"' [icllt Imjfs, 

uiimiiit cif the clian;,'e of level is a ditlieult matter to ascertain; hut 
till' t'aii^ jiiiint to a di^pression of fiom live to ten feet. 

N(i u-r lias yet heen made of peat in the rejjion emhraccd in this isi's to wliidi 

rr|iiiii. A numher of these hogs are easily aecessihle, some hy land and [",,'j' '"''^ " 

.tlitis liy water ; hut the ahundance of wood and the proximity (tf tiie 

NiiMi Scot ian coal mines keeps fuel at moderatt; pi-ices, ami there is 

oiiiMiiumily no use for peat in tliat way. Tlie day will eonio 

i.M\v(\ii, ulien it will i)ecome valuahle, not only for fuel and litter 

Lilt tor (iiiier purposes as well. In .some j)arts of Europe it is now 

iitili/cd in various ways. One of these is as a [)a('kiiij^ material f<ir the 

tnii^piirt of the various kinds of crockery, glass and other articles 

.iiiili' to liic.ikaife. Another is in its taking the place of ice in the 

oamaj,'*^ nt' iicrishahle articles, such as fresh m(!at, fish, etc. "When 

cut iutn fra;;nionls it is said to he well adapted for the i)res(>rvation of 

tli(',<(' iirticlcs in transport in warm weather, eitlKir l)y railway or 

iviiir. .Meat when packed in it, will keep fresh for weeks, and wilJ 

mutually litcome dry, the moisture heing ahsorhed hy the jieat. Yov 

t!.i'slii|innnt <it' fresh iisli hy railway it might he utilized to great 

aniiiilaut' on the Atlantic coast of Canada ; salmon, cod, mackerel, 

iolistois, etc.. by this means finding a market, not only in the eastern 

t,;i'Siif tlif L'nited States, hut in ^Montreal, Ottawa, Tore Jii to, etc 

1' It has also hcen successfully used for preserving fresh fruit ; e\('n 

jiji^ it is said can ho maile to retain their freshness unimjiared for 

L"!iili> it |i uked in finely pulverized moss litter. Its uses as a iion. 

C'iKluctur of heat, therefore, are likely to hring it into extensive 

r»'inisiti(iii in this country in the near future. 

Iiilii'iiiianv neat has heen used for years as an ahsorhcnt of the t- • ,. , 

*H.' liijiiids ami refuse of factories, and in this way it has furnished nmny. 

'it.'i'i|uaiiiiii('sof excellent manure in certain districts. An excellent 

fciitisdisii now manufactured from some varieties of peat, susc(>ptihlo 

'di'iii;.' woven and ajiplicahle to (,ther purposes. An enumeration 

i i!ip uiaiiit'old uses of peat would jtrove th;it this raw material is 

''Mually destined to become of great value in the arts, in chemistry, 

*'i'i ill aLrriciilture, as well as for sfinitary purposes. l>og land 

Wlipito regarded as worthless, is likely U) become valuable pio- 

!«ty, luid llourishing industries promise yet to spring up from the y.^i,,,, „f 

'5^ 't this neglected material. When that day arrives the maritime moorlands. 

i 1 

l'2'2 M Ni;w iiiirN.swicK, nova scotia ani> p. k. isi.axh. 

|ii'(ivirict's of Miistfi'M ("luuulii will lie iiliU* to furiiisli an .ilimot 
uiiliiiiitcd HUpjily ot' peat moss I'oi' nil the |nii[n)Sfs ciuimciaic ij. 

(M .'J /),) .Mauink hKi'OHirs. 

Dmii'n, Siill A/(ii:i/i'.i, Kftintfini'. I'hilfi, MkxsiI mnil^ ,i,\ 

lilOIlt ill' 

S.ilM'Ci' cif 


Tin' recent iMiiriiie tleposlts wliieli ueciir uliiiost eveiyw iicic iiiound 
tli(( eojists of New Uriiiiswick, Nova Scotia, and I'liiicc I'.dwaul Maiiij, 
are aiiinn;^ tlie most interest iii<^ of the suiierlicial t'nrmation<. Tlnir 
j,'reat devehtpmeiit in tlie jiaiticiilar re]i,'i(>n under disciissiun i> iIh,. t.^ 
sevend causes, as for example, in tiie l>ay of l''undy region i<i ilic ,\ 
traordinary tides of that hody of water and tlieii' eii)si\i' iiiiliiiiiii' oii 
tlie coasts, wliicli fnrnisli larL;e (|uaiitilies of material ; in Xmih. 

und)erland Strait to tlio Wiiar and wastt; of tlie laml surt'ar 
almndant arenaceous and otlier materials to the rivers, 


>t I'l'unis, etc., 

which transpoit them seaward into the littoral of a low, slirKinir^ mh 
horder. Ft is in the iJay of l''iiiidy reixii>n that salt marshes linil tlicii 
fullest de\elopmont, while sand duni's, e<'l-,!,'rass and uuis^'I-hiikI ilais 
cover a much ''reatei' ai'ca in Nortlunnherland Strait, and in ilirlaiiir 


rict esjiecially, are all api)ai'ei 


contemporaneous oi inin. 

loose sands of the coast border in the 1 itter rei^ion, moved alxait liillur 
and thither as they art! hy marine curi'ents, winds and waves, linally 
reach a coinpaiatively stalil(! position alom( these low slopini,' slion'-. 
when,' they aie thrown down and form loni,' ))eaelies or dunes |i;nallil 

to the I'oast-lino with shallow lagoons of i^reater or less widlii iiitciveii- 
inj,'. ^\'hile these materials arc^ thus heiuii shifted ahoul in tliejittni'al. 
a leacliing out i)rocess is .i^oiny on, due 

to the action of tlie ^iil|iliiiteset 

the sea water and the acids neneiatetl hy tlnj deeoinposiriL,' veijetiilili' 
matter (peat lio,i;s, j^'rasses of salt marshes, etc.) tif the eu,i>i mai'^iii. 

Tlie la''oons within th(! beach 

arc roa 

lly 1 

jasiris or \ats wlicn,' 



1 ch 

ini,'t!s 111 tilt! lerrugmous sands 


sdts are enniin 


V 111 


'I'css, as these are canied down from the 


1 h 

luvial aueiicic- 

The bleachinj^ of the sands composiii<^ the dunes therefore, uhile pa 
owiiii' to mechanical attrition under tlowini; waters am 


1 t'l the Mirf; 

IS p 





rliaps, to thi- leaching <iut of iln' in"' i" 
them by decoinposinjf humus. ]>eds of (juiek-sand near llie nioiuli- "t 
the sevei'al rivers emptying into Northumberland Strait seeui iie\v toj 
be undergoing the pui'ifying process referreil to. Wells have hwuJ 
sunk in the dunes at a number of lishing stations, show ing in deceiid 
order, (1) sand, (2) ferruginous gravel and rotted rock, aiul (■!) i;!ij'| 
Carboniferous sandstones in situ. The water in these wells is, nf cuui>e,j 


l-';{ M 

liimki-^li and coiitiiinsiiutrcor loss f()nii;,'iiiiiiis nuittrr uml nilicr iiiipuri- 

ur<, \^ liii'li liast! Ih'Cii (Ifvcltipt'd tVoiii iIh- fliciiiii'nl I'cai'tioiis (iHikIimI to. 

|',v iImsi' nii'iuis anil l>y ('i)iitiiiiiiil iiltiitioii, tlu; siuitls lifCdiiii-lilriu'lKMl 

mill uliiti'iicd, ('s|i('cially ill tlic upper layers (if iho dunes. The /one 

Hilnli ill which those CDastal deposits lie is (it' varinljle width, but they 

iii'M itlieless form a deliiiite sei'ies which, passing,' from thedrylanil sen- |„,Nii^( 

wiini, inav he classilii'd as follows ;-— ''"' '"' 

•' I'lPii^t, 

I. S;ilt marsh, hoi'dered on tlu* inner mar;;in in some plaees liy 
).iMi. ill others hy ferriii^iniius sands, silts, clays, etc., the whole Imvinjf 
ihiiall\ a hard-pan henealh, 

•.', A >liallow lai^doh, channel or inner passai,'e of thr* sen. in which 
liilil ( iirri'nls play haekward and forward, 'I'his is really a lia-in or 
-ill!;, ititn which tiie impurities of the land are drained and dine-^inl, 
111(1 wlicre chemii-al chan;ies are continually in proi,'ress from the 
iiriiiiii (if t lie seii-water and tlu! or;,'iiiiic acids l)r(,iii,'ht from the land. 
:,. A hniken strij) of salt nuirsh liiiinj^ the inner mar^in of the sand 
licacli 111' duiu?. 

I. Tlir loiii;, narrow hcach of wliit<! or i,'r;iyish-white silicious sands 
Iviiiu' li.iiallel to the coast, sometimes in one ridnc, hut svhere s\ idcst 
iiiii>i-liiit,' of two or three. These am evidently wa\e-liuilt and are 
iiteii |iiiitected from denudation hy u coverinj^ of coarso grasses iind 

.'i. *>liiflinj; sand-tlats in tlie littoral, wider or narrower ad'ordini; to 
till' -111] II •. .\round Northumherland Strait these are of yreat width, 
mil iiiiiili of their surfac(* is laid har(! at ehh tides. Outside li.ars cir 
viiiil riil-cs ai(* thrown u|), too, in most places parallel to thos(! 
iksciilicd, at wliateviM' distance from the shores the waves lirst hre.ik 
ikriii;' storms. That the material of these dunes and saiul-hars is 
aauiiiulutiiiu:, seems proved from the fact that the latest or outside 
iiil:,'is lire u-.iially larj^er tlian tlu* inivr and are .'iiiparcnt ly, in some 
iKcs at least, increasing in wiilth ; wiiile between tide marks great 
iiuaiititii's (if loos(< sands lie ready to be shifted about or thrown up 
livtlii' waves during heavy storms. 

Tlii's.iinl beaches on tlu; north side of Prince i'idward Island, are \].-M-\\t 

It U.- 


Mi'll till 

;am(! in character and composition as those on tin; mainland. 
':ii'i)f tlic lai'gest of these, of which Hog Island forms a I)art, was 
■rxuiiiiicd with some care. Here the older (jr inner ridgts of the beach 
'*ii' t'luiini to consist of reddish or ptirtially oxiili/.ed sands, while 
'.iM-c tiiciii^' the (iulf of 8t. Lawrence and lately formed, or now in 
I'lfpss (if accunmlation, had tlu; usual whitish or bleached colour. 
ti'iiM six to ten parallel ridges of saiul were found in this lieach, the 
*>t fill incd being tlie highest. The width of this beach is from a 

wall I 1 

-I 111! 

Ill I 


Cli.'Uiffi'-' ill 
till' (iiiilcs. 

quarter to luilf a mile. Along the inner border of the Im iuli are 
lagoons, bogs and marshes. Crystalline boulders were met with Ivin^' 
upon the surface of these salt marshes, though no evidences of glaciiition 
were observed on the adjacent shores or islands, rotted rock h'ini^ 
everywhere abundant. 

The older ridges of the dune or beach referred to, are now clutlipi] 

with stujited spruce trees and bushes of .several species of haidw 1, 

together with ericaceous plants. Tliose ridges lately foiiiicd, art' 
covered merely with coai-se grasses or carices. 

Lncfd C/inngrs ami CniuUlions of tfie Dinii'n. 

These shifting sands may be considered under two aspects at least, 

first, in refei'ence to the jiavigation and silting up of the rivers and 

harbours, and secondly, in their relation to the agricultural character 

of the coastal districts. 

Siltiiiir lip of ( J CI lerally speaking, it m.ay be stated that all the harbours around 

till' liai'liiiurs -v' 1 1 ' 1 1 ti -J • 11 i (! 1 i~( 1 'p 

aniiiMil N'(pitii- -i^'"'thuinl)erlancl >5trait, i. i\, around tlie coast or the LaiiKiiiitermis 
Strait ''''''" Hfca of New r.runswick, Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island are 
silting up. This is the result of two causes, first, the accuimila- 
tioii of material carried flown by the rivers and streams and (lc|iii>itid 
in the estuaries, which may be ctxMcd Jhn-iafif<' ; and st'condly, tin' 
action of the sea in tlirowiiig back these loose stinds into the iiiijutli~ 
of the harbours ;uul inlets. It is now well known that tin' sand^ 
which are shifted by winds, waves and currents into the iiiimtlisr,fthi. 
harliours at IJathurst, jNIirainiehi, IJichibucto, Summerside, ete., by 
liea\y storms are a serious obstruction to their free na\igatic(ii. To 
Hew cauMil. show liow these sands accunmlate, let us take the case <it' the I'iilii- 
bucto harbour, at th" entrance to which ii breakwater lias liemiun- 
structcd. Beyond th(? outer end of the brcidvwatcr, 'he sands aiv 
thrown into the channel by heavy storms sjiring and tali. Itivdi,'!'- 
have been used to clear it out, but the river itself is a, most ell'i'ctive 
agent in this regard, the sands thrown into it by the storms bi'ii.u' 
thus clctifed out, partially at least, by river freshet-. Tlie-i' 
filling and clearing out jirocesses continue year after ye;i.', .iml liit'eiv 
the breakwater was built, caused a slight sliifting of tlie eliaiinil 
periodicidly. This shifting or diversion of the channel was a mi)\eim'nt 
away from the direction of the prevailing north-east winds wliicli lU' 
company the heaviest storms. At present, the channel or |ia--ai;e nut- 
.side the breakwater only is subject to change.< of this kind : Imt in 
1890 I found it had lieen so far .shifted tis to throw it uji auainst ilie 
southern dunes. When it reaches this stage and becomes i linked ii]'. 
the dredge has agtiin to be brought into recpiisition, and a new ami 



125 M 

5tiaii,'lit channel cut directly from the end of the break water. Higli 
river tVisliets aid this operation materially, afterwards the operations 
of uaturi' just described, of filling up and clearing out will be again 
reneatiMl. This is one instance among a number which niii;ht be cited 
tiisliiiw how these sands obstruct navigation. 

In ivt'crcnce to their ellect upon the agricultural character of the Etftct of sands 
ciiuntrv bordering the sea, it may be stated that porti nis of it 'ii'c t'i',Vii'im'l niar 
iihnost Mihieless from the quantities of blown sands drifted over tliein, ^'^ast. 
iil'ten ti) the depth of several inches. The leaching out, or deoxidation 
lit the irnn in these arenaceous strata, referretl to on a previous page 
iilso inipuverishes the soil, rendering it of inferior agricultural value. 

Salt Jfars/ii'K in Xortliin)ihi'rhui<l Strait. 

The '-ah marshes of the coast of Northumberland Strait, ai'c (piite Salt luai-.-lns 
(liffeivni from those of the J]ay of Fundy, both in regard to their l".,^^,',',','ist','a'it. 
plnsical tliaracter and agricultui'al \alue. While tlu^ latter are built 
up mainly by the action of the great tidal wave of that body of water, 
tliiis(> under 'consideration are invariably found in places which are pro- 
ti'ited I'niiii , 3 denuding action of the sea by natural barriers of some 
kind. Tlie mateiials of which they are furmed m.iy be characteiized as 
silt, witii coarse, gravelly, clayey and pebbly (l('j)osits of the nature of 
liardpan beneath. Thes(! maishes are of much lt,>ss depth than those of 
the llav of Fundy, and are usually covered with a thick mat of the roots 
i.lioaise grasses and carices. Tiie yield nf hay on them is also less, and 
mnsists lit' .>;everal species of wild grass only, but does not include timothy 
(/'/(/"'/// /irati'tisi'), or upland On the marshes which have been 
ilvk'f'd, ;inil from which hay has been cut for a number of years, a 
chiingo in the species of grasses has taken jilace, the coarser kinds be- 
coming replaced by those which grow in cultivated fields. The un- 
(ivked inarsh(>s are partially overllowed annually by high autumn 
tides. The limited area of marshes, dyked and undyked, of limittd 
;iiul their precarious and uncertain yield, render them of minor im- ""■'^' 
ji'iitaiiee cnmpared with' the Day of Fundy salt marshes. The largest 
s\lt uiarslies of this kind along Northumberland Strait, occur at 
I'aie Vcrte, Shemogue, Abcaishagan, at the mouths of the liichilmcto, 
Iviueliiliouguac and Kouchibouguacis rivers, and in Prince Edward 
Muid, at the head of Hillsbitrougb r>ay. 

Tlie salt marshes of the upper part of the Bay of Fundy, lia\e been Salt maisl 
i lined under (juite exceptional conditions, and although cla.ssed witli i.'„„'i|y." 


those of Nortliuniberland Strait, tlicy are really distinct in ehiuacter. 
The great tidal wave of the l>ay of l^'undy has been the ciiict' nyent 
in producing them. These tides llowing at tlie rate of five or mx 
niil(>s an hour into tlie hays and estuaries, are loaded witii n(|(ji.j]i 
sediment which is everywhere deposited before they ebb. It Is imt 
Materials (if, uncommon for a single tide to lay down an inch or more; in ccitiiiii 
liow <lui.usiti.(l j.j,„^^ ,^,,^,^^, ^,,^. ,,j^.^,,. ,,,^,^,,j^_ r,,,!^ ^^^f^ Carboniferous shales aroun,! the 

head of tlie bay furnish, by their waste, the material necessary for 
marsh building. The ff)rce of tiie tides prevents the formation of any 
■*> submarine, or eel-grass ilats, such as occur in th(> shallow waters of 
Northumbei'land Sti'ait, consecpiently at ebb tid(,'s, only l)arc, muildy 
slopes are to be seen. At high tid(!s the creeks antl inlets art> (iljoj 
to the grassy border, at low tides they are yawning, slimy g.ishes in 
the earth with tiny streams ti'ickling in their bottoms. In wiiatevcr 
way the waters move, sunnner or winter, they are always loaded witli 
reddish-gray sediment or mud, and run like a mill-race. 
Area not in- The area of these marshes does not seem, so far as obser\aiioiis ex- 

?iV-turic"t'imes. tend, to be increasing seaward since they were first dyked, that is, 
within the last two hundred years ; but it is stated that the estiiaiies 
are tilling up and beconung narrower. There is a tradition anion;,' xlx 
old settlers in the Isthmus of Chignecto, tliat about the time I'orl lleau- 
sejour (now called Fort Cumbei'land) was captui'cd by the Iviuli-ii in 
1755, the Missacjuash lliver was navigable for canoes nearly to it- 
source : but this is not now th(^ case. 

The salt marshes Vw. at tlu; height of ordinary spi'ing tides, and pur- 
tions of them can be (jverllowed by opening the dykes. \ ei y l'i;ii 
tides, such as the one which accompanied the Saxby gale of Oetnbei' 
5th, 18G!), overflow them altogether. Along the l)anks of the livpis 
or estuaries, the land is a few fc^et higher than the inner or efiitrai 
portions of the marshes, owing to dill'erential deposition of tiie sedi- 
ment. The formation or building up of tliese marshes seems to have 
taken place coincidently with a slight subsidence of the land here in 
the recent period. This subsidence is proNcd by the cNistenee nf 
forest beds 1)elow the marsh mud, and, of course, b(dow tlie level of ilic 
Bay of Fundy waters. The boring at Aulac station shown o,i |iai.'i' 
129 M, illustrates this, and in the e.xcavation for the western dork of the 
Chiunccto marine I'ailwav the forest betl was found to be tliirtv feet 
below the level of the marsh or eight feet below mean tide le\el. 
Referring Sir J. W. Daw.son's figures given for the level of stnnip- 
found ill sifii in this vicinity to mean tide, some are 10'"^<) feet heluw it 
and others only -30.* At the public wharf at Edgett's Laniling ww 

Height of 
these salt 

}f(lW liMJlt ll| 

;ui(l when. 

•Acadian ticology, Supiit. to 'Jnd vd., pa^'o 13. 


ict in character, 
the chift' ii'^cnt 
e of tivf iir six 
h1 with rrildish 
obi). It is not 
luorf! ill ccrtiiiii 
;h;iU's iirouml tlif 
iiil ncci'ssiirv fur 
fonualiitii I't' any 
shallow waters of 
,iily hare, iiiu.Wy 
kI inlets are tilled 
IT, sliiiiy cashes in 
nis. Ill whati'vcr 
hvays loatleil wilh 


,s oV)servatioi>sex- 
irst ilyked, lliat is, 
that the estuaries 
i-iiditioii aneiim llie 
the time Fort Hmu- 
by the l',n-li-!i ia 
noes nearly to it-^ 

irinji tides, and por- 
lykes. Very l''':'' 
|,V i^rivle of l)etol)er 



127 M 


s o 

t' the rivers 

inner or > 


nsition of the 

Mil- to 


If the land here m 

tlu' esisteliee 

level o 

Anw th 
lion shown ' 
,-cstern doi 
|a to he thi 
niean th 

f til* 

k of the 
•ly feet 
le level. 
Ithe level of stumps 


,■1 helow It 

rett's Tiaiuling 


Hillshoro', Albert county, in the moutli of the Petitcodiac estuary, a 
-tuiiip I if a tree in fiifii wa.s pointed out to me by J. P>. He^aii. C.E., 
,it the I'uhlic Works Department, St. John, and found to be 15-32 
fjet lielow mean tiilt^ level. 
The I'orosving two s"ctions, in descending order, exhibit tlie structure Sectimi of salt 
,t the w iiole series of tlie superficial deposits at tlie Fort Lawrence I^'lii'l'vin"' 
liok. -No. 1 was taken at the east end of tlie excavation where the '"ds, No. 1. 
marsh mud rests on the slope of Fort Lawrence ridge : — 

1. Miiish iiiiid, reddish, 2 foot 11 inelics. 

•j. " Ijluisli-gr.iy, !( inelios. 

;;. " gi'ayi.^li, full of i-out.s of ])lant.s and .sluaihs, 1 foot S inelies. 

I, " hhiisli, with Idot-i, "J feet Id inches. 

,■,. '• dai-k-iiiay with hlui.sli tint, fnll of roots and stems. (Tills cor- 

ii-iKjnils wilh tlie forest hud and tlie ovorlyini; hliiisli fossiliforinis clay in the west 
vii4 nf tlie e\cavati(jn), I foot S inolios. ,Sec suutiou No. 2 helow.) 

(1. Sli;itiliei1, or partially stratified, gravel sand and clay containing water- 
whiii piMili s. roots of .slinihs and |ilaiits, etc., 1 foot 11 inches. 

;, jluiihlei -eluy, containing local houlders, some striated. Thickness not known ; 
;iio\cavMlinM, ahout 40 feet. 

Xo. li (if this section is the most interesting. It is cliiefly sand, and 

is eitlier the boulder-clay changed under subierial action, or it is 

tlie representative of the Saxicava sand and Leda clay in the Isthmus 

iiChiuiieeto, most probably the latter. A few pebbles of granite, etc., 

riir ill it, hut a])pareiitly only such as are derived from the Carboni- 

Mdus conglomerate. Its depth beneath the sui'face of the marsh now 

iiiiiie feet ten inches It .seems to lie somewhat unevenly on the sur- 

;>.> (if the houlder-clay, and the strata are irregular. Tlie character 

mil liositioii of this part of the series, therefore', denote a considerable 

iiitiTval of tim(> between the depositiim of the boukler-clay and of 

!iif overlying marsh mud, during which the Leda clay and Saxicava 

•Mvh were laid down along the coast borders elsewhere. 

Section Xo. 2 at the south-west end of the excavation, which is(mly t;,,i.ti,,„ >,-((. 2, 

at'ivv yards from the coiilluence of the r.,a Planche .and ^fissaipiash 

riiTis, exhibits the following series of beds : — 

I Mii~li mild with roots and steins of herhaccons plants, grasses, etc., 12 to 1.") 

i Mai>li iiiiei, stratified, gray, and containing marine siiells, "> to 10 feet. 

■>■ Stiaiiiiid, tongli, hliic clay containing an abundant nioUuscan fauna of the 
;ii\viii;.' .•.|ic(.-ii's, .\[(iciimii j'u^c((, Mt/(t (ir( iirtria, Iti-^iixt niiiiiild, Ndssd oh-<olita, 
i! . .'itdli feet. 

t. I'l It iHil forest l)e(l eontaining stumps and iiortions of the trunks of liacma- 
ii'k, lili\(^l; spniee, hireli (]irol)ahly /lilii/n luiiit) alder, po])lar, hemlock, elm, 
Attc. lone stuinii of hacinalai k being 12 to !."> ineiies in diameter), 1 to 2 feet. 

•" ('(laisc, griivelly, oxidized, leddish-bhie clay, jiartially stratilied at summit, 
'"'Siililiiiu' the lower [lart of the Leda clay, but changing into true boulder-day 

Forest bi'd 
under marsh 

( leoldijit'iil 
of deposition. 



below. It contains boulders of sandstone of local origin. Thickness vuriiiKlf 
but not exceeding 1 foot 

(i. Houlder-clay, containing numerous boulders of local rocks, of all si/,, s, untii 
3 feet in diameter, some of tiiem glaciated. Thickness unknown ; ii pnjliiilily 
extends below tiie waters of Cumberland Basin. 

The length of the excavation for this dock is about 300 foct, iiiul 
the total depth below the surface of the marsh between fifty find sixtv 
(53 feet). Tlio forest bed slopes towards Cumberland I'.asiu almut 
twenty feet within tiie length of the excavation (300 feet), tliat is, 
eight-tenths of an inch per foot, and lies thirty feet below tin' surtace 
of the marsh at the western end of the excavation, as stated aliovo. 

Another section of the salt, with the underlying forest Ijed, 
was disclosed in the boring at Aulac station, Intercolonial raiiwav, 
and is represented on page 129 M by diagram No. ]. This 
section shows the maximum thickness of the marsh mud and forest 
b(Kl here, the bottom of the former being fifty-nine feet below mean tide 
level, and the peat or forest bed, which is twenty feet in tliickiu'ss, 
lying from fifty-nine to seventy-nine feet below the same diUuui. Tin's 
marsh (Tantramar and Aulac) covers an area of not loss >i.\tv 
square miles, thus showing a large accumulation of material lureiutlio 
recent period. 

Regarding the conditions under which these materials, were de- 
posited, it would appear that the marsh mud belongs mainly to a pmiod 
of subsidence, as already stated, in the early stages of which tlieie iiiibt 
have been an interval of (juiet in this part of the IJay of Fundy. Tlie 
strata of fine blue clay and the well preserved condition of tin' oui- 
tained fossils, show that tliey could not have been thus (le|io>ited it 
they were within the range of the heavy sweeping tides irans|ioitiii;' 
sediment, such as exist at the present daj'. The sludls lj(d(iii;' to 
shallow water species, iind it really seems as if the turbid condition of 
the waters in the upper part of the Bay of Fundy and the ,'.\i i aordinai y 
tides did not exist at that time. It is, therefore, pi'obalile that the 
fossiliferous deposit in question was laid down in a (|uiet laf,'iMiii oi 
recess to which th<i strong ebb and flow currents, if they existed then 
in the bay, had no access. There is, however, no abrupt line of separa- 
tion between the blue fossiliferous clay and the overlying inaish-iiuul, 
and the fossils are found to extend locally, but in dimiiiishini;' lunnbeis, 
upwards into the lower strata of the latter, disappearing eniiicly in the 
uppermost porticjns. Mwoinii t'KX''a is still met with on the simivsot 
the upper part of the Uay of Fundy in some places, while this and Mya, 
nrciinria and Naxsa oftsoAj'^a are common in Baie Vertc in Ndrihiiiidiei- 
land Strait. 


I. Thickness variulilf, 

rouks, of nil si/cs. nptu 
unknown ; ii ihmImMv 

aV)out-, 300 t'nct, iunl 
Aveeii fifty iind sixtv 
jerland liiisiu ■dhmi 

(300 feet), tliat is, 
■et below ilw surtace 

as Htated ahove. 

ulerlyiiig forest bed, 
itercolouial laiiway, 
gram No. ]. This 
rsh nuul iiml fdrest 
feet bel(jw nieiin tide 
ty feet in thickness, 
e saino datum. This 
' not less t!:aii sixty 
E material lu'ie in tlie 



fefej ''^'"■^'■''''' "'' "'"^'^ '"•■^•■^l'- 


Marsh iiuid, .so ft. 

Tiirf;,,,,] l„,H-(|„.at), L'lift;. 

«'■'! ^-I'iy, prolMl.Iy l,„ul.|,.r.c.lay, ir ft. 

.Soft ivii rofk, ^(,s ft. 



materials were de- 
i2S maiiih- to a iwriud 
iof wliii-li tiirru niiL-t 
Bay of I'll I Illy. The 
nulitioii of the omi- 
eu thus (li'iiosited it 
g tides iraiispuitiiig 
Che shells liclo!!,;' to 
e turbid eonditiun of 
e, probable the 

in a (juiet lagoon or 
, if they existed tlien 
;ibrupt line of scii.ira- 
iverlviii^ niarsh-nuul, 
diminishini;- ninnbers, 
learing entirely in the 
vith on the shnivsot 
!,s, while this and ifyi 
Verte in Nortlunnher- 

•Soft(^riv(iri)clv, roft. 

I'ied marl. ];) f(-_ 

'il'a.v fivcstniir, 3:. ft. 

'■'iii'-elay, IS ft, 
•Sand ,aMd ,-lay, 5 ft. 

' n 




S;ilt iiiiir>li<'s 
foi'iiji'il (lui'in;^ 

Tli(_' (Icjitli iiiid (.'xtcnt of tilt! marsh deposits indieati! tlwit tlicif f 

i)iali<ni iiuist lia\(' oxtciidod over a consid(M'al)le tiiiie. Tl 
compatil)I(' willi the fact tliat tlieir accumulation ami 

lit or 


krioss would 1)(! c<iiiicidciit \vi 

th tl 

1(! SlIlklllL 


II'- \irw is 
iiiri-i'as,. ill 
<\ 111.' Iiiiiii, 

which took placn ill the I'Cifioii since the jieat and foi'est hcil^ ^.|i'\v. 
^\'hetllel• these mai'shes, if now in a states of nature, would he still i-c- 
ceiviii.i,' additions upon their surfaces sullicient to raise iln-ji' ||.v,l 
hiiihei', is a (|uos( ion referred to helow. The condition nf ihc (i|ii|.r 

iLC u|)on the (| ui a 


ykes ai'iuind llieni 

and other facts hearin 

change of level, rather sup))ort the conclusion that i\w. land is imw mailv 


Fovrsf Jhil Unile)- Salt Jlursh' 

Tn regard to tho forest bed referi'ed to, it would ser'in, frm 
if facts collected in dilVei'cMit pai'ts of the salt marsh .irea. 



l''(ilcst licil 
iiliilcr ^ult 
liiarslic^ ; 1, 

It gn'w. from the ])i'esence of shallow peat Ixigs along its juiu-iion wiiliih' 

uplands, that ]M'aly mattei' has hei'ii coniinually gruwing on ilicimiii' 
holders of these mai'shes e\-er since they hegan to accuniiilati'. As 


I'liaiiiri's ill 

llJIltci'i.-lls Clf 

tiillt iiiaisiir ^ 

the land sulisided and the salt marshes accumulated, k 



lerew 1 

th, til 

lese Jieaty margins likewise llourislied wlierevc;' lln' iji'.iiii- 
age or fresh water from the adjacent uplands hecaiiie slauiiant ami 
other coiidilions favmirahle In their growth existed. TIu'M' iiii,ir 
margins of the marshes are rather helow the general |i'\c! nf ilicir 

surface, henci! the formation of shallow lakes sk^irtei 


is a necessary result, 


roll! these cii cumstances it wmi 


iTiii thai 

jieat, or iorest heds, may lie found continuously at the juiiriinii i.r iii' 

arslies with tin; slopii 


from the hottoni to the siirtaii'. 





o, CI']., of i'ort l']ly;in, New l>run 

lir>t drew iiiv 

attention to this fact. 


le original material tormmg th(^ salt mars 


shes h 


heeii a red loai 

1 or mud, a product of the marine ai 

lalilv. Ill aa 
(I suliai'i'ial ■ 

action which decompose; 



d (,'ailioiiiferous sanil>liiiii's nt u.i > 




'I', that the va] colour is liaMi' to 


changed into gray, in at least soiii(> portions of the niai'^lcs, lliis 
change is hrought ahout hy the chemical alteration of tlic inni nxidi'S 
into sulphides hy the sea water, or hy the action of the uigaiiii' lui'lsj 

on the iron contained in the marsh mud.t A\'e tin 




inner' jiortions of the marshes consi 

it ahuosi wliiillv (if L'liivj 

or hluish-gray materi.'il, with more or less vegetable matter ilissciniii-J 
ated, while the outer portions or those exposed to the tidal ciirri'iiul 

*.\nii. l{.'i"iit, Mil. TV. (N.S.) ISSS-.S!!, ).. 74 x. 
tAciidiaii (ijHilofjry, 2ii(l cd., p. 21. 



l.U M 


iti! tlifit tlicir tor- 

e. This view i, 

and iiuTciiM' ill 

ikin.u "' 'lir liiiul, 

fon-st l""l^ ;;n'\v. 
^ wdulil 1"' --till '■''• 
I raise lli'-ii' li'V'l 
litidll ■••f tlir "'i''!' 

the ((lir-linli (it ;i 

u' buid is iiiiw iiriuly 

ap'ivil. Cultivation, (Irainin;,' and aerating the uppor sti ita, it is 
siii I, ('han,t,'(! the blue nuid into red, i. «., the iron cumpoiiniJs Ix.'conie 
tli:iiii,'i'd t'roni sul[)lii(les into oxides. 

Tlic liiue and led muds ()ft(;n oeciir in altei-nate hiyers, where the Hlue and nd 
tidrs lia\'e been allowed to ovei'tlow the mai'shes periodically. At """ " 
Sark\iile the following section of the beds was obset'ved, the series 
liciir,' descending ; - 

1. IJed marsh mud. 

i'. I'ealy matter or humus, graduating into blue clay in places. 

.",, lied nnul or clay, changing into blue clay. 

Tliesc strata lie under an undrained held, the jieaty co\ering of 
t'liiiiicr surfaces having been ovei-tlowed on two occasions, ;>nd red 
M'lliinent (h^posited. 'Phere ajipears to be a general tendency for tlu^ 
iiiai'-h mud to cliange from red to blue, as ab(jve stated, where the 
iiiiiisli is low and llat, and wiiere the pri.'cipitation is apt to lie ujion it, 
ainl tlie sea ispreventtnl from overllowing. The gray or blue marsh, lias, 
ill wet places, a tiMidenc}' to become coveretl with a growth of pealv 
iiiatier and shrubbery. 

Aiir'i<-nllii}-(tl C/iiirarii'r (,f' f/^ SaU. Mki'sIi <'.■<. 

Till' iliief portions of all the laigei' marshes are dyked, but additions \i.'ii(ultur,il 
(if ^I'eiter or less ext(!nt are constantly being made to some of them. 
Where I he dykes are ke])t in good order, themarshes are almost as dry as 
ilie ailjacent iiplands. 'J'hey ha\(! longbeen noted foi' theii'great fert ility. 
lliy Ins been raised on them for one hundicMl and lifty years or more 
Aiilhiii the ajiplication of manure, and they also yield cereals and root 
iidjis al)U!;<lantly. The soil of tin? oldei' dyked and cultivated mai'slies 
i^, Imwever, deteriorating, owing to continual cropping ; and those 
i"iriiiins of them which liav(; not bt>en overllowed by the tides for 
iii:iii\ \-ears, are now well nigh exhausted, so far at least as regai'ds the 
['niiliictioii of iiay and cereals. They re(|uire. theretore, new and dif- 
tViviit methods of culture fi'om those hitherto employed. 

Ill the report on ( ioNcrnment I^x]ierimental l''armsf()r 1S'.)0, ^Ir. V. '!'. Metli'«lsiif 
^iiutl, eliemist, gi\('s analyses of t wo samphis of soils from theSack\ille 
ill 11^1 If., among those froin aim mber from othei' localities, and oilers some 
I'l'Hiiieiit advice in regard to their improvement, recommeniling lime, 
iviiiiil allies, etc. Subsoil ploughing, draining and the application of the 
fiM'tili/ers reciiuunended by Mr. Shutt, as well as barn-yar 1 manure, 
viiiilil all doubtless be highly benelicial, but I am informed that it has 
iiii'ii t'lumd by experience that the results of this method of tillage 
111' Hut ((imnKMisu rate with the cost and laltour expended, and that 
'h' iiii|ii-(ivement of such large areas of marsh lands as these 



iif s\v:iiii|iy 

iii;irslics lit 

would be too slowly reached in this way. A scheme iiiiui^unut'd 
by the more intelligent fanners of Sackville, seems to allonl 
at once a more etiicaceous and (;conomic mode fif fiTtiliziii" 
these lands, and promises to bring about important iliaiiui-; in 
their culture. This is nothing more than Hooding them tor ,i 
year or two by the sea. Where it has been tried, the results liavu 
been found highly i)enelicial. The mo<his <)jirr(ui>n is to cut, away cir- 
tain jioi'tions of the dykes and open the aluiith'an.c (exit gates nf the 
fresh-water streams), allowing tin; sea to enter and spread a deiiusit ur 
layer of red sediment over the surface of the marshes, and after suiiiui- 
ent matei'ial has thus been deposited then to close the dlioidnni ,■ uml 
dykes and permit the land to dry for a season or two. Durini; the liist 
year after this treatment, <»idy the coar.ser kinds of gi'ass, cliietiv S/hi,-- 
/iiKi s/ri'/attv o/ferii!jlor(i,t'ou\\inni\y ciiUi'A "broad Ictaf," grow, i iit the 
second or third year the marsh resumes its fornu'r covering ni' iin.i U,w 
grasses and continues for many years afterwards to yield an abiiiMlaiit 
cro|) without further cultivation. All this has already been luuvcd \,\ 
actual ex])eriment, jind the fact established that the red inaisli siMlnnriit 
deposited by the tides acts as a natural tertilizei'. ^Farsh owmi^ who 
have thus allowed the; tides to oveitlow their land at iiiteixals haxc 
maintained the original productiveness (^f this kind of siiil, in a laiiic 
measure unimpaired. 

The reclamation of peaty or swampy tnai sites lying along tlie iiiiKiiiiU 
of these with the uplamls, especially as regards the Taiil lamar ui' 
Sackville marsh, is a work which has been in progress for yen,-, with 
highly satisfactory I'esults. 'I'he process consists first in diaiiiitii; ami 
building afioi'/iun.'- and dykes. The tidal wa\e with il^ l)iii(hii nf 
red mud is then admitted, iind a layer from six inches to tuM i>v thivc 
feet deep deposited. The first year iifter reclaiming it, the |if)(|ii(t is 
chielly " broadleaf," b't afterwards as the salt Itecomes wa^lll■ll mit 
of the sediment by atmosjiheric action and the uptterstraia aciatnl, the 
common grasses flourish most luxuriantly. 

This mode of reclaiming the newer portions of the boguv salt inaisln's, 
and improving those impoverished or worn out by contimial ciniipiii;.', 
is now being carefully studied by tin; more intelligent inaisli iamicis, 
and the I'esult will doubtless be the adoption of ptaiiical and 
systematic methods tending to increas(^ their productiveiies-. Tln' 
method just outlined is, so far, considered tin; cheapest and licsi, ami, 
indeed, ntituns's own method of restoring them in a laigc nicastiit' 
to their original condition of fertility. 

The area of salt marsh around the head of the Bay of h'tiiidy. nii tlii> 
New Brunswick side of the provincial boundary, as ascculaiiicd tiMiii a 




i;53 M 

;inS tn Mtl'nl'il 

of fiTtili/iiii; 
lilt cliiiii,ui'> ill 
1^ them tor ii 
le results liave 
I) cut away ii'i- 
it j^atcs tit' the 
•ad a (Icpiisit or 
iiul after sntl'h.i- 
itlid'itl (III I- and 
])ui'iii,u ilif liisl 
,ss, I'liii'lly Sjiiir- 

'," tJI'DW, lilt tlio 

BriiiLj <il' iiifa Idw 
uld an al)UiMlaiit 
r h(!ou |iii)Vf(l liy 
I niarsli scdiini'iit 
iirsli owiiiTs who 
[, intervals have 
soil, ill a lai'L."' 

loil.l^ the julirlidU 

he TaiilraMiar ni' 
s tor year>, with 
ill dtaiiiiiii;' aiiil 
ih it< liur>l>'ii I't 
s to t W.I I'l' ihivc 
i(, the jH'Mdilrt is 
llies Wii-lieil nut 

traia aeraiiil, tin' 

ii_fL;'V salt iiiar-lir's, 
iliiuial (Till 'pill,::, 

t lliaisll eWIRMS, 

(,f jirarliril and 
irti\eni'--. Ihi' 
1 auil he>l, and, 
I lari,'e uieasuiv 

of Fundy, on tiii> 
scorlaiiied t'nini a 


caiet'iil computation, is al)out 31, .'$00 acres. These figures include lie ul of I'.ay of 

ot eourse, the dyked and undyked iiiursiies ; the hitter are, liowevi^-, ]j',."','|;V,'J.|". '^^ 

of small extent, and aie merely fringes of the dyked and cultivated 

portions. Of this whole marsh area, Westmoreland county includes 

:J."),20t) acres, and Albeit, 9,100 acres. The [irincipal localities 

of the marshes referred to art! along the ^lissai|uash, Aulac and Taii- 

traiiiar rivers in Cumht-rland iJasiii, and the Memraiiicook, Petitcodiac 

and ."^hepody Kiver valleys in Sliepody Bay. The largest and most 

iin|ioitaiit of these is the Tantraniar and Aulac marsh ; it is 

also ill the highest state of cultivation. 

Coiisideral)le an.'as of marsh land have been allowed to go to waste 
from the breaking down of dykes, the owners, either from want of 
means, or other causes, permitting tlu^m, for want of repairs, to remain 
ill a condition in which the marshes are subject to continual overllow 
hy I lie tides. These, with the undyked portions mii;ht, with the 
exiiemlituro of some capital, be readily bi'ought under cultivation 
a;;aiii and converted into good arable marsh. 

TIk! I>ay of Fundy marsluis, notwithstanding their high value, are Maislirsimt 
no' utilized to the best advantage. If better methods of culture were !.",'.''.';','!'.'.'..' ''^''*'' 
ailopted, their productiveness might, in large portions, be iloubleil. 
Imiieifect draining, continual cro|)iiing without manure, allowing 
portions of them to grow up with weeds and shrubs, are the 
chief causes tending to tlieii' deterioration. Tiie leading agriculturists 
are, howcNcr. becoming cognizant of the fact that their fertility has 
lessened, and will continue decreasing underexistinginetliods of culturi;. 
IJeiiet' the reclamation of new or uiiculti\ated })ortions, and the 
(l('vi,--ing of means for increasing the fertility of the older dyked marshes. 

The area of salt marsh bordering Xorthumberland Strait has not 
heeii ((Jiiiputed, l)ut it is limited, as alreadj' explained. 

XtituraJ Di/k's. 

Along the estuariiie parts of some of the streams falling into 2s'or- x 
thumherland Strait, notably 81iemogue, liaie Verte, etc., occur certain ■ 
t'lirinations v.'alled natural dykes, or sometimes "shooting dykes." The 
iiiosi noteworthy examples of tlit; kind observed, are on a sti'cam about 
two miles north of Fort I'^Igin, calletl Timber IJrook. Here they rise 
ill dejiiiite ridges from three to five feet above the surface of the marsh 
skiiting the stream, and continue without interruption for distances of 
ii(|uarter or half a mile. Trees from si.x to nine inches in diameter 
arc found growing uj)on them. The largest dykes occur ujioii the 
marshes bordering the estuary, but others are ranged along the base of 
the asi'ending slope of drier ground. 


s, tlleir 

131 M 


Matfriiils. Th(! mjitoriiils of wliiuli these «lyl<es are coiniiosed is ulto^ctlici' 

Aloiij,' a (Ii-y hfiiiU lliey iii-e <,'i"ivelly or sandy, as tlie eas(' iii;is 1,,.^ 
similar to tiu) materials of tiie hank itscflf. On a niaiHh they arc inndf 
up of marsh mud, with wiiatever othei- di'hris occurs in this, Niucp 
jiortions of the (iyi<es were ohstirved to be in pro'ji'ss of eoiist i in! idii. 

How fiiiiufd. A careful study of the^e dyki's will show that they must liase lucn 
formed liy the ice which forms on the estuaries of these st reams c\civ 
winter. This ice wiu'ii ,i,'roundini,' on the marshes or shores liurilciin- 
the estuaries, hy its expansion aiul shove moves portion- ni' iji,. 
material towards the hanks, oi away from thc^ centre of the si nan 
Tliis pi'dcess yoes on year aftei' year and is still in opcr.ii imi, aiii| 
the dykes are thus formed by j^radual and successive im ivincm, nf 
material. Where tlie estuaiy is widest and tlie ice has ihc i^naic^i 
expansion and roum for movement they are highest, and if the IcMulitv 
is faviiur.ahlc a dyke will be found on both sides of the estuai\. In 
certain cases the shove of i<'e-jains fiom the bay miiy liave as^i-lrd in 
their formation. This explanation applies to all the natinal (l\kcs 
ob-erved on Ijoth sides of Northumberland Strait, They are, ihcii'- 
foi'e, of rii-riif ijldi'iid oriijm. 

JIllSSc! Iillirf. 

Mussel niuil, 
will re fouiiil. 

Materials ef. 

.Mussel mud is an estuai'iiu' silt, containiuL;' i;reat (plant it ics nf ii\ >lcr, 
mussel and clam shells, the first usually prcdomiiiatinir, which m((iii> 
in the bons and estuaries ar(aind Northumberland Strait, and a! ihc 
mouth of the iiaie des Chaleurs. C'lUisidcrable (|iiantities an- taken 
up l)y (h'ediiinj; and ajiplied to the land by farmers both mi llic iiiaiii- 
land and on I'lince I'ldwai'd Island; but a much more exti'iisi\c ii-c cl 
it mii:ht 1)(! made than has ye-t l)een altemjited, with bcnclicial ctlnt. 
I'liUcri/.iiiL;' and mixin^ij; it \\ith barn-yard niamire before spnailin^ it 
over the land, causes it to assimilate more icadily with the soil ami iliii< 
reduces it to !i coiulition in which it Ix' more availalilc tei plant 
food. The mussel beds are often (loe]i and furnish an alnnist imx- 
haustibk) supply of this valuable fertili/.ei'. It is especially siiiialili' 
ffir the soils resting upon the Carboniferous rocks, w Inch aic in arl\' 
dev(jid of lime. 

.Mthou.i;h known by the name of "]\Iussel mud "' from the presence 
of the shells of the nmssel {Mijtlhiti rt/ti/is) in tlic deposits, ihc ilc.-iL;- 
nation of Oys/rr vivd would really be more apiilicablc, since the slnlis 
of tlie oystei" (Ostrcd Vinjiniann) predominate. Clam shells (J///" 
«/'fiUrt;'/«) are also found in it. These -are all packed in a paste nt 
mud, s.and, etc., containing other organic debris. The whole (Icposit, 



l:!.". M 



(.'iiso may lir, 

I they arc made 

I tliis. N'cucr 

)t' Ctllisl I \l>! ImII. 

mist lia\ r Imtii 
(■ stream-. r\c'i y 
Ikm'cs liorili'i iiiii 

lortimi- 'it' till' 

ot' tilt' stlralh 
(i]i('r!Uiiiii, aiiil 
(" iiicrciiM'iii • lit' 
lias ihc ulralcsl 
1.1 it' the li.r.ility 
he f'stllaiy. Ill 

liavc aN'-i-liil in 
:> natural dykts 

Tliev arc, ihclr- 

[Ultitics I A nSr-tl'l', 
lltr, whii'li iirrlirs 

rait, and ai tin' 
ilics arc lakca 
ih (111 llic inaiii- 

CXtCllsivf IIM' ct' 

iciiciicial cri''i.-V. 

(lie s]irca(liiiu' it 
tlic siiil ami lliU"^ 

illalilc t.ii I'laiit 

111 almi'^t iii''>'' 

siicfialiy ;-iiitalili.' 

liih aic nculy 

I'dlll lIlC I'll'SClia! 

■jKisits, ilic il>'.-ii.'- 
silicc tlic >lii'l'S 
:]ain shclU (-"/,'/" 
;.d in a l«a-^W "^ 
'he wlu'lc ilciic>it, 

US slii'\wi i)y Sir J. \\'. Dawson, is u fnrniutidn of tlic recent ]icrio(l.* 
Siini'li'^ "t iiiiissel iiiiul from New I'.riiMswiclc and I'rince Ivlwai'd 
Inland, analysed liy Prof. \'\ T. Sluitt, chemist of the Central ilxpcri- 
iiiiiiial I'arm, Ottawa, t show that the; umotiiit of niti'oifcn, the chief 
t,iiili/iiiu iin'fdit ill thoir comiiositioii, is small. Tts chief value for .K/iiciihuiiil 

;iMiii nil iiral |)iir|ioses is owiiiLC t" the (|iiantityof lime it contains. 
The triiili/ing value i.s increased when it is coniiio^led with harn- 
viud iiiaiiure, peat, swamp muck, etc. 

AfiiiH'Ui.rLKAi- Ciiai;a( TKi; ok tiik Kkiuon. 

.\ larue portion of the areas wlm^e siirf.'ice j;eol(ii;y has been dis- 
ci^^cd ill this I'epiirt, is noted for its \aliial)le aLjricult ural resources, 
(.'luiilicilaiid county, Xo\a Scotia, ^\'estnlol•eland county and the coast 
(listiiil of Kent county. New l>runs\viel<, and I'rince Ivlward Island, 
liiiM" Imij; I icon remarkalilir for their excellent farms and the aihanced 
iiirtliiids of cull i\atiiiL; them. 

hi it may he slated, especially as reL;;irds the eastern 
iiiai'iiiiiie pi()\ inces, that those portions of the coast districts on which 
iiiiuiiK' x'diiiieiits Vw tin' the most xaluahle to the a;,'i icullurist. This 
arises from the fact that the m;itcrials of these sediuienls liase uiider- 
j.'iiiic uiraicr coniminutioii in many places from the action of the sea, 
iluiiiji; the post-i;laci;il suhsidence of the land, and also hecause the '. 
ilr|i(i-iN areas a rule, dei per there than uiion the hiuher i^rounds. 
Tiii'iv is likewise a ,i;reater t'omminLjIin!;' of 011,'aiiic matter with tlii'si" 
-nils, ^^l^e(l\■er, the facilities for olitainin;;' manures, such as sea 
urcils, ii.ussel mud, lish ollal, etc., for fertili/.iii!^ the land, are muc'.i 
;;ieati r there th.-m in settlements remole fr<>m llie coast, thus enabling 
till' practical farmer to kee|) the soil in a higher state of cultivation. 

Tlic agricultural cap.ahilities of those portions of New r.runswick 
iiiiludcd in this report were treated in my preliminary reptirt on the 
•airfare (leology of the [)rovince, ami a classilicat ion of the soils and 
•i'h^niU aitemi)te(l. ;■; Tn a suhsecpicnt report, a furtlutr classilicatioii 
"t ilie Mills was made into (h) sedentary, (. < ., those formed //( sifn 
iVniii the disintegration of the underlying roclcs, and (/') transjiorted 
Mills, 111- siu'h as lia\e IxH'n removetl from the rocks to which they heloiig 
I'V ;.'lirial, marine, tluviatile or lacustrine action and deposited in 
vw Inrditics.J^ The latter prevail in tht; coast districts of the 
iii.uitiiiie provinee.s, iind cover large areas adjoining Northumherlaml 

Siilil'li'iiu'iit to 'Jiid cd. Acadian (icdlnLjy, [la^'c 1". 
+l!i|Mrt> nil l'',xin'iiiiii-iital l''aniis for l.S'.K) mid IS'.ll. 
l\mii;;il lirport, (Jciil. Siirv. of ( 'anada, vol. I. (X.S.), l,>>Sr), p. .V_>ia;. Kcpoi-t, Cfol. Siu'v. of Canada, \ol. l\'. (X.S.), 18SS-S'.i, p. 71; n. 




laiii r of 
Iry ioll. 

>t \alnalilc 

tiic .~^oils. 


( 'iiltiiri' iif Hill 
ill N'lW liniiiM- 

Til Ki'iit 
Count s'. 

Ill Wcstllliilt 

land CdiiiilN. 

In Allicrt 

Strait uinl tlio uppt^r jtiiit ot' tli*^ I'.iiy of Fundy. Tin- .'i:;i iriiininii 
cliiiraclrr of (Iius(! portimiH nci'iipinl with Milt nitu'NlicH uikI irirnt saiiil 
foriimtiuns Iwih nli'iMtly Im'cii clt'si'i'llicd on jni;,'»'s i.'U m and i'.'l \\, 

Coimiifiiciii^' ill Now IW'unswick, wts niiiy llrst iiutt- ' • \;iliii. mnl 
eondilioii ot' eultiin' of llic snils in tin* ciKist ilistricts ni, WCi. 

iiioi eland and Alljcrt (.'ountics. 

In Kent cmiiity, tiic narrow liclts cleared alnnij tlie rit:\-\ .iinl ,it 
tlic nidUtlis of rivers, arc, in sonic places, covered with lilnwn siml, 
while in others, swainjts and peat hn^s pre\ail. This is cspicially die 

ease niirtli nf liieliihiictn liiscr. Sinith of I hat, liiiweser, soiih. ;' | 

farniiiiif lands occur on the liordiM's of .Nortlninilierlaiul Str.iii. at Hue- 
toiiche, Corajiiic, etc. I'^xccllcnt -oiN ar(! found aloiij,Mlir i i\rr \allcvs, 
whei'e the slopes ai'c sutlicicrit to allow the diainaL,'e watcis :cmn(;i|,(. 
into the nearest rivers, and where tli(;re is always a urcairidr jiss 
brcadlh of alluvial dcjiosits. i'ut on the llat yi-ounds wliirh lie liciwnii 
the estuaries, notalily l)ctw(>in tlie llichdnicto and llucluui lie, ami 
between the lattiM' and Cocaj,'iic rivei's, etc., there arc also iiiaiiy guud 
farniin,!^ tracis occupied hy a deep, rich, fcrtih^ soil. 

Tiui Isthmus of ('hiiiiiccto contains proliahly the Ih 'iiiin;,' lamls 

in Westmoreland county, althousjh sonic jiarts are mil nihiMs 

dry and stony. At fShenio.mue, Hay N'erte, and on the ( ',i|ii' Toiiikm- 
tine jicniiisula — districts which have l"",!, liecn settleil ilinv arc 
larjL^e clearings and well cultixatcd farms; hut those exliiliiiin;; ilir 
hij{hesl de^frce of culture, and where the occujiants seem tu It in tiic 
licst circuinstances, are around the head of the J>ay of l'"iinil\. < tu 
Westmoreland IJidiii', at Aulac, .Midgic, Sack vi lie and uilur |i|arcs 
around Cumherland liasin, where many of the farmers have a laiinljci' 
of acres of salt marsh to the front of, o?' near their uplands, thiMniKlitiini 
and yield are very much in advance of the cultivated lai]il'< nt any 
part of the count r\'. The same observation a[)plies to llii' au'riuiil- 
tural condition of the districts in the ^lemramcook and I'liilctnliac 
valleys. Large herds of cattle are raised in this part of ^\'estlll(nvlall(l, 
owing to the great yield of hay allorded hy the salt marshes, and iiin.M 
of th(i fanners are in very conifortablt^ circumstances. 

In the eastern part of Albert county, the areas of low lanl almi;' 
the coast are narrow in most places, and form mere schairi's. At 
Harvey and New Horton, however, tlie Lower Carboniferous mek^tln 
not form such a broken country as fui'tlu'r to the north, and licie wo 
find a considerable area of good farming lands. Benclies, or margiiiiil 
strips of excellent soil, skirt the coast of Sliepody Bay and tin' estiiaiy 
of the Petitcodiac River, overlooking the salt marshes. Tin- lattur, 
while of considerable extent on both sides of Sliepody ]Uver anJ else- 




.(■S hllM' ■■! llUllllll'l' 

nliuids, tli'M'.iiiditiuii 
[tivntcil 1:111(1- lit iiiiy 


Ifbuiiit'iMniis pick- do 
orth, and Im'Ii' wi' 
wlics. 1)1' iiiiirt;iiiiil 

wild", aro not iitili/.cd to tlio licst ii(lvaiita<,'»«. Tli<» dykes in many 
iiliiii-; liavo lifcn iiliowt'd to go out of repair, and porlion-i of tlio 
111,11 ~1 lis arc, conscMiucntly, subjuct to overlluw l)y tlio tich's. Too 
lii;i\\ ii'oppiMj,Milso, without tlitiajjpliciition of any fi'r'tili/.inj; inatfi'iiil, 
isimiilln'i' evil. In consccpiunt'c of thi.s, hii'^^c portioiiH of tlicsc marslics 
liiiM' iiirucd into wluit i.s known as lifif iti<ii:i/i, iiwt^t, spon;;y, fetid for- 
iiialiiiii, .nid arc iinin'oductive. lnipro\cd niotliods of culture, suiii as 
li;ivi' liicn inau;,'U rated l)y ti\e nmrsli ownors at Sackville, art' re<|uired. 
Iii'-|iiii' tliese tiiinf^s many of tiie farmers in eastern AUtei't are in good 
c'iicuiiist.'inees, and form int(dli<{cnl, imlustrious eummunities, 

Ciiiidirrland county, Nova Sc(»tia, comprises as iar^! and thriving,' f^ii"''"''liiii'', 
;i li dy I'f farmers as ai'c to l)e f(tund in any part of tiie maritime > • •■ ■ 

l.niviiicrs. The slopt^ facing Northundteiland Strait is w(dl situated 
a< ri'L.'.ii(ls th'ainage, and tlie soil, dcri\-ed as it is mainly from the 
r|i|iiT t'arhoniferous scdimi'iits, is dec]), I'ich and easily cultivated. 
Ill ihc sitilnnents along the coast there are many excellent farms in a 
liiiih sialic of cultivation. 

At Amherst, Xappan, and in the area drained hy the ^laccan Itiver, 
^ivi'iul uood agricultural tracts border the salt marshes, and upon the 
-iM|ii' ihcrc are tine, loamy, arable soils. Tlu; Uranch l"].\perinu;ntal 
I'arii: at Xappan, under charge of d'' i'daii', is an example. The 
iiii'iliiid- (if culture emi)loyed there, sliow wli ii can be done on the farms 
<'i tlir maritime jirovinces, and tlie kinds of crops that thrive best. 

I'linii I lie higher grounds of Kent, Westmoreland and Albert counties, SoiU of tin' 
New lirunswick, and Cumljerland county, Nova Scotia, we meet with I'^'l'"'"' l"'i- 

' _ •' \ ' tiolis (if the 

dilTcifiil soils, and in many cases poorer farms, and consinpiently less rc^cion. 
lii'.vaiiccd methods of cultivating them. Yet in a numl,er of places in 
tLircuion the uj)lands really form excelh'iit soil, and where the drainage 
!-:'(i(id. lliey are not inferior to that of the coast districts. Upon the 
Middle Carboniferous of Kent and poi'tions of Westmoreland counties, 
ii'Aevcr, the suifactMs Hat and the drainage dt^ficient ; hence tin.' soils 
arc cdld, boggy, and in many places covered with a stratum of wliite 
"i;.'iay Ideached sand, under a veneering of vegetable growth. I'pon 
til" idlliiig surfaces, however, there are, as already stated, fair arable 
-"il?, tlioiigh (lelicient in lime. Along the Richibucto, Buctouche and 
' ii'.;!!!' rivcis, at St. Anthony settlement, in Kent ; and at Irishtown 
Mid dtliei' places in Westmoreland, the agricultural conditions last 
f't'iTcd td are exemplitied. 

Ill Cumberland Ct)unty, Nova Scotia, above the limits of the post- 
-II iid suli^idence, we meet with soils and rocks differing somewhat from 
'i'«('ot the .Middle Carboniferous just described. Here the prevailing 
^iiriiKy beds are reddish in colour, being derived either from the Upper 

138 M 

xi;\v nia'NswicK, nova hcotia and v. k. island. 

I'riiif.' I 
uur.l [-1 



I'. K. 1. 

IS 111 


or Lower Carboniferous sediments, or from botli. Tlie soils iuc, thfrc- 
forc, lii;liter, jukI fis a rule, more porous and easily culti\atc(l. 'I'li,. 
surface is, generally speaking, rolling, and conse(|uently the iliaiiume 
is hetter. On these uplaiuls there are many tracts of good land wiih 
excellent farms upon tliem, especially on the slope l)etween the t dlu- 
([uid .Mountains aiid Nortlmniberland Strait. Certain iindr.iined nmhIv 
tracts are l)arren and remain uncleared. Collie of the hiiilier ;,'inuii(|s 
are occupied with bouldei'-clay, but these \vh(;n well drained form lich 
heavy soils. Jlere, as in New llrunswick, there is a deliciencv of linn' 
ill the soil, except where the Lower Carboniferous limestones piwail, 
and they all seem to ill! largely benetiteil by plentiful a]iplicatii>ii> (,t' 
this feitilizing niatei'ial, as well as by mussel mud and gypsiiin. 

Prince Edward Island, which is probably tlu^ best agricultuial [,ur- 
tioi! of th(! maritime pr(jvinces, taken as a whole, contains less wa^te 
land ill ]iro}i<irtion to its area than (Uther Nova Scotia or New llriins- 
wick. The soil is derived almost \\!iolly from the disintegraieil I'lipir 
or I'enno-Carboniferous sandstones and Triassic lieds which or(ii|r\ the 
island, and is therefore largely indigenous. On the higher groiimls ii 
consists mainly of rotten rock hi s!/ii with a veneering of stiaiiliiil 
material due to the atmospheric ami lluviatileageiu ies which liaveafh'ri- 
ed them : while along tlie coast, boulder-olay, in ])la<'es ca|i]i. d wiih 
marine (h'ptisits, geiier.dly pre\ails. it is thecefore, usually light, jmrdiis, 
easily cultivated, and well adajitefl to the production of oat^ iml 
root, crojm. i.,ike the soils rcjstmg ujion the Cailioiiit'eroui mrk- 
of New iirunswick and No\a Scotia, it is delicient in lime. Tlie 
farmers of this island fully recogiii/,e thisdeliciency, however, and have 
lieen utilizing the e.\tensi\(! deposits of mussel mud which lie in ilie 
harbours and creeks. C(M'tain localities where good farms wereoiiM.iMMl 
mighi be particularized, but, in gemu'al, it maybe staled that tiiepail 
of I'i'ince Ivlward Island now in the highest state of culture i>i|iat 
.lying near Kichnxinil and Hillsborr)Ugh bays, especially aloiii,' luiih the 
!!o"tlreast and south-west coasts, '{"he higher central jiart dei- nut 
contain so much good ai'able land, nor do the districts iiortii i\i' llidi- 
moiid I'ay and east of I lilisbonuigh r>ay, though tliric aiv niaiiy 
excellent farming tracts in these also. 

The agricultural character of I'rince Ivlward Island has linii ilis- 
cussed by Sir .1, W. Dawson, ••= who speaks of its fertile soil a- a sdinre 
of great wealth to tiie inliabitants. In this connection, liowi\ej, the 
gr< iit facilities for obtaining fertilizers have to be borne in miml. In 
nearly every bay and estuary, extensive deposits of mussel innd ucriir. 

•■ The (icdloKiciU Struotiiri' ami .Miner;(l Kesinirccs of I'riiici' Ivluanl 1-1. umI. I'')- 
Sir ,1. W. DawsiMi anil l)r. 15. .1. Haniii^'tnii, 1S71. 


139 M 

hiailtliiii'ii totliis viiluablo fortiliziiii,' material, poat, inarsli atul swamp 
iiiikk, sciiNvecds, tisli ollal, etc., are cxteiisivoly employed. Wlieii 
jiiMiiMiiMistefl with the mussel mud a rich manure is produced, which 
i.|,.iiliri' he plouglied under and used foi- root crops or utilized as a 
;,i|i(hv>-ini,' on tiie land. The fertilizers mentioned exist in almost 
i,;,,xliaii>i.ilile quantities on Prince Edward Island, and are accessilile 
•niifiU'ly every farmer. 


,. Ill iniiHl 

T!i.' idicsts of the re,i,'ion included in sheets No. 2, 4 N.W. and I'm'tsts. 
> W. |iiv-,cnt some features wortiiy of consideration as rei^ards the 
';„r:i'i ilistriluition of the dill'erent kinds of trees which grow therein. 
I:i the .iri'.i Itoi'dcring Northumberland Strait, the sylvan growth is of 
iiiiixt'd cliaractcr.with a pre(lominanc(! of the coniferic. 'I'he indigenous SiKciis nf 
•;,,-iit' eciiiiDiiiic innioi'tance are ])ine ( Piann Sfrafnis, I', rusi iiii.''(i and "''''■■'• 
. . I'liiihi'imi ), spruce ( l''i<''H <illiii, I', nii/ni and /'. iiii/rK \ar. nilini), 
::i;.!A('<s htd.ftiiii'K ), \\v\n\i.K'\<. { T.iiKjit, C(tiii"l'(ixi< ), L'vdar ( T/im/n nr- 
',iA(/<.vj. haemal ack ( Larir Auierica ini ).;\.nd the deciduous trees, liiich 
/; '.ilti !■ ii/ii. 11. (iUki \ar. /lo/m/ijii/id, 11. jin jiiiriirrit and 11. Uttiti), maple 
.\ :•• Pi inixjih'ii II icii III. A. siirclin ri nil 111^ A. rnliriim and .1. .■</ii''<(fii in ), 
l'\hr( l'ii/i<i^'"< /n iiui/oli/i .i^ I'.i/rani/i('i'iift(/ii and I'.linlsKiuij'rrn)., heecli 
.'././«v h i-riiii'i III II j, i\fih ( Fra.i'iiiiiK Anurii-miiiri and /■'. jmhrsi'i ns), elm 
'' .,iii!< AiiirrirdiiiiK ), otik ((Jiiirnis rii/irii). etc. ISesides these there 
;;•;'. aril iv ot' native shruhs, some of which, in moie soutli(>rn latitudes, 
.ii'.v tu the size of trees, hut here.owingtothe s(>vere climate of tin; coasts, 
•■■"iiii"' dwarfed. l']\('n the lai'ger tret^s, strictly indigenous to the 
■ii'iy. ;iie t'l'und, on approaciiing th(> coast, to exhibit striking diifer- 
■^i./'^ainl peculiarities, the mure not iceable of which are the prevalence 
: i.r r(iiiit'('i:e on the lower grounds, o\er which winds and fogs from 
■ i»i;iii |i,iss without obstruction, and secondly their shorter and more 
-: •uliii^ ,111(1 stunted size. The pi'evalence of small Ijlack spruce, 
: ..nil k. redai'. whit(! l>ircli and the various shrubs of the country 
;';'i the region bordering Northumberland Strait is a characteristic 
: iiiiv. These sylvan forms, together with the occurrence of hea\y 
! i' liii-s upon th(! low grounds of the Carboniferous area, .show that fi,,,,..,,.,,.,. 
' "I'taiii /niu^ or licit Ixirdei'ing tlie sea is, to some extent, unfavour- near the Lua.-it.'.^ 
'.'■''I the development of the large forest trees. Tn siieltered spots, 
• '*• ir. ,is, for example, upon tli(! CobcMpiid INfountains ami the 
'}tilliiie jilateau of southern Ntnv jlrunswick, the hill langes ailbrd 
[i ti'.ti.iii tVoni tlu> winds and cool vapours coming from the ocean, 
*"'l ii liU'ue L,'rowth of both coniferous and hardwood trees is found. 

140 M 



Ca\is(>s (if 

i ! 

Proceeding inward from the coast, a much greater diversity 
in the rlistribution of the forest trees is found. This distri- 
bution is evidently affected by several causes, (1) by tlic elev.itidn. 
or rather by the protection afforded by ridges and niuuntiiins tVniii 
bleak winds and storms and from the sea air of the coast distriets 

(2) by the aridity or wetness of the soil, viz., its condition as to draina^'e 

(3) by the physical character of the soil, ^•iz., whether clayey. i;ravellv 
sandy or loamy, and (4) by the mineral composition, in dtlirr wcids 
the character of the undei'lying rock-formation, whether i-alrarecjus, 
silicious or otherwise. 

Effects (if soil The relation between the soil, or the rock-formations, and the vcLje- 

(11 rock fdriiia- , , , .^ . . ^, i- , ■ , 

tiims (Ml f(prest t'il)le growth upon it, is in nortliern climates, sucli as tlu,' i.iariiiine 

gruutli. pi-ovinces of Canada, difficult, if not impossible t(j trace ; nescrthcless 

it is observ(Ml that certain geological formations are more favouralile 

to the production of certain kinds of trees than others. C'alcareims 

soils, for example, nourish the heaviest growth of botli liardwdiK^ ukI 

conif(;rs. In New Brunswick, as indeed, in all glaeiate(l ((luntrics 

however, we cannot determine the exact limits of tiie areas nt'thi trnvvt 

growth allected by the geological formations. On the liills ami lid^is 

underlain by limestones, we meet with maple and birch groves, iniermixeil 

occasionally with spruce. The Cambro-h!ilurian and the old crystaliiiu' 

belts of rocks traversing the province from the Uaie dcs Ciialems td ti;i' 

Chiputnecticook Lakes, .seem also to mark a boundary in llie t'dit>t 

distribution. North of this lies the great area of Silurian liinestdiies, 

south of it the Carbonifc^njus sandstones. Owing to the larger extent 

of country which tlu.'se formations occupy, the soil noccssaiily hears a 

closer relation to the underlying roek, and is less intcrinixed villi 

extra-limital drift ; conse(juenlly the vegetation and t'dic^t uidwih 

upon these areas ought to show the effect of each partieiilar kind ni 

soil ujion the llora of the country. Have these districts aii\ (leculiar 

forms in their floral productions ? 

Upon Silurian Oi^ the Silurian limestones there is observable a paucity of iiieaeemw 
limestones. ,. i ■ i i i i i i • i 

plants, or scrub pine and black spruce, and an almost entire aoseiice 

of hemlock, all of which are abundant on the Carboniferous sanilstdiies, 

the latter tree, indeed, reachitig fuller development on tliesea^ niiards 

size and number than elsewhere in the province. \Vliite sjuiu '■, lir, 

white pine, the paper birch, and beech appear also to be morcaliunilant 

ujion the Carboniferous area, though common also upon the Siluiiaiuip 

lands. l>ut the striking features of the forests upon tlie latii'r aiv llie 

groves and ridges of birch and maple occuring in almost e\ery I'ait. 

These are seldom met with on the sandstones except wIumv bower 

Carboniferous limestones prevail. 



Ul M 


f^rofitcr (livci'sity 
1(1. Tliis ilistii- 
by tlio clcvatiiiii, 
L(l mountains tVuin 
the coast (lisiricis, 
:ioii us to (li'ainaL!(', 
n- cliiycy, :;ra\cllv, 
on, in otlicr wunls 
hetlier calcarudiis, 

ons, iinil t!u' vr^'c- 

1 iis tlie i.iariliiiie 

\ice ; ncMTtlu'lrss 

e iiion; t'aNouralilc 

ithcrs. Calwii'iMius 

otli hardwoods uiul 

:luciati'(l i-ountrii-:, 

u areas ol' tlir t'cii<'>t 

tlie hills and ri(li;i-; 

I gi'oves, intiM'Uiixctl 

the old crysialliiK' 

di's Cii;d('iii> til ll.i' 

ndary in tlic fnrot 

■>iliiri!in liinostmirs, 

) till' laiLli'i' fxtriit 

necessarily hears a 

s intermixed widi 

ind forest 'jiyn\\\\\ 

lartieuhii' kind nt' 

tricts aii\ lirruliar 

uieity of nii'Mrrnu-i 
ist entire ah-i'iici' 
iferiius sandstnnes, 
on thesr as rruaiiU 
White s|ilUiv, lir, 
( he niuivaliundaiit 
M,M tlieSihuiiuup- 
the Lit lei' are tin' 
ihnost .'xeiy I'art. 
xeopt wlierr Lowi-'i' 

The eoinparative abundance of ericaceous phints on the Carbonifer- Upon Carbo- 
uu- areas is doubtless due, in some measure, to the flat surface and sto'n'i!,""' **"*" 
^„iisei|Uint imperfect drainage, resulting in the formation of swamps. 
Wilt hou's, etc., where these forms of vegetation find a congenial 
iiiilntat. lUit the diilerence in the sylvan growth occupying the drier 
;iftimds of the two regions in question is not explicable unless we 
diiiit tliat the geological formation has an influence upon it. On the 
simlstune area, the hendock and scrub pine are most abundant trees 
cmiiiiared with their distribution upon the Silurian uplands. JUack 
iiiph, hi'eeli, and black spruce also appear to be more common and 
ai.'iT. These facts regarfling distribution lead to the inference that 
tlie'-'iavelly, silicious soil overlying the sandstones is more favoui'able 
til the .<;rowth of these ti'ees, or it may be that the limestones are un- 
favoui'ahle, or, perhaps, both causes operate. 

In regard to the hendock {Tsii;/<i, ('anitifrnsl.i) it was pointed out in Hemlnck. 
a iiii'\iiius roj>ort* that the distribution of this tree is peculiarly 
le-tiiiteil from some cause or causes. Nearly all hemlock trees are 
tmiml to have at tained their full gi'owth. Young or growing trees were 
(I'lis.i'M'd iiiily in a few localities, especially along Nashwaak and Little 
Nnitliwi'st Miramiclii rivers. In areas where it has been destroyed it 
(ins Mill l;i'ow again like spruce, fir, cedar, hacmatack, etc. These facts 
iiitlitate that tlu* existence of the hemlock tree in this I'egion is on the 
wiiic, All the other forest trees will grow up and replenish the i'egion 
>:ii' iiiiiie i'Ni'(^lit wheie it has been overrun b}- ilres. Is the cause of 
tli<>(irL'adenee of the hendock elimatoiogical, i.e., due to recent changes 
iiitlii'inran annual temperature, rainfall, etc.; or to the destruction 
lit the -iirroiinding forests? No satisfactory answer can be given to 


The lilark spruce, which is a tree of the greatest economic value, r.lafk sinuci'. 
l^•^^ not now seem to be so thriving and vigoi'ous as its congener, 
tliMvliite spruce ; and the cvi\\\,Y (Thmja orrldrn/d/ls), though common Cnlar. 
inN'i'w Unuiswiek in all moist low grounds, and also met with not 
iiiioiiiminnly in Prince Ivlward Island, is a tree also restricteil in its 
Kiir.'i', on Hiring only very sparingly, if at all, in the peninsula of Nova 

Till' fiiiists in New IJrunswick, and, indeed, throughout the Can- Di'-tniition nf 
aili:iii iiiaiitiine pi'o\ inces, are undergoing rajiid destruction. When 
till' 1,1 lya lists landed at the mouth of tiie St. John Kiver on the ISth 
of May, I7S."), the New I'.runswick forest stood almost untouched in all 
iiqristine grandeur, now the original growth has been largely cut 

'IH-it.f I'rotn'i'ss, Cfol. .Surv. Can., 1S,'(2-S:<-.><1. Part la;. 


142 M 


awjiy, tliecoiiifffii', t'speciiilly, liiiviiii;- sull'ered depletion in aliiKj.-i fvciv 
accessiliK; locality. Only in some jiurts ot' the region drainnl In- tl;,- 
liestigouclie, and inotlier reinnte places, does the original t'nicst ;.'inHt!i 
still remain intaet. The old sturdy jiines, moiiarehs nt' ihc Xih 
lirunNwiek' forest, were the lirst to suflei'. in the day-^ of iiioinMilum- 

Mow hnnvlit l>L'rinif o|)erations, thes(^ \V(M'e felled and otie or t\V(j pieecs nf suii.uv 

"'"^"'- tindjer mad(! fi'om each trunlc — the i-emainder of the t ice was lift in 

rot. 'I'liese pini'S ar(Mdl gone, 'ilie sprnee lias next iiecn at lacked, , mil 
sinee the inauguration of the modern steam saw-mill, the niaiiiifaiiinf 
and shipments of spr'uee deals to th(! ItriLish market, ha\r tiii,'('tlici' In'- 
come a iari;e and iminntant- industry. The ]ii'oseeiition ot i!ii-;liu»i. 
ness has, iiowexcr, l)roui;ht al)out a rapid demolition ot' tlir .-ihuiv 
forests throu,!.;hout the province. fn some of tiiese dcplricil aivusi/,, 
where the lar;j;iM' trees hasc been cut away, a younu'er urow i!i is lakiii;' 
its [)lace, howe\ei', and as the white spiaict? i^rows rapidlw llii' iii'i;;iii;il 
forest growth nii,!;ht 1)0 repKnushed in tliis way, if lires diij nut mvi 
I'un the country. Lundiermen state tliat unless too lira\\ a ciiitiiiL.'i- 
made, the same tract can lie re-cut for spiauu^ logs e\-erv trii nr t«rl\,' 
y(!ars, owing to the rapidity of tlie growth of the wjiiir ,s|iiiii;i'. 

Dcstructinii I'f The hemlock tree is now lieing suliiected to dcsl nut i\c pinrcsscs al-n, 
and is very likely at no distant date to be altogellier I'Mcniiiiiatcil. 
AN'ithin the last tw(>nty years, imjiortant industries have sprnii:; ii]i in 
dill'ereiit parts of New llrunswick hasi'd upon tin' iiseof ihr Imiilii-k 
liark for taiiniin:. and lai'ge ipiantities of tanning e.\i rail have linn 
pi'ejiai'cd for export. To obtain the necessary supply of lii'inluok liail; 
to carry on this bu-iness, the trees arc; cut down and the liark |i(rlr| 
oil', the trunk and branches often being left, lying in the wneiN. Niai 
settlements, some of 1 hese t ruiiks are utili/.ed in t he niaiuitactiiii' nf 
scantling, boai'ds, etc, and hemlock timliei' is <'iiiiiiii)iily ii-ni 

for the building of \\ den bridges, wharfs and break v. iins, as it 

is foinid, when plaei'd under water, to l)e shuv in lol I iiii:'. biil iai-" 
numbers of thc-e felled trees are not used in any way, anil al'lclM liini', 
when their branches becouu! dry, they serve as fuel for t'nivsi tiii-. 
The destriu-tion of this tree from tin; last ciuse is teiifnld iiivai' 
than from all others condiined. 

Of the cellar. .\ n extensi\'e industry has within the last decade arisen in llie laati- 1 

tone proNinces from the uses for which cedar is rci|uir<il. I'ir\iiiih lol 
tliat date the trunks of th(> cedar trees were used only, to a liniitdli'Mriit,] 
for foundations to buildings, foi- telegraph j)oles, feneini; ami iliej 
manufacture of shingles. Hut within the period nu'utiniiiil reilar iiisj 
come greatly into use for railway ties and fence posts, ami the sliiiuiej 
industry lias also ex}ianded to enormous dimensions, llieiit;li i' "'^1 


143 M 

,lv of li>'iiilock I'lu'; 

in tlir niiiiiut:u'tiin' 

III UU'lltlnlH' 

latt'ilv siiircrccl a rcvoi'se owiiii,' to over-production. Tlic |)riiicii)al 
iii.iikit. for ctHliir wooil is in the United States. 

'1 h'' impi'tus ifiven to the cuttinj^ iind export of cedar in New 
|liun--\\ ilk is also leadini; to the exiiaiisti(jn of tliis tive, and already 
wlioli' ii\er basins have i)eeonie well nii;li depleted of eedars. .\s it is 
a trie wliicli grows very slowly, thei'c^ will, in all jnoliahility, Ke a 
siMiiiiy of cedar in the maritime pro\inees in less than a iiuarler of a 
ci'iiiiirv, if the present methods are eontinuod. 

IVniii tlu! foregoing statement of facts, il will h,' seen that Ncry . 

i;riai inroads aie now heing made on the original forest growth of tlu^ ' 

iiiaiiiiiiie provinces. The destruction or depletion hy legiiimate means, 

tliil i^. from the ordinary lumbering operations of the eomitrv i.s, 

liii\\r\er, not, e\haiisti\(', but such as could, doubtless, be eheeked or 

ii'^iilaii'd with a view of constM'xiiig the forest. That going on 

eviiv vear ivvnx forest tires is \ast in jiroportion and fai-reachiiig 

ill it-- I'll'eels. No regulation seems at present comjietent to cont rol this 

iviL Siiiee I he great .M iramiehi tire of the 7t h of < )ctolier. I f^-~K forest 

ciuill.igi .'it ions have been of eoiistant and ;ilmost annual oreurrence. 

The ilrv, gravelly aiul saiiily areas, underlain by Carboniferous and 

^iiinii il' loi'ks, ha\(' sufVered most. Along the Southwest Miramichi 

lli\ir;iiHl its tributaries, a large ]iortioii of th(> district occupied Ijy 

C:ii-!Miiiifei'ous roeks has been overrun by iires, part of it in iSl'.'), at 

;i.i' liiiii' (if the great tire aboNci uuMitioiu'd, and part of it at a subse- 

[Ui'iii (Lite. ^V seeoud growth of trees now covers soiui? portions of 

'lirsr .ii'ra^, but this also has, in ctu'tain sections, been destroyed by 

ivrriii Iires. Largt> portions of the country lying between the Soiith- 

VL'-t .Miramichi and Salmon ri\ers, and the head of the liichibucto 

Ivivrr lia\e likewis(> been devastateil in this way. 

,\l(inu the IntiM'colouial railway between .MoiuMon aiul I'athtirst, 
i'lii'r-i tires oct'Ur in the woods on both sides of the line at irregular 
iiitci'\als ,'dmost e\ery sunnner, and have tiius destroyed t he I iiiilier 
HViT large areas. \\'hi-u tiiis railway was eonstructed about twenty lixc 
yt'Hr-^ago. it passed through virgm forest for two hundred miles of the 
■UM Ininihi'd ami twenty-two bet ween Moncton and I'iathurst. The 
"lii'iiing of new settlements since that date, the lumbering operations 
oiii'i'iiil oil along both sides of the route, and the cutting down of the 
'iicniliirk for tan-bark, etc., have brought about nearly a total demolition 
lit the original forest adjai'cnt to the I'ailway. Aftei' every dry season 
iiitre is a tire, originating no oiu^ s(>ems to know how, and finv seem to 
'iire, if not pei'.sonally alVecteil by it. It must be confessed, however, 
ihiit fanners in clearing uj) lusw laiul, woodsmen, huntei's, and fishermen 
ii'o 111 it careful enough in preventing the spread of lire. The forest is 

\riMs iivi-r 
■nil li\' tirr.' 

lU M 


Rate (if the 
fjniwtli ill tlir 


imn iiiL'i's. 

largely coniferous, therefore in dry weather especially conihustililc 

and when fanned by a breeze any fire soon spreads beyond coiitrdl.^: 

Difficulties of ^Q protection has vet been exercised to yiiard against tlicw 

protectnif,' tlif ,,.,.„,, , ? 

fdiests from pubhc calamities further than the enactment of a statute, iiroliibit- 

""*■ ing under a penalty, the setting of fires at certain seasons uf tin- 

year; but the expense of properly enforcing this would be licyonil 
the means of the country. Carelessness prevails, therefore, on all 
sides, and no one takes much interest in the preservation nt thi' 
forests from a national point of view, or unless it is of some diivct 
benefit to himself. Indeed, it is practically impossible to devise 
methods of preserving them, owing to the lack of public interest in tin' 
matter, and it .s(!ems not at all unlikely that tiie existing coiuliiioii (if 
things will continue until they are wholly destroyed. Then, and not 
till then, will the jioople begin to realize their value. 

The rate at which a tree grows in the forests of the eastern ni;u itinn' 
provinces, is a question sometimes discussed by practical lunibcnntii in 
view of forest conservation. Since the cutting down of trees i.icdin- 
mercial value below a minimum size or girth is proiiibited liv law, it 
follows, that if they are jirotected till they attain the standaid si/i, 
this periodical replenishment might be the means of preser\ in;: tliciu 
from total d(,'st ruction, excepting, of course, the ravages of toresi Hifs. 
The (|uestion then arises, how long does it take a ti-ee sucli as, I'm' 
examjile, the lilack or M-hitt! spruce, tir the whit(^ pi'i'", to attain a 
certain size ; and, having attained a size of say fiftei-n inches in diaiiictii 
above the roots in a given iiumljer of years, how long would it talv' it 
then to reach a diameter of say twenty or twenty-four inches, in dtluT 
words what is the annual growth of our forest trees in Muitli and at 
maturity? No observations have yet been made wliieli enalilc us to 
giveadefinite answer tothese questions. There is, however, one locality 
in New Iji'uiiswick, that of the IMiramichi tiro of ISl'."), wliicli, tVoin tlic 
fact that it is now covered with a young forest grown upsince tli u ilatc, 
affords a criterion of tree growth upon a given geoldgical forniatinn, 
viz., the Carboniferous sandstones. lUit it does not show what the 
rate is when trees airi\e at a diameter of fifteen inches and uiiwaiil.-;. 
It affords data, however, showing the compar itive rate of uiowth ui 
(iniwtli and fliHerent sjiecies during the p(;riod mentioned. For' exaiiipii', imi'lar 

size of some (/'opiihtti trcninloldi'n) was found with a <'itth of fiftv-ono inches ahove 

s|iccics foiiml ^ ' _ ' _ ; , . ■ 

upon tlie an ii the I'oots ; white spruce {/'irrd nllxi), fifty-four inches; blink s|inicc 

luichi tile. (^'' '"//'''*)» forty-eight inches; fir (.li/cv /la/scutiia), forty incli( - : ml 

* Ft would scciii that this rcj,d(iii must have been sulijcct to forest tiics lufun' the 
scttlciiieiit of the country liy the white man, if we may judge liy the name uf tile 
l)i-iiici|ial river draining it— Kichilmcto— which in the Micmac mcaii> •• li^ r -f tic. 



U5 M 

Uy combust 11 )lc, 
beyond cimlidl.^^ 
d against tlicsc 
statute, iiv(ilill)it- 
n seusdiis ot' the 
would be lnyiiiid 
thorct'oi't', till nil 
jservatioiv ut tin- 
is of some direut 
iossii)le til dtvisf 
)Uu interest in tlii' 
istin.y condition ut' 
\. Tlieii, and not 

.e eastern niaiitimo 
tieal liiiidii'niu'n in 
wii ot' trei'^ I't' i-'"iii- 
uhibited by law, it 

tbc stJindiud si/c, 
of im-serviiiLi' tln'iii 
,-ages of fiavsi lii>'^. 

a tree sudi as, I'nv 
e pine, tn attain a 
ninebes in diiuurti'r 

pine (P'liiiis rfisinnsn,) fifty-two inches ; paper birch {TiituJa /ia/)i/rij'''ra) 
forty fiiur inches; sugar iiiaph' (Ac'-r .■^iici'/inrlinini), thirty-live inelies ; 
swiiinp maple (^1. rnhntiii), twenty-four inches ; bc^ech [ludjnx Jrmiiii- 
»'(/), twenty-four inches; hacmatack (Lnri.r ^l//"'?v'cvo/«), tliirtyoiie 
indies, etc. As sonn; geological formations and soils are iiiort! favotir- 
alile to tree growth than others, it follows that the rate indicated here 
is a local and not a general one, — on limestone areas it is doubtless, 
liii;liei', on swampy coastal areas less. The hemlock, black ,iiid 
vellow birch and cedar have not grown again since the .Mir.unichi tii'c. 

Fiom the foregoing facts, it will be seen that the general rate of tree slow iiite of 
(.'lowth in New Brunswick is by no means rapid, and that it takes ti''''K''"\\'di- 
even the most healthy and vigorous tree three-ipiarters of a century, 
luulrr the favourable conditions, to attiiin a size renderiiii,' it of 
coiiunercial value. Tlie slow growing trees, such as black spruce, 
luu'iiiatack, maple, birch, etc., oi course take longer. It has already 
liocn slated that lumbermen rejiort bcung able to re-cut c(>itaiii tracts 
of the forest every ten or twelve years and get a new crop of logs oft 
dii'iii. 'J'liis method of re-cutting the timber lands of New Urnnswick I'mvst con- 

|cviiHlically secuns, if properly guai'ded, to ail'ord a I'easonabie solution 
it the problem of forest conservation. I'or, if regulations j)rohibiting 
tlio cutting aiul sale of certain timber tives below a given si/.e can be 
■ iifdrccd, they might,'in this way, become of economic \alue periodically, 
vitliiiut the deijletion and entir(; destruction of the forests iis at pre- 




bi the sujierlicial deposits of the region embraced in sheets Xo. 2, Mimials ,^IWl 

lll.-lti-l-i;ll^ 111' 

Mi, Xo. 1, N.W., and Xo. '), S.W. of the New l>runswick maps, tli(> 
i'lliiwiiig minerals and materials of (!coiiomic \alne ha\'e been found, 
nearly all of whii'li were brieily reported in the .Sunnnary llejujrts of 
b',10, ISIU, 1892 and IS'.);?. These materials may be thus enumerated: 

-IVat, iiog-inangaiu'se, bog-iron ore, infusorial earth (tripolite), biick- 

■:ays. etc. 
Peal is developed in extensive bogs or moors on the coast of Xew '''at. 

lli'im>wick, bordering Nortliund)erland Strait, and on the north-east 

*ie(if 1'rince Ivlward Island. These moors have been described in 


■lail (111 

pages 117 1 22 M, 


I their mode of oriijiii and ecoiininic 

'>« ill various arts and indtistries noted. It is evident that the value 
and iise> t)f peat, and moss litter, are increasing, ■.iuil that the product 
otthc hogs is likely to come into e.xtensise re([uisitiein as a cleansing, 
'i""luri/ingand packing material. 


Bug-man- Bog-niaiigJincsp oceiiiH in an oxtonsive deposit in'iir Dawson settle- 

mont, AllxM't county, N.l!., on a branch of NV'eldon I'leck, covcriii;' 
an area of about twcnty-tivo acres. In the centre it was found to Ijo 
twenty-six feet deep, tiiinning out towards the margin of tiie ImiI. 'flic 
mineral is a loose, aniorplious mass, which can l)e readily slhucHnl 
without the aid of a pick, and contains njore or less iron pyrites dis 
seminated in stn^aks and layers, tiiougli large portions of the deposit 
have merely a trace. This bed of bog-manganese lies i!i a valley at the 
northern base of a inll, and its accumulation at this particular loiiility 
appears to be dut! to springs. These springs are still trickling; ddwii 
the hill-side, and doubtless the process of producing bog-mang.uiuse is 
still going on. 

A branch of the Albert railway has been opened up to tiiis ininc, 
and kilns for drying the material were filso erected. Operations hiid, 
however, ceased at the time of my visit (autunni of 1891) pen^lill^' the 
completion of the analyses and tests of this product. Indieatinns uf 
other and similar deposits of bog-manganese further west, nhout the 
liead of the branch of Weldon Creek have been reported. 

Another bed of amorphous bog-manganose occurs near Ihuvey, in 
the same county, but it has not yet been opened up. 
Hog-inm ore. Bog-iron ore (limonite) in beds of considerable extent lias Imii,' 
been known to exist at Maugerville, Sunbury county, N. !!. X brief 
description of the dej»osits is given in my report on the surface geology of 
Western New JJrunswick.* 

Another deposit of this mineral, t lie ore being of the natui'e of (jihie, 
occurs in the banks of the Xorthwest JMiramichi River aliove Chaplin 
Island and was referred to in a previous re[)ort.t This deposit was 
re-examined, as it was reported that operations for the prepara- 
tion of mineral paint from the material were about to be com- 
menced. The ochre has been used for many years locally as a paint 
and seems to answer the purpose well, Whether it oceuis in suliici- 
ent (juantity to warrant the in\estment of capital is another iiuestion. 
It .seems to be in process of formation still and is l)eing(le[iosiie,lenihi' 
rock surfaces along the bank, through t he agency of springs ami of water 
trickling out at the contact of the superficial deposits and undei'lying 
rocks. Oozing out in this way, it collects in tlu^ crevices of the I'uek-; 
in considerable (piantities in certain places. Swamps and small peat 
bogs lie behind, ami it would appear that it is tiie decaying' orgunK' 
matter from these which yields acids tluat aid in producing tin's me. 

*Rei)ort of Progioss, (ieol. Surv. Can., 1882-83-84, I'art (a;. 
lAunual Keijort, Uuol. .Sniv. Can., vol. 111. (N.S.), 1887-88. 



147 M 

(l.H.avin- orgiuiio 


r.iii.'-iron ore was also 1'mincl on tlin south side of I'uctouche hfirlwur, 
ill Kfiit County, Xow IJrunswick, f)cc'ui>yin<j; an arciiof tVoni iivo to ten 
iicips. In several openings which were made tlu^ deposit sliowed a 
tliiiliiies.s of twelve or llfteen ineiies, and is fi'oni one to three feet helow 
the surface of the gi'onnd. 

To tiie south of llichilnicto Head, another deposit of this material 
wd-; observed. Bog-ii-on ore was also noticed by Mr. Wilson on the 
south ide of Kouchibouguac Uiver, near the mouth, and in several 
otluT places. 

A noteworthy feature of these bog-iron ores is that they seem to be 
iiioiv abundant in the area of Carboniferous rocks than elsewhere. 

Infusorial earth, or tripolite, in a thick bed, covers a portion of the 
bottom of l'\tlly Lake, along the Intercolonial railway, in the Cobe- 
i|ui(l M(uintains, Xova Scotia. This lake is about 000 feet above sea 
Itnil, and appf'ars to be rock-rinuned. Tripolite is also found at 
Fountain I^ake and Sutherland's Lake further west in the Cobequids.* 
At tiic two fiist-mentioned lakes, efforts have been made to work the 
intusdiial earth to some extent for use as a jiolishing material, and as 
a non-i'onduflor of heat in covering for cylinders, etc. 

biick clay occurs in every part of the district, and usually with the 15riak clay. 

tine sand necessary for the manufacture of brick in the vicinity. In 

the niaj(U'ity of cases bricks are made from marine (Leda) clay ; but in 

a few places from bouldei'-clay. lirick kilns were found in operation 

at Lftwisville, near Moncton, at Folly Point, Westmoreland county, 

New Brunswick, also at Andierst, Oxfoi'd, Pugwash Uiver, near Conn's 

Mills, and at Wallace Uivei', near the bridge of the Oxford and Pictou 

llrancii railway, which crosses it. In Prince Edward Island small 

kilns were obsei'ved at Uloomtield station, also near Indian Point at 

Hedcijue Hay, and a third near Cape Egmont. 

Besides the minerals and materials mentioned as occurring in the 

aiiL'itii'ial formations, all new nnneral localities, wherever accessible, 

■vero examined by me, whethei' discovered in these or in the older rocks. 

A reported coal seam near Caracjuette, (jiloucester county, on the Coal scam. 
-lUth side of the mouth of the Haie des Chah^urs, was examined on 
'»o occasions with some care. It occurs in the Aliddle Carboniferous 
r .Millstone grit rocks, and consisted of two thin seams with a parting 
lishiiic h(>tween them. The total thickness of the whole, including 
i!.e lilack shale, did not exceed sixteen inches. In the hope that the 
*iin or scams might thicken out, eastwards from the bank of the brook 
"iwliieli the outcrop occurs, a trench was opened, following the .seam 
t'l'soiiic distance, and further east a shaft or trial-pit was sunk. The 


Kcixiil (icol. Suiv. Can., vol. 1. (X.S.), 1.SS5, pp. 70, 71 k k. 



m:w liitrNswicK, nova scotia an'K v. k. lsland. 

ri'stilt (\i Miis ('.\[)l()i;itii)n whs not, lidwc^vcr, satisfiiftttry, iiiul at. invscut, 
tlic work lifi- licf^n (ilKiiidnni'd. 
Silvpr iiml Ac^^ciit ifcciius yalciiii nci-urs in irroj^iilar soains, associati'il uiih 

^"' ' i)yiit()iis iiiini'i'als, on tlic soutli side nt' tlic IJaio dcs Cliali'iiis at \]\u\- 

Uv^' and Niyado ii\fis''- and at .Mil 1st ream. A considcrahio aniuunt nf 
dcvt'lojUMcnt work lias liccn j;oinj^ on in these places for years, and tlie 
oro, at'cordinj,' to s(^v('ral assays, yield traces of gold and some silver. 
Mr. lloflniann, elienust and niineraloi,'ist to tho (.ieol(i;;ieal Siuvcy 
reports on a sjieeiineii from the Millstreani mine sulmiitled to iiim us 
follows:—" The sjieeinien consisted of iron jiyriles toMjcthor with mikiII 
" ([uantitios of ,;';alena, and apparently tritlin.i,' amounts of niis|H(kcl, 
" in a j,'aii;,'iie composed of white to .yray suhtranslucent .piartz. mimI ii 
"little (lark f,'ray shale. A fair avora^o of this specimen- which 
" weighed eleven pounds — was found on assay to contain : — 

(inlll O'lrrxif illl filllK'c to till' tcill (if 2,(HIII Ills. 

Silver !)-4.">0oiincfM to tlif tun i.f 2,ii()iMlis.| " 

Along the Noi'thwest Mirandelii Kiver, between twoof its atlhii'iits, 
the Toiuouonops and Litth' rivers, argentiferous galena and pyiitrs 
occur, in which traces of gold are likewise reported to lie fdund. 
'i'hese minerals ai'i! met with under somewhat similar conditions tuthy 
pyritous and galena orws on the south side of the Bale des Clialcurs, 
and appcNir to he of much the sami' character. 
M;i"iiititL' "'^ '"''' "^ magnetite was discrtveied a few years ago near the liwuluf 

.Midstream, (Uoucestei' county, hut a good deal of it appears to lie 
highly charged with pyrite-;. Analyses hy Prof. Donald, of ."\l out real, 
shown ]\\v. hy Mr. \V. K. Payne, of l.athurst, gave ujnvai'ds of (10 \i(:r 
ccMit of m(!tallic ii'on with ahout 10 |)er cent of silica. |)evelo|iiiiciit 
work was undertaken here four or live v^ars ago, but has since rcascd, 
The chief minerals of (iconomic importance in the region indiraliil 
on the south side of the Baie des Chaleurs, are galena and iniii 
pyrites, and of th(^s(^ thei'e are large de]>osits in some place:; appari'iiily 
in tlu! form of incgular veins, while in others they occur more in the 
form of beds. The galena invariably carries a greater or less a uidunt 
of silv(!r, and traces of gold are also found, apjiarently in the pyr- 
itous nnnerals. 
Huiiposff] In the autumn of 189.'} I made a cursory examination of there 

d.'i'i!Ji"ts^'it"*'' I'*'i't<'<l gold-beai'ing dejiosits at jNIemramcook, New Brunswick, where 
MeiuriiiiKdok. ;i ."tOstamj) crushing mill had been erected and where operations were 
in progress. The so-called gold-bearing rock.s were found to he Middle 
Carboniferous, or Millstone gi'it conglomerates, which lie nearly lion 

*Kc|)ort of Pnife're-s, Gcol. Surv. Can., lSSO-81 -.S2, page 21 I), and iki}.'.' VS ll. 
tAiiiiual npurt CmjI. Surv. of Can., vol. V. (X.S.) 1S1)(»-!)1, \K\gv W li. 


y, (iiiil 111. ['ivsciil, 

(issocialcil with 
'liiilciiis 111 i;iiii- 
I'l'fihlt) aim Hint of 
or ycfirs, iuid tlio 

ami stiiiie silver. 
;oloi,'i(;al Survey, 
iiitlcil to liiin as 
jotlicr witii siiiall 
nts of inispifkel, 
piit >|iiart/;. aiul a 
speciiiicii- wliieli 
tain : — 

>f 2,110(1 Ills. 
)0Oll)S.| " 

i-oof its nlliueiits, 
leiia and ]iyi'ites 
L'd to 1)(! t'ound. 
conditions tutlie 
,ie (les Cliaieui'Si 



149 M 

., ally . the upturnocl cd^cs of highly tilted Lower Carboniferous 
r' <s. I hough I ch.l not s.e any of the gold, I was informed th^ 1 1 
..i:;IV-eeur,„ these rocks; but as the mine has since gone in o 
:.;l-la„on, there is a disposition manifested to question the rerbimv 
01 the .^tatonients made concerning it. reliability 

> near tiic lieailnf 

it apiiears to lie 

lald, of Miinti'eal, 

.iwai'ds of tiO per 

ia. .l)evelii]iiiieiit 

has since ceased, 

3 region iiuliealod 

galena and iron 

'.lace:; a|i[iaivnily 

jccur more in the 
er or less a nidunt 
really in the [lyr- 

ination of the ro- 
Brunswick, where 
■e operations were 
HUiil to 1"' Middle 
:li lie nearly heri 

u, aiul iiagc 1311. 
page 4!) H. 




Mm I.m*. S r„ Ul|^ 

SUoltili riii.|. sl... Willi; iiKM o<;.-.>;pi.Ml l)v P L E I S TOC E N E GLAC I E 

(i/itiiii/i'i/ tin'" 



Sfiile fOnii/r.\ In itiiv nii h 

____, _ *U- .. ^,_ m 

I SmluM) itf dauaita. 


)CENE GLACIERS al lli.'U- in.ixnun xl.'iisiot. 

»• Dire li'iii '>' irr I'lfw 

V' ■tDimles Ik oni' nii h 




SUclcli iii.ip xliowiMif .s!i-i;iii..M liMui LOCAL GLACIERS .nu{ FLOATING 

y.ri.-i- pnuhircil /i\ /miil irr 

ytr;;r nrnihirtil In I'lnifltnij trr 
*Srnli- H) ittllr.-i /'t '>lir uf'h 

iral jSmlifu uf (tauaitii. 


nrnihirtil In I'hufitnij tri- 
r H) ittllr.-i ftt otif uf'/t 

I 1 nullify 

I— 1 iiniiri)} 

lliillicsl J'/ ii.s/iirn/c .s/i.-irr /rif kI itii/c n/' /ui /'/' I'lul W'/civ 

i/i/troxi m/i/f i>iil[\ III) /nil//:!,'/ /7V///r// /inr /'.v .v/'c/nvv